Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 5 Psychological Aging. PERSONALITY Studies and work on personality indicates there is little change in personality in some individuals. –“more."— Presentation transcript:
PERSONALITY Studies and work on personality indicates there is little change in personality in some individuals. –“more than any query, studies of personality in adulthood and aging have been dominated by the straightforward question, Does personality change as people grow older, or is it stable?”
Developmental Tasks Developmental tasks define the things an individual needs to accomplish, adjustments to be made, and problems to solve.
Havighurst & Duvall Developmental Tasks of Aging –Adjusting to decreasing health and physical strength –Adjusting to retirement and reduced income –Finding meaning in life –Maintaining satisfactory living arrangements –Finding satisfaction w/in the family –Adjusting to the reality of death –Accepting oneself as an aging person
Erikson’s Developmental Tasks of Aging Ego IntegrityVersus Despair person acceptsperson develops that life hasdread of dying been what it had to bedisgust and bitter about their lives
Developmental tasks of late life in hierarchic order: Go to overhead!
Mental Health Issues That Face the Elderly Depression Suicide Substance Abuse Delirium Dementia Alzheimer’s Disease
The Ulyssean Approach The following are tips that leisure professionals could use when working with the elderly and with people with Alzheimer’s Disease
TIPS Speak to the person as an adult Address the person by proper title Never argue or disagree if incorrect; instead find positive ways to validate feelings and orient to reality Emphasize recognition, not recall For conversation topics, focus on “opinions” rather than facts
Be aware of every aspect of presentation—tone, posture, facial expression, etc. Alert the person by touching or saying his or her name and make eye contact In social situations, always introduce other persons by providing name and orienting information so that the individual will not feel embarrassed for not recognizing others Speak slowly and clearly
Selecting and Conducting Activities Use familiar activities Choose simple and repetitive, not overly challenging, but age-appropriate activities Emphasize sensory experiences Emphasize persistent social skills Use activities to foster social interaction such as small parties
Maintain exercise program and encourage ambulation Stimulate cognitively, do not assume potential participants are not able to perform activities Allow for expression of emotions
Take advantage of intact remote memory and encourage reminiscing Explain the purpose of the activities Choose activities that are meaningful and have practical purposes Use activities that relate to seasonal life themes and experiences from the work environment. Cue or prompt procedural memory by concrete, non-verbal instruction Break down complex tasks and give instruction in steps Offer only 2 choices if they are required Use consistent routines in the presentation of activities
When working in groups, do not expect to have everyone work on the same step independently Use a parallel format, in which each individual completes each step of the activity in turn Plan the week or month around a familiar theme and schedule all activities related to major themes Use ample, familiar, concrete physical cues Use demonstration
Repeat successful activities Use small groups of 3-5 Determine the best time to do activities Read short stories
Environment Keep it safe by removing obstacles Remove sources of potential illusions, such as glare Allow space for walking Avoid dangerous areas Keep things simple, avoid distractions Make the environment as home-like as possible Compensate for physical deficits
Follow routines as much as possible Simplify tasks Be gentle Don’t rush participants Be creative and flexible Make the environment safe Include daily exercise Use simple instructions Be alert Provide ample time for responses Keep activities at an adult level
Final Tips for Activity Planning Prepare in advance and make sure you have everything you need to complete the activity and ensure success. Plan enjoyable activities, upbeat! Encourage participation by family and friends Have fun!