Presentation on theme: "DIRTY WAR IN CHILE 2/17/2010. Ending the Dirty War The failure of the FMLN The “hearts and minds” strategy The decline of U.S. support End of."— Presentation transcript:
Ending the Dirty War The failure of the FMLN The “hearts and minds” strategy The decline of U.S. support End of the Cold War 16 Nov 1989 Jesuit killings The 1991 Peace Agreement Reconciliation, Amnesty, Reintegration 1992 the peace agreement takes effect, UN verifies weapons decommissioning 1993 Peace and Reconciliation Commission 1994 Presidential elections
Ending the Dirty War The Civil War lasted for 12 years: 1980-1992 Roughly 70,000 people died State-related forces were responsible for 80% of all deaths four-fifths or more of these deaths were peasants and workers 1979 population 4.5 million 500,000 – 750,000 people fled the country 500,000 – 1,000,000 IDPs 10% reduction in per capita economic production
El Salvador Today Social Indicators Median age: 22 years Education: average of 5.5 years of schooling Religion: 55% Catholic Underemployment: 40-50% Homicide rate: 55.3 per 100,000 Higher than during the war Gangs Eighteenth Street Mara Salvatrucha
Before the War Salvador Allende Elected: 1970 Socialist leader of the Popular Unity coalition Social unrest March, 1973 Parliamentary Elections The Popular Unity gained seats 11 September, 1973 Military Coup "One improbable fact must be grasped about South America at the time of our story: radical social revolution was a real possibility for millions of people, coloring everyday life with hope or dread depending upon the circumstances and political views of each individual.” –Dinges, 2004
Dirty War in Chile: Statistical Picture 1,300 detention centers 6 concentration camps 29,000 people tortured 2,279 political killings Another 1,598 killings under unclear circumstances National Trauma 200,000 situations of extreme trauma
Dirty War in Chile Ideology Anti-Communism Traditional Christian Values Players Pinochet National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) Gen. Manuel Contreras Sepulveda Col. Pedro Espinoza Strategies Suspension of politics as normal Shock and Awe Detention Torture Executions
Dirty War in Chile Operation Condor Organized in response to the formation of the JCR Operational Structures Intelligence sharing network Communications Networking and trust Stationing personnel Cross-Border Activities tracking, surveillance, kidnappings, rendition, torture, interrogation, and assassination of opponents. Opponents were not only leftist militants, but also opposition political and social figures. Participants: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil
Dirty War in Chile Exploiting the Crisis: the role of the US and neolibearlism Milton Freedman and The Chicago Boys Pinochet’s Market Reforms Removal of trade barriers Return to export-led growth Privatization, including social security Creation of an independent Central Bank Wage reductions Economic growth was accompanied by growing inequality 1972: 5% of population receives 25% of national income 1975: 5% of population receives 50% of national income
Ending the War Negotiated Transition 1980: a new Constitution is written and put in place by Pinochet in a shift towards managed democracy 1988: Plebiscite refuses to allow Pinochet to run for another term as President 1989: Pinochet’s man is defeated in the Presidential election; Patricio Aylwin, a centrist Christian Democrat, is elected. 1990: Aylwin establishes the National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation 1991: Pinochet stages military maneuvers
Ending the War: the price of impunity Benefits End of violence Democratic transition Costs the continuation or reactivation of repressive networks and institutions the distortion of political culture the destruction of social capital the ultimate delegitimation of the democratic institutions that reconciliation is designed to stabilize
Chile Today 1998: Pinochet resigns as Commander in Chief; becomes Senator for life. 1998: Pinochet is arrested in London 2000: Pinochet is released by the UK government 2000: criminal proceedings begin in Chile 10 Dec. 2006: Pinochet dies 2006: Michelle Bachelet elected President 2010: President-elect Sebastian Piñera Today 3,000 remain disappeared The military has been reduced to 40,000 and is all volunteer
Questions Why do states engage in “Dirty War”? Which Dirty War do you feel had more profound impact Political Social Economic What role does the global political context play?
Policy Papers Issue: The state faces a rise in leftist political opposition seeking the violent overthrow of the state. Alternatives: to engage in dirty war or not. MUST be written to decision-makers within the state.