Effective DELEGATION You can delegate responsibility, but not accountability!
THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM “Organizations fail to achieve teamwork because they unknowingly fall prey to five natural but dangerous pitfalls.” 1. “The first dysfunction is an absence of trust among team members. Team members who are not genuinely open with one another about their mistakes and weaknesses make it impossible to build a foundation of trust.” 2. “This failure to build trust is damaging because it sets the tone for the second dysfunction: fear of conflict. Teams that lack trust are incapable of engaging in unfiltered and passionate debate of ideas. Instead they resort to veiled discussions and guarded comments.” 3. “A lack of healthy conflict is a problem because it ensures the third dysfunction of a team: lack of commitment. Without having aired their opinions in the course of passionate and open debate, team members rarely, if ever, buy in and commit to decisions, though they may feign agreement during meetings.” 4. “Because of this lack of real commitment and buy-in, team members develop an avoidance of accountability, the fourth dysfunction. Without committing to a clear plan of action, even the most focused and driven people often hesitate to call their peers on actions and behaviors that seem counterproductive to the good of the team.” 5. “Failure to hold one another accountable creates an environment where the fifth dysfunction can thrive. Inattention to results occurs when team members put their individual needs (such as ego, career development or recognition) or even the needs of their divisions above the collective goals of the team.”
THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM Stated differently, “truly cohesive teams”: Trust one another Engage in unfiltered conflict around ideas Commit to decisions and plans of action Hold one another accountable for delivering against those plans Focus on the achievement of collective results
THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM TRUST Members of teams with an absence of trust… Conceal their weaknesses and mistakes from one another Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of responsibility Jump to conclusions about the intentions and aptitudes of others without attempting to clarify them Fail to recognize and tap into one another’s skills and experiences Waste time and energy managing their behaviors for effect Hold grudges Dread meetings and find reasons to avoid spending time together Members of trusting teams… Admit weaknesses and mistakes Ask for help Accept questions and input about their areas of responsibility Give one another the benefit of the doubt before arriving at a negative conclusion Take risks in offering feedback and assistance Appreciate and tap into one another’s skills and experiences Focus time and energy on important issues, not politics Offer and accept apologies without hesitation Look forward to meetings and other opportunities to work as a group
THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM CONFLICT Teams that fear conflict… Have boring meetings Create environments where back-channel politics and personal attacks thrive Ignore controversial topics that are critical to team success Fail to tap into all the opinions and perspectives of team members Waste time and energy with posturing and interpersonal risk management Teams that engage in conflict… Have lively, interesting meetings Extract and exploit the ideas of all team members Solve real problems quickly Minimize politics Put critical topics on the table for discussion
THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM COMMITMENT A team that fails to commit… Creates ambiguity among the team about direction and priorities Watches windows of opportunity close due to excessive analysis and unnecessary delay Breeds lack of confidence and fear of failure Revisits discussions and decisions again and again Encourages second-guessing among team members A team that commits… Creates clarity around direction and priorities Aligns the entire team around common objectivesw Develops an ability to learn from mistakes Takes advantage of opportunities before competitors do Moves forward without hesitation Changes direction without hesitation or guilt
THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM ACCOUNTABILITY A team that avoids accountability… Creates resentment among team members who have different standards of performance Encourages mediocrity Misses deadlines and key deliverables Places an undue burden on the team leader as the sole source of discipline A team that holds one another accountable… Ensures that poor performers feel pressure to improve Identifies potential problems quicly by questioning one another’s approaches without hesitation Establishes respect among team members who are held to the same high standards Avoids excessive bureaucracy around performance management and corrective action
THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM RESULTS A team that is not focused on results… Stagnates and fails to grow Rarely defeats competitors Loses achievement-oriented employees Encourages team members to focus on their own careers and individual goals Is easily distracted A team that focuses on collective results… Retains achievement-oriented employees Minimizes individualistic behavior Enjoys success and suffers failure acutely Benefits from individuals who subjugate their own goals and interests for the good of the team Avoids distractions
THE LEADER’S ROLE IN OVERCOMING THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS TRUST Demonstrating his vulnerability first is the most important action that a leader must take to build trust. –The leader must risk losing face in front of the team so that subordinates will take risks themselves. Leaders must create an environment which does not punish vulnerability. –Well-intentioned teams can subtly discourage trust by chastising one another for admissions of weakness or failure. Displays of vulnerability on the part of the leader must be genuine; they cannot be staged. CONFLICT Demonstrate restraint when team members engage in conflict and allow resolution to occur naturally. Doing so does not necessarily indicate that the leader has lost control of the team. A leader’s ability to personally model appropriate conflict behavior is essential. By avoiding conflict when it is necessary and productive, a team leader will encourage this dysfunction to thrive.
THE LEADER’S ROLE IN OVERCOMING THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS LACK OF COMMITMENT More than any other member of the team, the leader must be comfortable with the prospect of making a decision that ultimately turns out to be wrong. The leader must be constantly pushing the team for closure around issues as well as adherence to schedules that the team has set. The leader cannot place too high a premium on certainty or consensus. AVOIDANCE OF ACCOUNTABILITY By leaving themselves as the only source of discipline, strong leaders naturally create an accountability vacuum. This creates an environment where team members assume that the leader is holding others accountable and so they hold back even when they see something that isn’t right. Once a team culture of accountability is created, the leader must be willing to serve as the ultimate arbiter of discipline when the team itself fails. This should be a rare occurrence but rather a clear indication that accountability has not been relegated to a consensus approach.
THE LEADER’S ROLE IN OVERCOMING THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS INATTENTION TO RESULTS More than with any of the other dysfunctions, the leader must set the tone for a focus on results. If team members sense that the leader values anything other than results, they will take that as permission to do the same for themselves. Team leaders must be selfless and objective, reserving rewards and recognition for those who make real contributions to the achievement of group coals.
TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE BOARD OPERATIONS 1. President takes charge of the meeting (Using Robert’s Rules) 2. Honor you Chapter Mission Statement as your decision-making guide 3. Insist on maximum attendance and participation at Board meetings 4. Publish an advance copy of the Agenda and STICK TO IT! 5. Motion & 2nd required before any discussion (per Robert’s Rules) 6. Don’t engage in Committee work! (Sometimes unavoidable) 7. Officers and Committee Chairmen prepare reports in advance 8. New business requires advance written summary 9. Promote empowerment and accountability 10. Publish timely Minutes 11. Follow-up! Action items 12. Maintain a “Passed Motions” historical chronology record or log 13. Board “Wish List” (Collaborate with Nominating Committee for strong prospects throughout the year) LUCKY 13
BOARD MEETING AGENDA 1. Call to Order/The Old Songs 2. Minutes - Amend and/or Approve (Robert’s Rules) (Ensure that money handlers are recorded by name) 3. Treasurer’s Report - Receive (Robert’s Rules) 4. VP Chapter Development Report - Receive 5.VP Music and Performance Report – Receive 6.VP Marketing and PR Report – Receive 7. Special Committees, et al - Reports - Receive 8. Old Business 9. New Business 10. Adjourn/Song (Just one suggested format) “Read ahead” items
Society Chapter Management Guide (2003) Chapter officers, past officers and members Other chapter presidents District/Division officials & Chapter Counselors Society website www.barbershopharmony.comwww.barbershopharmony.com Society and/or District Operations Manuals Society publications & specialty documents Robert’s Rules of Order Community/schools performing arts groups Library and/or Internet Local media celebrities Charitable Foundations’ officials Your imagination! THE PRESIDENT’S RESOURCES
VOLUNTEERS – THE CRITICAL FEW! There are four types of people: –5% Leaders: Proactive, visionaries, makes change happen –25% Responsible: Gets things done, with leadership –50% Responsive: Prod them to get a job completed –20% Inert: Complainers, non-participators, unreliable Spend your time and energy enrolling the top 80% in the Mission & Vision of your organization or project Don’t get sidetracked by the bottom 20%
Why Do People Volunteer? Someone asked me Belief in the leader or a key official Business or professional growth Personal recognition Opportunity to give back Enjoy seeing things done well Identify with success Enjoy being a leader To be in on the know To keep an eye on the leaders
RECRUITING VOLUNTEERS Be genuine – sincerity works Match position with interests and/or capabilities Provide accurate, clear responsibilities description Don’t minimize time requirements Communicate the training and support available Explain they would be good in the job Paint a word picture of him being successful
KEEPING VOLUNTEERS PRODUCING Be sure their needs are being met Volunteers want their work to make a difference and to be appreciated – recognize them genuinely and frequently Volunteers have outside lives – understand their conflicts and honor them Volunteers are busy people – don’t waste their time – ever! Don’t punish volunteers for being successful!
DEVELOP A SUCCESSION PLAN Ensure the EVP is capable to succeed you; if not, either develop him or have him removed Help each Board Officer select and train a successor Get to know every member and his interestes and capabilities Have periodic Board reviews/discussions about specific members’ capabilities & readiness Just do it! – there is no simple silver bullet
Leaders… Challenge the process Inspire the vision Enable others to act Model the way “All organizations … will prosper and advance only to the extent that they can encourage common men to perform uncommon deeds.”