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1Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies. 2 Self-Concept: Who Am I? A person’s answers to the question, “Who am I?” Take time to answer this question… Are.

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Presentation on theme: "1Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies. 2 Self-Concept: Who Am I? A person’s answers to the question, “Who am I?” Take time to answer this question… Are."— Presentation transcript:

1 1Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies

2 2 Self-Concept: Who Am I? A person’s answers to the question, “Who am I?” Take time to answer this question… Are your answers more relational (collectivist) or about self (individualist)?

3 3 At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Self Our sense of self organizes: our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors It enables us to remember our past, assess our present, and project our future Schema Mental templates by which we organize our worlds Self-schema Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information

4 4 At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Self Possible Selves Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future

5 5 Development of the Social Self What Determines Our Self-Concept? Roles we play Social identities we form Comparisons we make with others Our successes and failures How other people judge us Surrounding culture

6 6 Development of the Social Self Roles We Play New roles begin as play-acting then become reality Social Comparisons We compare ourselves with others and consider how we differ We tend to compare upward Can diminish satisfaction

7 7 Development of the Social Self Success and Failure Our daily experiences cause us to have empowerment or low self-esteem Other People’s Judgments Looking-glass self How we think others perceive us as a mirror for perceiving ourselves

8 8 Self and Culture Individualism Concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Independent self Western cultures

9 9 Self and Culture Collectivism Giving priority to the goals of one’s groups and defining one’s identity accordingly Interdependent self Asian, African, and Central and South American cultures

10 10 Self and Culture Culture and Cognition Richard Nisbett’s The Geography of Thought (2003) Contends that collectivism results in different ways of thinking Asians tend to think more in relationships than Americans

11 11 Self and Culture Culture and Self-Esteem In collectivist cultures Self-concept is context-specific rather than stable Conflict takes place between groups In individualistic cultures Self-esteem is more personal and less relational Conflict takes place between individuals Crime Divorce

12 12 Self-Knowledge Explaining Our Behavior Predicting Our Behavior Planning fallacy Tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task

13 13 Self-Knowledge Predicting Our Feelings Studies of “affective forecasting” reveal people have the greatest difficulty predicting the intensity and the duration of their future emotions Impact bias Overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events Immune neglect Tendency to neglect the speed and strength of the “psychological immune system” which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen

14 14 Self-Esteem Our overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth Specific self-perceptions have some influence Feedback is best when it is true and specific

15 15 The “Dark Side” of Self-Esteem Narcissism Delroy and Williams (2002) “The Dark Triad” of negative traits Narcissism Machiavellianism (manipulativeness) Antisocial psychopathology

16 16 Perceived Self-Control Effortful self-control depletes our limited willpower reserves Our brain’s “central executive” consumes available blood sugar when engaged in self-control

17 17 Self-Efficacy How competent we feel on a task Leads us to set challenging goals and to persist

18 18 Locus of Control Extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces

19 19 Learned Helplessness versus Self- Determination Learned Helplessness Hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated or bad events Martin Seligman Self-Determination Development of self-discipline in one area of your life may cause self-control in other areas as well

20 20 Excess Freedom The Costs of Excess Choice Too many choices can lead to dissatisfaction with our final choice People tend to be generally happier with decisions when they can’t undo them

21 21 Self-Serving Bias Tendency to perceive oneself favorably Explaining Positive and Negative Events Self-serving attributions Tendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors Contribute to marital discord, worker dissatisfaction, and bargaining impasses

22 22 Self-Serving Bias Can We All Be Better than Average? Most people see themselves as better than the average person on the following dimensions Subjective Socially desirable Common

23 23 Self-Serving Bias Areas in which we believe we are above average Ethics Professional competence Virtues Intelligence Tolerance Parental support Health Insight Attractiveness Driving

24 24 Self-Serving Bias Unrealistic Optimism Is on the rise Illusory optimism increases our vulnerability Defensive Pessimism Adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one’s anxiety to motivate effective action

25 25 Self-Serving Bias False Consensus Effect Tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors False Uniqueness Effect Tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviors

26 26 Self-Serving Bias Explaining Self-Serving Bias Self-serving bias is a by-product of how we process and remember information about ourselves Self-Serving Bias may be Adaptive Protects people from depression Maladaptive Group-serving bias

27 27 Self-Presentation Wanting to present a desired image both to an external audience (other people) and to an internal audience (ourselves) Self-Handicapping Protecting one’s self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure Self-Monitoring Tendency to act like social chameleons

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