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Stress, Coping, and Health. The Relationship Between Stress and Disease Contagious diseases vs. chronic diseases –Biopsychosocial model –Health psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Stress, Coping, and Health. The Relationship Between Stress and Disease Contagious diseases vs. chronic diseases –Biopsychosocial model –Health psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stress, Coping, and Health

2 The Relationship Between Stress and Disease Contagious diseases vs. chronic diseases –Biopsychosocial model –Health psychology Health promotion and maintenance –Discovery of causation, prevention, and treatment

3 Stress: An Everyday Event Major stressors vs. routine hassles –Cumulative nature of stress –Cognitive appraisals

4 Major Types of Stress Frustration: blocked goal Conflict: incompatible motivations –Approach-approach –Approach-avoidance –Avoidance-avoidance Change: having to adapt –Social Readjustment Rating Scale –Life Change Units Pressure –Perform/conform

5 Overview of the Stress Process

6 Responding to Stress Emotionally Emotional Responses –Annoyance, anger, rage –Apprehension, anxiety, fear –Dejection, sadness, grief –Positive emotions Emotional response and performance –The inverted-U- hypothesis

7 Responding to Stress Physiologically Physiological Responses –Fight-or-flight response –Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm Resistance Exhaustion

8 Responding to Stress Behaviorally Behavioral Responses –Frustration-aggression hypothesis –catharsis –defense mechanisms Coping –Reappraisal –Confronting problems –Using humor –Expressing emotions –Managing hostility

9 Effects of Stress: Behavioral and Psychological Impaired task performance Burnout Psychological problems and disorders Positive effects

10 Effects of Stress: Physical Psychosomatic diseases Heart disease –Type A behavior - 3 elements strong competitiveness impatience and time urgency anger and hostility –Emotional reactions and depression Stress and immune functioning –Reduced immune activity

11 Factors Moderating the Impact of Stress Social support –Increased immune functioning Optimism –More adaptive coping –Pessimistic explanatory style Conscientiousness –Fostering better health habits Autonomic reactivity –Cardiovascular reactivity to stress

12 Firefighter Specific Stressors Reliance on teamwork Low job control Sleep disturbances/Shift work Boredom Coworker conflict Management-Labor conflict Second jobs Marital/Family spillover

13 Firefighter Stress Reactions Apprehension/Dread Intrusive thoughts No hope Sleep difficulties Gastrointestinal symptoms Throat and mouth symptoms

14 At-Risk Firefighters Research reveals 2 distinct profiles for at-risk firefighters –Profile 1 (somaticizers) Reported greater frequency and intensity of physical symptoms Head/neck/facial tension Gastrointestinal distress Cardiopulmonary complaints –Profile 2 (psychological stress) Reported higher levels of Apprehension/dread Anger Generalized anxiety Agitated depression

15 Implications for treatment Identify high-risk firefighters –No penalty or stigmatization Potential interventions –Psychoeducation Work redesign Coping skills training Relaxation training Conflict-resolution training Leadership training Sleep hygiene education

16 Coping Skills Problem-focused coping –Taking direct action –Planning –Suppression of competing activities –Restraint coping –Seeking social support Emotion-focused coping –Focusing on and venting emotions –Behavioral disengagement –Mental disengagement –Positive reappraisal –Denial –Acceptance –Turning to religion


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