Icarus Daedalus and his son, Icarus, were held prisoner by King Minos. –Daedalus had built the Labyrinth to imprison the Minotaur (part man, part bull). –Daedalus provided some string to help Theseus find his way out of the Labyrinth and defeat the Minotaur. Daedalus fashioned a pair of wings out of wax and feathers for himself and his son so they could escape. He warned his son not to fly too close to the sun Overcome by confidence, Icarus flew too close to the sun, which melted the wax. Icarus fell into the sea.
Aristotle Fear may be defined as –a pain or disturbance –due to a mental picture of some destructive or painful evil in the future. –something that can cause us great harm or pain –danger
Aristotle Threat –In the future –Is imminent –Has power to harm us –Has an element of uncertainty at the hands of unexpected people, in an unexpected form, and at an unexpected time.
Aristotle the enmity and anger of people who have power to do something to us; can do injustice to us with power have injustice done to them--outraged virtue- retaliate those who have been wronged, or believe themselves to be wronged--retaliation have done injustice--fear retaliation rivals-fear of not getting something
Aristotle if feared by stronger people or have destroyed stronger people if attack people weaker than we are, then fear
Aristotle No fear –When believe nothing can happen to you –what believe something cannot happen to you –people cannot harm upon us –when we think ourselves safe
Aristotle Arrogance leads to false fear “People do not believe this(that they can be harmed) when they are, or think they are, in the midst of great prosperity, and are in consequence insolent, contemptuous, and reckless -- the kind of character produced by wealth, physical strength, abundance of friends, power:
Aristotle Fatalism nor yet when they feel they have experienced every kind of horror already and have grown callous about the future, like men who are being flogged and are already nearly dead -- if they are to feel the anguish of uncertainty, there must be some faint expectation of escape.
Aristotle Fear is the most general term Fright is sudden, usually momentary, great fear: In my fright, I forgot to lock the door.
Aristotle Alarm is fright aroused by the first realization of danger: I watched with alarm as the sky darkened. Dread is strong fear, especially of what one is powerless to avoid: His dread of strangers kept him from socializing. Trepidation is dread characteristically marked by trembling or hesitancy: “They were … full of trepidation about things that were never likely to happen” (John Morley).
Aristotle Terror is intense, overpowering fear: “And now at the dead hour of the night, amid the dreadful silence of that old house, so strange a noise as this excited me to uncontrollable terror” (Edgar Allan Poe). Horror is a combination of fear and aversion or repugnance: Murder arouses widespread horror. Panic is sudden frantic fear, often groundless: The fire caused a panic among the horses.
Aristotle Financial Panic: A condition of widespread apprehension in relation to financial and commercial matters, arising in a time of monetary difficulty or crisis, and leading to hasty and violent measures to secure immunity from possible loss, the tendency of which is to cause financial disaster
Aristotle Dismay robs one of courage or the power to act effectively: The rumor of war caused universal dismay. Consternation is often paralyzing, characterized by confusion and helplessness: Consternation gripped the city as the invaders approached.
Stages of Fear and Confidence Confidence –Caution –Boldness –Confidence Fear –Alarm –Panic –Dismay