Presentation on theme: "David Myers 11e The Self in a Social World"— Presentation transcript:
1David Myers 11e The Self in a Social World Social PsychologyDavid Myers11eThe Self in a Social World
2Spotlights and Illusions Spotlight effect (Lawson, ‘2010)Belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they really areIllusionsIllusion of transparency (Stavitsky & Gilovich, 2003)Illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
3Research Close-Up: On Being Nervous about Looking Nervous Examples of interplay between our sense of self and our social worldSocial surroundings affect our self-awarenessSelf-interest colors our social judgmentSelf-serving biaswe attribute favorable outcomes to internal causes (self)We attribute unfavorable outcomes to external causesSelf-concern motivates our social behaviorWe monitor our own and others’ behavior (Snyder)Social relationships help define our selfCould mindful meditation help?
4Self-Concept: Who Am I?A person’s answers to the question, “Who am I?”Take time to answer this question…Are your answers more relational (collectivist) or about self (individualist)?Which brain hemisphere helps you to recognize yourself? (Decety & Sommerville, 2003) Right?Left?
5At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Self SchemaMental templates by which we organize our worlds)We bolster our self-schema by remembering things better that are consistent with it. (Kilstrom & Cantor, ’84)Self-schemaBeliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
6Possible SelvesImages of what we dream of or dread becoming in the futureSpend more time in the present!
7Development of the Social Self What Determines Our Self-Concept?Roles we playSocial identities we formComparisons we make with othersHow other people judge usSurrounding culture
8Development of the Social Self The Roles We PlayNew roles begin as playacting then become realityAs we play them we begin to believe them (self perception theory, (D. Bem)Social ComparisonsWe compare ourselves with others and consider how we differ …Via Social Comparison theory (Festinger, ‘54)We tend to compare upwardWho is your referent group?Can diminish satisfaction
9Development of the Social Self Success and FailureOur daily experiences cause us to have empowerment or low self-esteemRemember Self-esteem <-> Competence?Other People’s JudgmentsLooking-glass self (Cooley, 1902 –sociologist)How we think others perceive us is a mirror for perceiving ourselves
10Self and Culture Individualism Concept of giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identificationsIndependent selfWestern cultures
11Self and Culture Collectivism Giving priority to the goals of one’s group and defining one’s identity accordinglyInterdependent selfAsian, African, and Central and South American cultures
12Self and Culture Culture and Cognition Richard Nisbett’s The Geography of Thought (2003)Contends that collectivism results in different ways of thinkingAsians tend to think more in relationships than AmericansAmericans see choices as expressions of themselves.Which focus more on the focal object/background?Japanese / Americans?What does this tell us?
13Self and Culture Culture and Self-Esteem In collectivist cultures Self-concept is context-specific rather than stableConflict takes place between groupsPersist more when failingIn individualistic culturesSelf-esteem is more personal and less relationalPersist more when winningConflict takes place between individualsCrimeDivorceIn your opinion, which culture is ‘better’?
14Self-Knowledge Explaining Our Behavior Predicting Our Behavior Do we know what affects our mood?Predicting Our BehaviorCan your roommate predict the longevity of your romantic relationship better than you? (McDonald & Ross, ‘97)Planning fallacyTendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a taskWhat are the implications for goal settingIn job or in school?
15Self-Knowledge Predicting Our Feelings (Gilbert & Wilson) Impact bias Studies of “affective forecasting” reveal people have the greatest difficulty predicting the intensity and the duration of their future emotionsWe underestimate the effects of situational cuesImpact biasWe overestimate the enduring impact of emotion-causing eventsHow much time would you like on a island holiday?How long would it take to get over a job loss?Immune neglectTendency to neglect the speed and strength of the “psychological immune system” which enables emotional recovery and resilience after bad things happen
16Self-Knowledge The Wisdom and Illusions of Self-Analysis We often aren’t aware of how thinking brought an “aha” experience.Dual attitude (T. Wilson, “85)Mental processes that control or behavior are distinct from those we use to explain our behaviorAutomatic implicit attitudes regarding someone or something often differ from our consciously controlled, explicit attitudesWhat’s the difference in the two?How are we strangers to ourselves?Implicit ones change more slowlySelf-reports are untrustworthy – no guarantee of their validity
17Self-Esteem Our overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth What are your “domains” of SE? (Crocker & Wolfe)Attractive/smart/athletic/rich/loved? +++Are is it “bottom up”? (Brown & Dutton?)What is the baby example?Feedback is best when it is true and specificLeads to high “self-efficacy”General praise…”you can do anything you want”-Can lead to unrealistic optimism What were you told in school? Competence feedback -> High Self-efficacyWhich do better? Those failing were told “feel great about yourself-hold your head high” or “taking control will help”(Forsyth et al., 2007)
18Self-Esteem Motivation Self-esteem maintenanceWhat level is best to have? Hi/med/lo?Self-esteem threats occur among friends whose successes can be more threatening than that of strangers (remember social comparison theory?)Referent othersTerror Management Theory states humans must find ways to manage their fear of death.
19The “Dark Side” of Self-Esteem NarcissismDelroy and Williams (2002)“The Dark Triad” of negative traitsMachiavellianism (manipulativeness)Over time: college students’ (Twenge, ‘06)EmpathyHi Narcissims > more “hooking up”, gambling, cheatingMe generationNeed for autonomy/ competence/relationships (E. Deci)
20Perceived Self-Control Effortful self-control depletes our limited willpower reserves… controlling emotions during upsetting film resulted inShowing more aggression and fighting with their partnerBecame less restrained in sexual thoughts and behaviorsDeWall et al., ‘07 Finkel & Campbell, ‘01)Our brain’s “central executive” consumes available blood sugar when engaged in self-control
21Self-Efficacy (Albert Bandura) What’s the difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy?How competent we feel on a taskLeads us to set challenging goals and to persistCompetency + persistence = accomplishment / self confidence…if you have control over the outcome!
22Locus of Control (Julien rotter) Who would you rather dance with?Extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
23Learned Helplessness versus Self-Determination Hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad eventsMartin SeligmanSelf-DeterminationDevelopment of self-discipline in one area of your life may cause self-control in other areas as wellEdward Deci
24The Costs of Excess Choice Excess FreedomToo many choices can lead to dissatisfaction with our final choicePeople tend to be generally happier with decisions when they can’t undo themSo does love cause marriage or does marriage cause love?
25Self-Serving Bias Tendency to perceive oneself favorably Explaining positive and negative eventsSelf-serving attributionsTendency to attribute positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factorsContribute to marital discord, worker dissatisfaction, and bargaining impasses How so?I got an “A” in social ψDr. Mitchell gave me a “C” in social ψ“only others fall prey to the self-serving bias!”
26Self-Serving Bias Can We All Be Better than Average? Lake Wobegon effect“all the children are above average”Most people see themselves as better than the average person on the following dimensionsSubjectiveSocially desirableCommon dimensionsOn which of the above is the phenomenon more pronounced ? Why?
27Self-Serving Bias Areas in which we believe we are above average …but sometimes you’re right….but how will you know when?EthicsProfessional competenceVirtuesIntelligenceParental supportHealthAttractivenessDriving
28Self-Serving Bias Unrealistic Optimism Is on the riseIllusory optimism increases our vulnerabilityRemember the tendency to underestimate the strength of situational cues on our ability to self-control?How does this explain the 2008 housing bubble?Defensive Pessimism (Julie Norem, ‘2000)Adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one’s anxiety to motivate effective action
29Self-Serving Bias False Consensus Effect False Uniqueness Effect Tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviorsWhy do you think integrity tests for employment work?False Uniqueness EffectTendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviors
30Self-Serving Bias Explaining Self-Serving Bias Self-serving bias is a by-product of how we process and remember information about ourselvesSelf-Serving Bias may beAdaptiveProtects people from depressionDepressed people may be more in tune with reality!MaladaptiveWhy didn’t I get the big merit raise?Group-serving bias
31Self-Presentation (Barry Schlenker) Wanting to present a desired image both to an external audience (other people) and to an internal audience (ourselves)It’s a good thing in employment interviews!Self-Handicapping (fear of failure)Protecting one’s self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failureSelf-MonitoringTendency to act like social chameleonsTwin truths: self-efficacy and self-serving biasFind the middle ground through careful self-reflection!