Presentation on theme: "The Humanistic Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1The Humanistic Psychology Abraham MaslowCarl Rogers
21st force: Psychodynamic Theory 2nd force: Behavioral Theory3rd force: Humanistic Theory
3Existentialist and Humanistic Theorists Both… Believe in Free WillHumanist do not believe that human being are pushed and pulled by mechanical forces, either of stimuli and reinforcements (behaviorism) or of unconscious instinctual impulses (psychoanalysis).Emphasize the uniqueness of each individualBelieve that humans strive for an upper level of capabilities.Humans seek the frontiers of creativity, the highest reaches of consciousness and wisdom.
4However… On Human Nature… Optimism vs. Pessimism Existentialists see it as non-existent or neutralHumanists see it as basically goodOptimism vs. PessimismHumanists optimistic about humanity and the futureExistentialists tend to be much more gloomy
5Abraham Maslow on Existential Gloom “I do not think we need to take too seriously the European existentialists’ harping on dread, anguish, despair, and the like, for which their only remedy seems to be a stiff upper lip. This high IQ whimpering on a cosmic scale occurs whenever an external source of values fails to work. They should have learned from the psychotherapists that the loss of illusions and the discovery of identity, though painful at first, can ultimately be exhilarating and strengthening.”
6Biography He was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He was the first of seven children born to his parentsHis parents were uneducated Jewish immigrants from Russia.Maslow became very lonely as a boy, and found his refuge in books.He married Bertha Goodman, his first cousin, against his parents wishes. Abraham and Bertha went on to have two daughters.on June , he died of a heart attack after years of ill health.
7To satisfy his parents, he first studied law at the City College of New York (CCNY). After three semesters, he transferred to Cornell, and then back to CCNYBA in 1930, MA in 1931, and PhD in 1934, all in psychology, and all from the University of Wisconsin. Returned to New York to work with E. L. Thorndike at Columbia.In 1951, served as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis for 10 years, where he began work in self-actualization.
8Work with monkeys early in his career Some needs take precedence over others, e.g. taking care of the thirst over hunger. Thirst is a “stronger” need than hunger.
9Maslow’s Three Types of Needs Basic NeedsNeeds to Know and UnderstandAesthetic Needs
11Physiological Needs Needs for food, water, air, etc. One function of civilization is to satisfy these needs so we can focus on the higher onesBehavioral research usually studies at this level
12Safety Needs Needs for safety, order, security, etc. Focused on after physiological needs metMost commonly seen in childrenSeen in some mental disorders (e.g., Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, Dependent Personality Disorder)
13Belongingness & Love Needs The need for affiliation, for friends, supportive family, group identification, intimate relationshipsThis level and higher ones often not satisfied even in affluent countriesThese needs being unfulfilled at the root of many mental disturbances (depression, Borderline Personality Disorder)Need to receive and to give love
14Esteem NeedsNeed to be held in high regard by self and others (not just “self-esteem”)comes from mastery, achievement, adequacy, feelings of competence, confidence, independenceIdeally this need met by the deserved respect of others
15Self-Actualization Needs A person must actualize, that is make real, what exists inside them as a potentialMost other theorists wouldn’t see this as a needFreud would predict people would stop at lower needsEven Adler might predict stopping at esteem needs
17Carl Rogers“In a psychological climate which is nurturant of growth and choice, I have never known an individual to choose the cruel or destructive path….it is cultural influences which are the major factor in our evil behaviors.”
18BiographyCarl grew up on a farm in Illinois, developing an interest in biology & agriculture.Expressing emotions was not allowed in the Rogers household & it took its toll on Carl who developed an ulcer at 15.Rogers went to the University of Wisconsin to study agriculture in 1919.Traveled to China and exposed to Eastern religion----this is a turning point in his religious up-bringing.
19BiographyHe finished his degree and left for Union Theological Seminary in NY to become a minister.1926 left seminary to study psychology.He gained recognition when he won the APA award for distinguished scientific contribution in 1956.In 1963, he moved to La Jolla, California. Developed the Center for Studies of the Person.He continued his scientific efforts, writing, holding workshops, etc. until he died in 1987.
20Carl Rogers: Person-Centered Approach Rogers believed that humans are basically good.He argued that we have an innate drive to reach an optimal sense of ourselves & satisfaction with our lives.
21The Actualizing Tendency We do not behave irrationally, as psychoanalysis assumed--we move with ordered complexity toward our goalsThis tendency leads to complexity, independence, and social responsibilityThe motivation intrinsic to each person is basically good and healthy
22Person-Centered Theory - The Actualizing Tendency A person who pays attention to the organismic valuing process is self-actualizing or fully functioningA person who is fully functioning has several characteristics: openness to experience, existential living, organismic trusting, experiential freedom, and creativity22
23Characteristics of a Fully Functioning Person 1. These people are open to their experiences. They strive to experience life to its fullest & are willing to take some risks.2. These people live in the present (here & now).3. These folks trust their own feelings & instincts. They aren’t held back by old standards or concern for what others might think.4. These folks are less concern with social conventions.
24Conditions of Worth & Unconditional Positive Regard Rogers argues that most of us grow up in an atmosphere where we are given love & support as long as we behave the way we are expected to.This is what he calls Conditional positive regard. The emphasis is that love is given conditionally (with a string attached).
25If we don’t do what our parents want us to do? Rogers argued that in these cases, parents withhold their love from us.As a result of this, children learn to abandon their true feelings, wishes, & desires, for those of their parents.This paves the way for us to become alienated from our true selves.
26Unconditional positive regard We need this to accept all parts of our personality.With this we know we are loved & valued for being who we are.Parents can do this, by it clear that their love is not contingent on the child’s behavior (even when such behavior is abhored).
27Conditions in Person-Centered Therapy Direction comes from the client rather than from the therapist’s insights, so referred to as nondirective therapy, later client-centered therapyEmpathyCongruence/GenuinenessUnconditional Positive Regard