Presentation on theme: "Stress and Health. Stress Facts n The American Academy of Family Physicians estimates that 60% of the problems brought to physicians in the U.S. are stress."— Presentation transcript:
Stress and Health
Stress Facts n The American Academy of Family Physicians estimates that 60% of the problems brought to physicians in the U.S. are stress related. Many are the result of stress; others are made worse or last longer because of it.
Health Problems with Excessive Stress n CHD and stroke n Gastrointestinal problems such as ulcers n Impaired immune system n Insomnia, headache n Backache n Drug & alcohol use
How Stress Promotes Illness n Direct effect –Raises blood pressure –Impairs immune system n Indirect effect –Less positive behaviors (exercise, healthy diet, lack of sleep) –More negative behaviors (drinking, smoking, unhealthy diet)
The Stress Target Zone EUSTRESS (The optimal amount of stress) BURN OUT (Distress) RUST OUT (Boredom)
Stress Continuum n Rust Out (Boredom) –Fatigue, frustration, dissatisfaction n Eustress –Creativity, problem solving, change, satisfaction n Burn Out (Distress) –Over-stimulation, ineffective problem solving, exhaustion, illness, low self-esteem
Types of Stressors n Environmental –Heat, noise, crowding n Physiological –Drugs, caffeine, tobacco n Emotional (psycho-social) –Pressures, life
Characteristics of Stressful Events n Negative –Harder to accept than »positive n Uncontrollable –Take control of what you »can n Ambiguous –Accompanies poorly defined »expectations
Contemporary Views of the Nature of Stress Stressor Stress Appraisal Outcome Coping The Process of Stress
Stressor High Stress Low Stress Stress Appraisal See stressor as a challenge See stressor as a threat Appraisal of Stressors
Hardiness n Commitment n Control n Challenge Are you a “Hardy” Person?
Responses to Stress n Physiological –Increased HR –Tense muscles n Cognitive –Worry, lack of concentration –forgetfulness n Emotional –Anger, sense of dread n Behavioral –Less patient, hurrying
Coping with Stress OutcomeStress Active Coping Strategies Stressor within your control Stressor out of your control Passive Coping Strategies
Types of Coping Strategies n n Active Coping Strategies –Accepting –Re-Appraising –Praying –Problem Solving –Controlling –Seeking Social Support n n Passive Coping Strategies –Ignoring –Escaping –Confronting –Relaxing –Exercising –Seeking Social Support
Types of Social Support n Informational n Material n Emotional n These may be either active or passive
You may not be able to smooth out the surf, but you can learn to ride the waves! Summary of Stress
Steps for Stress Management: n Identify causes and symptoms of stress n Use measures to reduce stress n Seek solutions for avoiding stressors –Accept what can't be changed –Act on what can be changed n Maintain fitness and health –Better able to cope with stress when rested and in good shape
Common Stress Reduction Techniques n Quick "time out" n Jacobson's progressive relaxation n Autogenic training n Biofeedback n Meditation / imagery n Exercise Each technique will be discussed separately in subsequent slides.
Quick "Time Out" n Deep breathing n Take mind off of problems
Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation Technique n Involves alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles n Teaches person to identify stress- related tension in the body
Autogenic Relaxation Training n Combines deep rhythmic breathing with soothing imagery n Feelings of heaviness and warmth facilitate process
Meditation / Imagery n Relies on deep breathing n Facilitated by images of peace and relaxation
Exercise n Provides a break from reality n Improves mood and self-esteem
Summary n Stress is a natural part of life but with appropriate stress management techniques you can learn to manage it more effectively.
Time Management n Maximizing your available time n Focusing your time on your priorities
Steps for Time Management n Step 1 Establish priorities n Step 2 Monitor current time use n Step 3 Analyze time use n Step 4 Make a schedule