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Anxiety Disorders Chapter 14, Lecture 3 “Through conditioning, the short list of naturally painful and frightening events can multiply into a long list.

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Presentation on theme: "Anxiety Disorders Chapter 14, Lecture 3 “Through conditioning, the short list of naturally painful and frightening events can multiply into a long list."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anxiety Disorders Chapter 14, Lecture 3 “Through conditioning, the short list of naturally painful and frightening events can multiply into a long list of human fears.” - David Myers

2 Anxiety Disorders Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. 1.Generalized anxiety disorder 2.Panic disorder 3.Phobias 4.Obsessive-compulsive disorder 5.Post-traumatic stress disorder

3 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1.Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension. 2.Autonomic arousal. 3.Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings. Symptoms

4 Panic Disorder Minutes-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations. Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it. Symptoms

5 Discovery Health Channel Phobia Study Top 10 fears (men and women combined): 1. Fear of snakes 2. Fear of being buried alive 3. Fear of heights 4. Fear of being bound or tied up 5. Fear of drowning 6. Fear of public speaking 7. Fear of hell 8. Fear of cancer 9. Fear of tornados and hurricanes 10. Fear of fire 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

6 Discovery Health Channel Phobia Study Other results: We fear giving a speech (36%) more than meeting new people (12%) We fear embarrassing ourselves in a sport (44%) more than asking someone for a date (35%) We fear being stranded in the ocean (62%) more than being stranded in the desert (24%) We fear the IRS (57%) more than God (30%)

7 Discovery Health Channel Phobia Study Things we fear equally: Rats and dentists (58%) Elevators and flying (52%) Public speaking and being alone in the woods (40%) While the pollsters found the level of fear in American society to be high, they also reported that few seek treatment (roughly 11 percent of those with extreme fear).

8 Let’s see what you fear with Handout 14-10… When psychologist James Geer asked people the open- ended question “What do you fear?”, the fifty-one specific fears on this handout were mentioned more than once… The following 11 received the highest intensity ratings: untimely or early death, death of a loved one, speaking before a group, snakes, not being a success, being self- conscious, illness or injury to loved ones, making mistakes, looking foolish, failing a test, suffocating.

9 Phobias Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior.

10 Phobias Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior. Two common phobias: Agoraphobia – fear of situations where escape is difficult (i.e., open spaces) Social Phobia – fear of being scrutinized by others

11 Other Specific Phobias AcarophobiaFear of itching or insects that cause itching AcrophobiaFear of heights GephyrophobiaFear of bridges HemophobiaFear of blood AerophobiaFear of flying TriskaidekaphobiaFear of the number 13 HerpetophobiaFear of reptiles MikrophobiaFear of germs ErgophobiaFear of work

12 Other Specific Phobias DextrophobiaFear of objects on the right side of the body AilurophobiaFear of cats AeronausiphobiaFear of vomiting MurophobiaFear of mice AmaxophobiaFear of vehicles and/or driving NumerophobiaFear of numbers AnthophobiaFear of flowers NyctophobiaFear of darkness AnthrophobiaFear of people

13 Other Specific Phobias AnglophobiaFear of England or anything related to English culture AndrophobiaFear of men CacophobiaFear of ugliness ClaustrophobiaFear of closed spaces TestophobiaFear of tests SyngenesophobiaFear of relatives LiticaphobiaFear of lawsuits OctophobiaFear of the Figure 8 PteronophobiaFear of being tickled

14 Other Specific Phobias ArachibutyrophobiaFear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of your mouth CoulrophobiaFear of clowns GamophobiaFear of marriage Ochlophobia Fear of crowds AquaphobiaFear of water OphidiophobiaFear of snakes ArachnophobiaFear of spiders OrnithophobiaFear of birds AstraphobiaFear of lightning

15 Other Specific Phobias BogyphobiaFear of the Bogeyman AllodoxaphobiaFear of opinions AmnesiphobiaFear of amnesia Phonophobia Fear of speaking aloud BrontophobiaFear of thunder Pyrophobia Fear of fire ThanatophobiaFear of death CynophobiaFear of dogs TrichophobiaFear of hair AllinphobiaFear of garlic

16 Other Specific Phobias DementophobiaFear of insanity GenuphobiaFear of knees HellenologophobiaFear of Greek terms Aulophobia Fear of flutes ChromophobiaFear of money Didaskaleinophobia Fear of going to school EuphobiaFear of hearing good news Ideophobia Fear of ideas PanophobiaFear of everything XenophobiaFear of strangers

17 Other Specific Phobias VenustraphobiaFear of beautiful women LachanophobiaFear of vegetables PeladophobiaFear of bald people Samhainophobia Fear of Halloween Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia Fear of long words KosmikophobiaFear of cosmic phenomenon

18 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress.

19 A PET scan of the brain of a person with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). High metabolic activity (red) in the frontal lobe areas are involved with directing attention. Brain Imaging Brain image of an OCD

20 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1.Haunting memories 2.Nightmares 3.Social withdrawal 4.Jumpy anxiety 5.Sleep problems Bettmann/ Corbis

21 Resilience to PTSD Only about 10% of women and 20% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD. Holocaust survivors show remarkable resilience against traumatic situations. All major religions of the world suggest that surviving a trauma leads to the growth of an individual.

22 Explaining Anxiety Disorders Freud suggested that we repress our painful and intolerable ideas, feelings, and thoughts, resulting in anxiety.

23 The Learning Perspective Learning theorists suggest that fear conditioning leads to anxiety. This anxiety then becomes associated with other objects or events (stimulus generalization) and is reinforced. John Coletti/ Stock, Boston

24 The Learning Perspective Investigators believe that fear responses are inculcated through observational learning. Young monkeys develop fear when they watch other monkeys who are afraid of snakes.

25 The Biological Perspective Natural Selection has led our ancestors to learn to fear snakes, spiders, and other animals. Therefore, fear preserves the species. Twin studies suggest that our genes may be partly responsible for developing fears and anxiety. Twins are more likely to share phobias.

26 The Biological Perspective Generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and even OCD are linked with brain circuits like the anterior cingulate cortex. Anterior Cingulate Cortex of an OCD patient.

27 Homework Read p.608-611 “Although nothing justifies terror and victimization, those who have suffered, [Staub] reports, often develop a greater-than-usual sensitivity to suffering and empathy for others who suffer, an increased sense of responsibility, and an enlarged capacity for caring.” - David Myers

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