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Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Announcements for April 18 1. Papers due at start of class on Thursday. 2. Class will meet in 223D.

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Presentation on theme: "Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Announcements for April 18 1. Papers due at start of class on Thursday. 2. Class will meet in 223D."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Announcements for April Papers due at start of class on Thursday. 2. Class will meet in 223D Porter Hall. Come prepared to describe your paper to the class in a 3-minute summary (snacks provided!). 3. Paper preparation: Be sure to follow “5 tips” from last Thursday’s lecture.

3 Positive & Negative Emotion: Examining Content & Process Effects Johnson & Tversky (1983) Lerner & Keltner (in press) Bodenhausen et al. (1994)

4 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Presentation by Discussants Melissa, Rachel, & Reen

5 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Content Effects Valence Theories: Main Hypothesis: Positive emotions trigger optimistic judgments/choices & negative emotoins trigger pessimistic/judgments choices. Possible explanations for effect: Affect-as-information (direct transfer) Affect priming (indirect influence on cognitive processes) Example: Johnson & Tversky

6 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Content Effects Appraisal-Tendency Theory: Main Hypothesis: Emotions trigger a proclivity to perceive new information in ways that are consistent with the original appraisal dimensions of an emotion (Lerner & Keltner, in press). Valence is only one dimension, not necessarily the most important one. Possible explanation for effect: Appraisal tendency Proponents: Lerner & Keltner

7 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Cognitive-Appraisal Theory Specific emotions are defined by their variation along six cognitive appraisal dimensions (Smith & Ellsworth, 1985): Certainty (low, high) Control (individual, situational) Responsibility (self, other) Attention (low, high) Pleasantness (pos., neg.) Effort (low, high) Each emotion has core appraisal themes

8 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Cognitive-Appraisal Tendencies Research strategy: Compare emotions that are highly differentiated in their appraisal themes on judgments/choices that relate to that appraisal theme.

9 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Applying Appraisal Tendency Approach to Judgments of Risk 1: Identify appraisal dimensions that are conceptually related to risk: Control & certainty map on to Slovic’s (1987)“dread risk” and “unknown risk” 2: Select emotions that fall at opposite ends of these dimensions Fear and anger

10 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Appraisal Tendency Fear Anger Mood-Congruent Risk Taking Study: Hypotheses

11 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 N = 75 Ostensibly separate studies “Study A” Same emotion measures as in Study 1 Reliability stable: Anger =.81, Fear =.91 “Study B” Manipulated gain/loss frame Tversky and Kahneman’s (1981) “Asian Disease Problem” Risk Taking Study: Method

12 Imagine that the U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Program B 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved & 2/3 probability that no people will be saved Program A 200 people will be saved Which of the two programs would you favor, and by how much? Very Much Prefer A Much Prefer A Slightly Prefer A Slightly Prefer B Much Prefer B Very Much Prefer B M = 3.0 Gain frame Risk-Averse: Take the certain gain

13 Imagine that the U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Which of the two programs would you favor, and by how much? Very Much Prefer A Much Prefer A Slightly Prefer A Slightly Prefer B Much Prefer B Very Much Prefer B M = 3.9 Loss frame Risk-Seeking: Avoid the certain loss Program B 1/3 probability that no one will die & 2/3 probability that 600 people will die Program A 400 people will die

14 Emotion-tendencies (z-score) Risk-seeking (z-score) 0 Loss Domain Anger Fear b =.36* b =.23 *

15 Emotion-tendencies (z-score) Risk-seeking (z-score) b =.10 b = Gain Domain Anger Fear

16 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Two goals: Increase stringency 1: Test appraisal tendency hypothesis in a domain where mood-congruent models and conventional wisdom predict valence effects 2: Test hypothesis in the context of a positive emotion -- happiness -- that shares the same core appraisal themes of certainty and individual control as anger Study Goals

17 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Hypotheses for Optimism Appraisal Tendency Fear Happiness Anger Mood Congruent

18 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 N = 601 Ostensibly separate studies “Study A” Emotion measures Fear: same as before, alpha =.89 Anger: only Spielberger (1996), alpha =.84 Happiness: Underwood & Froming (1980), alpha =.81 “Study B” Optimism measure Weinstein’s (1980) unrealistic optimism questionnaire Optimism Study: Method

19 Emotion-tendencies (z-score) 0 Optimism (z-score) Support for Both Hypotheses: Appraisal Tendency & Mood-Congruent b =. 38* b =.15* Happiness Fear

20 Emotion-tendencies (z-score) 0 Optimism (z-score) Anger Fear Happiness Support For Appraisal Tendency Hypothesis b =. 38* b =.15* b =.13*

21 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Process Effects Main Hypothesis (Bodenhausen et al./Forgas): Pos. emotions, such as happiness, trigger heuristic thought Example: Happy people more likely to rely on stereotypes (Bodenhausen et al.)

22 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Process Effects, cont. Possible explanations for effects: 1. Preoccupation with pleasing events constraines capacity for systematic thought 2. Disruptive arousal or excitement constrains systematic thought 3. “Effort conservation”: happy people not motivated to engage in cognitive effort, unless tasks have relavence to well-being. (Similar to “mood maintenance” idea)

23 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Process Effects, Cont. Tests of Possible Explanations: Preoccupation with pleasing events???? No: Mood inductions with various degrees of cognitve content all produce same results: Memories of happy events (Study 1) Facial feedback (Study 2) Pleasant music (Study 3)

24 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Process Effects, Cont. Tests of Possible Explanations: Arousal constrains processing??? No: Excited happy people do not stereotype more than do calm, happy people (music study)

25 Reason, Passion, & Social Cognition Week 13, Part 1 Process Effects, Cont. Tests of Possible Explanations: Effort conservation??? Possibly: Accountable subjects less likely to stereotype than non-accountable subjects.


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