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Communicating for Results 9e 5 Key Ideas Defining nonverbal communication Types of nonverbal communication Role of nonverbal symbols Improving nonverbal skills Nonverbal Communication in the Organization 1 Copyright Cengage © 2011
Consider this … Aspects of nonverbal communication make it possible... For receivers to be mistaken in interpreting a message, especially if the receiver perceives that message as having been sent on purpose. A shrug meant to convey “I don’t know” may have been interpreted as “I don’t care.” Hickson, Stacks, & Moore, Nonverbal Communication, Roxbury, 2004, p. 15 2Copyright Cengage © 2011
Non-Verbal Misunderstanding Read or describe the case study Answer the following questions: Who was most responsible for the misunderstanding? Which type of gesture best describes the hook ‘em horns sign? How important a role a misunderstanding over a gesture such as this one would play in international affairs. 3Copyright Cengage © 2011 Hook ‘em Horns Case Study Hook ‘em Horns Case Study
Nonverbal Defined …all intentional and unintentional messages that are not written, spoken, or sounded. ThinkStock LLC/Index Stock Imagery 4Copyright Cengage © 2011
Culture & Nonverbal Behavior Technical Level —Rules are openly and knowingly stated Formal Level —rules known; reasons not known Informal Level —neither rules nor reasons known; behaviors unconsciously learned Three levels of culture... NOVA Development 5Copyright Cengage © 2011
Nonverbal Communication Facial expressions & eye contact Body movements & gestures Clothing & personal appearance Distance & personal space Physical environment Time Types include... 6Copyright Cengage © 2011
Facial Expression Face is responsible for most meaning Basic expressions (happiness, surprise, fear) are fairly universal Subtle expressions difficult to interpret Expressions differ across cultures 7Copyright Cengage © 2011 Which face is showing elation? Dread? Fear? elation? Dread? Fear?
Eye Contact Shows interest and attentiveness Signals wish to participate Controls & persuades others In American culture... 8Copyright Cengage © 2011
Movements & Gestures Emblems Illustrators Regulators Adaptors Types include.. Types include... Which type of gesture is this Police Officer using? Ronald Martinez/Getty Images 9Copyright Cengage © 2011
Clothing & Appearance Determines credibility, persuasiveness, status & hiring decisions Affects public perception of organizations Is problematic (i.e., Casual Confusion Syndrome) Dress-down basics recommended Appropriate business & professional clothing... Christopher Robbins 10Copyright Cengage © 2011
Distance & Personal Space Intimate Distance: Contact – 18 inches Copyright Cengage © 201111 Hall’s distance categories...
Distance & Personal Space Intimate Distance: Contact – 18 inches Personal Distance: 18 inches to 4 feet Copyright Cengage © 201112 Hall’s distance categories...
Distance & Personal Space Intimate Distance: Contact to 18 inches Personal Distance: 18 inches to 4 feet Social Distance: 4 to 12 feet Public Distance: 12 Feet or more Copyright Cengage © 201113 Hall’s distance categories...
Physical Environment Reveals the characteristics of the owner Color affects emotional response Lighting and room size alter communication Odor can stir emotions Ergonomics can affect physical well-being Copyright Cengage © 201114
Time Most business conducted on informal level Status determines sequences of lateness Time spent signals significance Perceptions of time depend on cultural background NOVA Development 15Copyright Cengage © 2011
Revising the Case Study What specific types of non-verbal communication could have helped President Bush and the government officials defuse the misunderstanding over Bush’s use of the hook ‘em horns gesture? What specific types of non-verbal communication could have helped President Bush and the government officials defuse the misunderstanding over Bush’s use of the hook ‘em horns gesture? Copyright Cengage © 201116
Nonverbal Status Symbols Include... Clothing (i.e., tie & jacket) Darker colors Office size, location, & interior arrangement Powerful nonverbal behaviors Time Gestures What gives this office status? NOVA Development 17 Copyright Cengage © 2011
Nonverbal Signs of Power Expansive, confident movements Tall, upright standing posture Relaxed, affable, familiar behavior Ability to turn one’s back on others Comfortable, relaxed seated positions 18Copyright Cengage © 2011 Carr-Ruffino 1997
Nonverbal Signs of Weakness Small controlled movements Bowed posture; hands covering face Tenseness, vigilance Hesitantly standing or sitting forward Playing with an object or nervous foot or leg shaking 19Copyright Cengage © 2011 Carr-Ruffino 1997
Culture Shock International cultures often use unexpected nonverbal symbols and meanings. Inadequate training given to expatriates: --65% companies provide no training --40% return home before scheduled time Culture shock! Result: Culture shock! And international business transactions... AP/Wide World Photos 20Copyright Cengage © 2011
Expectancy Violations Theory How people respond when nonverbal expectations are not met Involved all nonverbal behaviors Expectations are violated more when people come from a culture we are not familiar with Copyright Cengage © 201121 According to Burgoon’s theory...
Immediacy Behaviors Verbal behaviors Verbal behaviors – humor, personal examples, using “we” & “our” Vocal behaviors Vocal behaviors – good volume, pitch, & vocal expressiveness Visual behaviors Visual behaviors – smiles, eye contact, relaxed posture, moving around “Promoting a feeling of closeness” by... © Jason Harr is 22Copyright Cengage © 2011
Improving Nonverbal Skills Develop awareness of nonverbal differences Do not judge others according to own nonverbal meanings Do not assign nonverbal meanings out of context Observe your nonverbal behavior on videotape or ask others for feedback 23Copyright Cengage © 2011
Communicating for Results 9e 5 Key Ideas Defining nonverbal communication Types of nonverbal communication Role of nonverbal symbols Improving nonverbal skills Nonverbal Communication in the Organization 24 Copyright Cengage © 2011
Copyright © 2008 Wadsworth / Ch. 5 Nonverbal Communication in the Organization 5 5 Eighth Edition.
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Chapter 4 Understanding Nonverbal Messages This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by.
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