2 DBQ – WHAT WERE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WWI? STUDENT GUIDE SHEETDIRECTIONS: Over a four year period from 1914 to 1918 Europe was beset by one of the most terrible wars in human history. This DBQ asks WHY SUCH A CATASTROPHE TOOK PLACE.Read the BACKGROUND ESSAYSKIM the documents to get a sense of what they are about
3 DBQ – WHAT WERE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WWI? STUDENT GUIDE SHEETIn the margin (on the side) of your paper, record the MAIN IDEA of EACH document:(We will work on these together – some you will do with us, some you will do on your own)
4 DBQ – WHAT WERE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WWI? Go to page 3 of your packet “Categories You Will Use to Organize Your Documents” What is CONTEXT? To better understand something in history, we MUST look at its context… DEFINITION: The political, social, cultural, & economic setting for a particular idea or event. Those things which surround it in time & place & give it its meaning.
5 DBQ – WHAT WERE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WWI? What is MILITARISM? DEFINITION: The army & military forces are given a high profile by the government. Before WWI, the growing European divide led to an arms race between the main countries (BRITAIN, GERMANY, FRANCE)
6 DBQ – WHAT WERE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WWI? What are ALLIANCES? DEFINITION: An agreement made between 2 or more countries to give each other help if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as Allies.
7 DBQ – WHAT WERE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WWI? What is IMPERIALISM? DEFINITION: When a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule.
8 DBQ – WHAT WERE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES OF WWI? What is NATIONALISM? DEFINITION: Being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's OWN country.
9 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS When group members are assigned, write the FIRST & LAST NAMES of each person in your group.WRITE YOUR GROUP NUMBER ON YOUR PAPER WHEN IT IS GIVEN TO YOU.DISCUSS WITH YOUR PARTNERS WHAT YOU THINK (A.) THE MAIN IDEA OF YOUR ASSIGNED DOCUMENT IS and (B.) THE ANSWERS TO THE “SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS” FOR YOUR ASSIGNED DOCUMENT(S)RECORD YOUR ANSWERS ON YOUR OWN NOTEBOOK PAPER – YOU ALL WILL PRESENT IN CLASSDO NOT WRITE ON YOUR PACKET UNTIL WE REVIEW THE CORRECT ANSWERS IN CLASS!!!!!!
10 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS – How to set up your notebook paper GROUP # ________ DOCUMENT #________MAIN IDEA: __________________________________________________________________________SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS: __________________________________________________________________________
11 DOCUMENT 1“Would not the end of the war be the end of humanity? War is life itself. Nothing exists in nature, is born, grows or multiplies except by combat. We must eat and be eaten so that the world may live. It is only warlike nations which have prospered; a nation dies as soon as it disarms. War is the school of discipline, sacrifice and courage.”Source: Emile Zola, French writer, 1891, in James Joll, The Origins of the First World War, New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1992.
12 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: War is what allows a nation to grow & war is a GOOD idea.
13 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:_Zola’s main point is that war is good & makes a nation stronger.B. Zola HAS been influenced by Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest because…he says “nothing exists in nature w/o war.”C. Yes – b/c it says without war a nation dies
14 DOCUMENT 2B“How many times in the last two years have we heard people repeat ‘Better war than this perpetual waiting!’ In this wish there is no bitterness, but a secret hope.”Source: A French citizen, 1912, in James Joll, The Origins of the First World War, New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1992.
15 DOCUMENT 2C“I spent the evening (of August 3, 1914) walking round the streets, especially in the neighborhood of Trafalgar Square, noticing cheering crowds, and making myself sensitive to the emotions of passersby. During this and the following days, I discovered to my amazement that average men and women were delighted at the prospect of war.”Source: Bertrand Russell, British philosopher, in James Joll, The Origins of the First World War, New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1992.
16 DOCUMENT 2D “You will be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees.”Source: Kaiser Wilhelm II, to departing troops in the first week of August, 1914, in Barbra W. Tuchman, The Guns of August, New York: Ballantine Books, 1994.
17 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS DOCUMENTS #__2 B, C, & D____MAIN IDEA: _in these quotes they all are talking about how people were HAPPY to go into the war._
18 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS DOCUMENTS #__2 B, C, & D____ SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:_ D. it is talking about them being happy and excited to go into war and it would be over quickly E. These provide CONTEXT because they are giving the atmosphere and circumstances before the war
19 DOCUMENT 3Source: Map created from various sources.
20 WWI ALLIANCES – Where is the U.S.? Why aren’t we in this diagram?
21 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: The purpose of the document is to show which countries made up EACH European alliance.
22 (Write this on PAGE 7 of your packet) DBQ – WWI ALLIANCES(Write this on PAGE 7 of your packet)TRIPLE ENTENTE - Alliance between Britain, France and Russia was made because of worsening relations between:1.) Germany and Russia & 2.) Germany and BritainTRIPLE ALLIANCE - Germany and Austria-Hungary make an alliance with Italy to stop Italy taking sides with Russia.
23 DOCUMENT 4Source: John T. McCutcheon, cartoonist, Chicago Tribune, August 5, 1914.
24 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: Each person represents the countries fighting in WWI. Depending on the size of each person is how strong each country is.
25 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:G. Chicago Tribune August 5, 1914H. John G. McCutcheon – cartoonistI. They are blaming each other for starting the war. (finger pointing)J. All the European countries that went to war & broke the “Peace of Europe.”
26 DOCUMENT 5 Rule Britannia God save the Tsar! When Britain first, at Heaven's command, Arose from out the azure main; This was the charter of the land, And guardian angels sung this strain: Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves. The nations, not so blest as thee, Must, in their turns, to tyrants fall: While thou shalt flourish great and free, The dread and envy of them all. Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves.-Source: Poem by James ThorntonGod save the Tsar!God save the noble Tsar! Long may he live, in power, In happiness, In peace to reign! Dread of his enemies, Faith’s sure defender, God save the Tsar! (repeat previous 3 lines)-Source: Russian National Anthem, Composed by Prince A. V. Lvov, Lyrics by Vasily Zhukovsky
27 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: The main idea of these documents is glorifying NATIONALISM – pride in one’s country.
28 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:_K. These songs MORE LIKELY to be Nationalistic b/c they want to preserve the greatness of their country & give respect to their leaders.L. These documents are all anthems that talk about a country with great pride, like America’s “Star Spangled Banner”
29 DOCUMENT 6“The war between Serbia and Austria…is inevitable. If Serbia wants to live in honor, she can only do this by war. This war is determined by our obligation to our traditions and the world of culture. This war derives from the duty of our race which will not permit itself to be assimilated. This war must bring about the eternal freedom of Serbia, of the South Slavs, of the Balkan peoples. Our whole race must stand together to halt the onslaught of these aliens from the north.”Source: Newspaper run by Colonel Draugutin Dimitrevic, head of the Serbian military intelligence and founder of the secret society, “Union or Death” (called “The Black Hand” by its opponents), 1912 in James Joll, The Origins of the First World War, New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1992.
30 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: This underground newspaper is saying that Serbia’s honor, freedom & future can ONLY be preserved with revolution & going to war.
31 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:_M. The “Black Hand” was a secret Serbian society. Their objective was to start a revolution and they were responsible for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.N. The Black Hand was NOT connected with the items in Document 5 b/c doc 5 was about Russia & Britain.
32 DOCUMENT 7 – What are “armaments?” ***Note: By 1914 the Entente Powers could field 2.23 million men, Germany & Austria-Hungary 1.3 million.***Source: From James Joll, The Origins of the First World War, New York: Addison Wesley
33 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: This graph is to illustrate the “ARMS RACE” between the Triple Alliance & Triple Entente powers
34 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:_O. ARMAMENTS are weapons & equipment to be used in battle such as guns & ammo, tanks & ships.P. Germany is the nation that increased its military spending at the fastest OVERALL rate.Q. Great Britain spent the most on its NAVY in 1910.R. Britain did this b/c they wanted to protect their colonial interests overseas & maintain control of trade routes.
36 DOCUMENT 8Quote from Prince Bernhard von Bulow, German Chancellor, speech to Reichstag, December 11, 1899.“…we realize that without power, without a strong army and strong navy, there can be no welfare for us. The means of fighting the battle for existence in this world without strong armaments on land and water, for a nation soon to count sixty millions, living in the centre of Europe and at the same time stretching out its economic feelers in all directions, have not yet been found. In the coming century the German nation will be either the hammer or the anvil.”Source: From James Joll,The Origins of the First World War,New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1992.
37 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: The main idea is that Germany would rather strike first and with great strength (the hammer) rather than be weak and beat upon (the anvil) AND that Germany must fight for its place as an economic superpower in competition with Britain.
38 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:_S.) Prince Von Bulow would rather be the hammer than the anvil, striking and attacking – not the country being struck.
39 Source: Reynold’s Newspaper, London, March 9, 1913 Source: Reynold’s Newspaper, London, March 9, DOCUMENT 9 - Who is the “fool” in the political cartoon?<“Germany hassuddenlyannounced herdetermination toincrease her already monstrous armaments by a special and additional expenditure of fifty million pounds.”
40 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: Germany is being foolish spending more & more $$ on armaments (weapons) & it will lead them to a war they will likely lose.
41 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS DOCUMENT # 9 SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:T. The fool is Kaiser Wilhelm who represents GERMANY. His folly is the build-up of armaments.U. Based on the information from Doc #7, the cartoonist WAS justified in saying that Germany was foolish to spend so much on weapons.V. YES! Based on Docs 7, 8 & 9, MILITARISM was an underlying cause of WWI.W. Absolutely! German militarism should be included as an underlying cause for them to enter WWI.
42 DOCUMENT 10 FREIHEIT DER MEERE = “Freedom of the Seas” ENGLAND DER BLUTSAUGER DER WELT = “England is the bloodsucker of the world.” Does this mean England was a vampire??
43 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: The main idea is that England is a “bloodsucker” whose influence & control is spread all over the world, strangling other countries and especially Germany.
44 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS DOCUMENT # SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:X. Germany is the source of the cartoon AND England is the target.Y. CROSS “Y” OUT – IT’S A REPEAT OF MAIN IDEA.
46 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS MAIN IDEA: To show the worldwide colonial possessions of European countries that would become involved in WWI & WHY they would feel the need to protect their possessions.
47 INTERPRETING HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS DOCUMENT # 11___ SCAFFOLDING QUESTIONS:_ Z.) COLONY means a group of people who leave their native country to form a new land settlement subject to rule by the parent nation. COLONIAL means a gathering of colonies. AA. Britain controlled the largest AREA /BB. Britain controlled the largest POPULATION CC. (Back to the “octopus” drawing…) Yes, we CAN understand Germany’s concerns - since the largest land area & pop. was controlled by Britain, their influence was easily spread to become the world’s dominant superpower.