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The Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar Kees Hengeveld ACLC -University of Amsterdam keeshengeveld.nl.

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Presentation on theme: "The Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar Kees Hengeveld ACLC -University of Amsterdam keeshengeveld.nl."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar Kees Hengeveld ACLC -University of Amsterdam keeshengeveld.nl

2 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG2 Contents Morphosyntax in FDG The structure of the Morphosyntactic Level Steps in morphosyntactic encoding Linguistic Expressions Clauses Words

3 Morphosyntax in FDG

4 Frames, Lexemes, Primary operators Templates, Auxiliaries, Secondary operators Interpersonal Level Representational Level Formulation Morphosyntactic Encoding Morphosyntactic Level Phonological Encoding Phonological Level Prosodic patterns, Morphemes, Tertiary operators

5 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG5 Form and function Morphosyntax encodes interpersonal and representational configurations and is one of the means by which these configurations can be brought across At the same time, it has its own principles of organization, partly because there are arbitrary options, partly because once functional structures may become fossilized

6 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG6 Form and function Morphosyntax is functional in that it helps the adressee to interpret scope relations (iconicity), domain boundaries (domain integrity), pragmatic, semantic and syntactic functions (functional stability)

7 The structure of the Morphosyntactic Level

8 Frames, Lexemes, Primary operators Templates, Auxiliaries, Secondary operators Interpersonal Level Representational Level Formulation Morphosyntactic Encoding Morphosyntactic Level Phonological Encoding Phonological Level Prosodic patterns, Morphemes, Tertiary operators

9 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG9 Morphosyntactic Level (Le 1 : Linguistic Expression (Cl 1 : Clause (Xp 1 : Phrase (Xw 1 : Word (Xs 1 )Stem (Aff 1 )Affix (Xw 1 ))Word (Xp 1 )) Phrase (Cl 1 ))Clause (Le 1 ))Linguistic Expression

10 Steps in the morphosyntactic encoding process

11 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG11 Encoding steps Hierarchical ordering Alignment Non-hierarchical ordering Dummy-insertion Agreement

12 Linguistic expressions

13 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG13 Linguistic expressions German Je kürzer desto besser. CORRshort.COMPVCORRgood.COMPV ‘The shorter the better.’ (Le i : [(Ap i ) (Ap j )] (Le i ))

14 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG14 Linguistic expressions If he comes, then I go (Le i : [(Cl i ) (Cl j )] (Le i ))

15 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG15 Linguistic expressions Mutually dependentOne-way dependentNo dependency ClauseEquiordinationCosubordinationCoordination PhraseEquiordinationExtra-clausalityListing

16 Mutually dependent If he comes, then I go. The cheaper the better. The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG16

17 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG17 Linguistic expressions Mutually dependentOne-way dependentNo dependency ClauseEquiordinationCosubordinationCoordination PhraseEquiordinationExtra-clausalityListing

18 One-way dependent Tauya Peimafitau-fe-e-tewatetepau-a-ʔa. carefullythrow- PF -1/2. SG - DSNEG break-3. SG - IND ‘I threw it carefully and it didn’t break.’ “Me having thrown it carefully, it didn’t break.” As for the students, they heard the news yesterday. The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG18

19 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG19 Linguistic expressions Mutually dependentOne-way dependentNo dependency ClauseEquiordinationCosubordinationCoordination PhraseEquiordinationExtra-clausalityListing

20 No dependency Celtic won and Rangers lost. (Can I take your order?) A Big Mac, French fries, and a Coke. The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG20

21 Clauses

22 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG22 Clauses Constituent structure, recursive combinations: (Cl 1 : [(Xw) (Xp) {Φ} (Cl) {Φ} ] (Cl 1 )) Ordering templates, selection of absolute anchor points P I P 2 P M P F to be expanded by relative positions: etc. P F-2 P F-1 P F

23 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG23 Clauses: hierarchical ordering Top-down placement of elements according to their hierarchical position at the Interpersonal and Representational Levels respectively Starting with absolute position, and only after that occupying relative positions

24 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG24 Clauses: hierarchical ordering She finally (Σ F ) honestly (Σ F ) reportedly (Σ C ) is the queen’s sister.

25 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG25 Clauses: hierarchical ordering She finally (Σ F ) honestly (Σ F ) reportedly (Σ C ) is the queen’s sister. P I P M---

26 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG26 Clauses: hierarchical ordering She finally (Σ F ) honestly (Σ F ) reportedly (Σ C ) is the queen’s sister. P I P M P M+1 ---finally (Σ F )---

27 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG27 Clauses: hierarchical ordering She finally (Σ F ) honestly (Σ F ) reportedly (Σ C ) is the queen’s sister. P I P M P M+1 P M+2 ---finally (Σ F )honestly (Σ F )---

28 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG28 Clauses: hierarchical ordering She finally (Σ F ) honestly (Σ F ) reportedly (Σ C ) is the queen’s sister. P I P M P M+1 P M+2 P M+3 ---finally (Σ F )honestly (Σ F )reportedly (Σ C )---

29 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG29 Clauses: hierarchical ordering she has been drinking continuously (σ f ) again (σ e ) recently (σ ep ). P M P F ---

30 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG30 Clauses: hierarchical ordering she has been drinking continuously (σ f ) again (σ e ) recently (σ ep ). P M P F-1 P F recently (σ ep )

31 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG31 Clauses: hierarchical ordering she has been drinking continuously (σ f ) again (σ e ) recently (σ ep ). P M P F-2 P F-1 P F again (σ e )recently (σ ep )

32 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG32 Clauses: hierarchical ordering she has been drinking continuously (σ f ) again (σ e ) recently (σ ep ). P M P F-3 P F-2 P F-1 P F continuously (σ f )again (σ e )recently (σ ep )

33 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG33 Clauses: alignment the way in which non-hierarchically related pragmatic and semantic units map onto morphosyntactic ones three types of alignment: interpersonal alignment representational alignmen morphosyntactic alignment

34 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG34 Clauses: Interpersonal alignment Tagalog bumilíang=lalakeng=isda sa=tindahan. PFV.AV.buySPEC.TOP=manOBL=fishLOC=store ‘The man bought fish at the/a store.’ binilí ng=lalakeang=isdasa=tindahan. PFV.UV.buyOBL=manSPEC.TOP=fishLOC=store ‘The/a man bought the fish at the/a store.’ binilhanng=lalakeng=isdaang=tindahan. PFV.LV.buyOBL=manOBL=fishSPEC.TOP=store ‘The/a man bought fish at the store.’

35 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG35 Clauses: Interpersonal alignment

36 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG36 Clauses: Representational alignment Acehnese Gopnyanna=lôn=timbak=geuh 3.POLAUX=1.A=shoot=3.POL.U ‘I shot him.’ Keu=jihka=geu=jôkbuku=nyanlê=gopnyan. to=3.FAMINCH=3.POL.A=givebook=thatby=3.POL ‘He (polite) gave him (familiar) that book.’ Gopnyanka=lôn=bipeng. 3.polinch=1=givemoney ‘I have given him some money.’

37 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG37 Clauses: Representational alignment

38 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG38 Clauses: Morphosyntactic alignment The man (A) walked. The man (U) fell. The man (A) saw a dog (U). The dog (U) was seen by the man (A). the seeing of the dog (U) by the man (A)

39 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG39 Clauses: Morphosyntactic alignment: Subject The man gave the book to the boy. (A-Subject) The book was given to the boy by the man. (U- Subject) The boy was given the book by the man. (R- Subject)

40 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG40 Clauses: Morphosyntactic alignment: Object He (A) bought a book (U). He (A) spoke to Sheila (L). He (A) gave a book (U) to Sheila (L).

41 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG41 Clauses: Morphosyntactic alignment: Object Kham Ŋa:-Øno:-laiŋa-Ø-rɨ̃:h-ke. I-NOMhe-OBJ 1.SG.SBJ-3.SG.OBJ-see-PFV ‘I saw him.’ Ŋa-laica-ou-cyu:-na-o-kə. I-OBJgood-NMLZDUM-look‑1.SG-3.SG-OPT ‘May he look favourably upon me!’ Ŋa-laibəhtanjiy-ã:-ke-o. I-OBJpotatogive-1.SG.OBJ-PFV-3.SG.SBJ ‘He gave me a potato.’

42 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG42 Clauses: Non-hierarchical ordering interpersonal factors: pragmatic functions, reference; representational factors: semantic functions, designation; morphosyntactic factors: syntactic functions, complexity.

43 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG43 Clauses: Non-hierarchical ordering: Interpersonal factors Tzotzil Atiprovetzeb-esovrach’ak’bat. TOPDEFpoorgirl-TOPleftoverswas.given ‘It was leftovers that the poor girl was given.’ P I P I+1 P I+2 A_ti_prove_tzebe TOP sovra FOC ch’ak’bat.

44 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG44 Clauses: Non-hierarchical ordering: Representational factors Movima Tikoy-na=sneosmimi:di. kill-DRCT=F.ABSART.N.PSTsnake ‘She killed the/a snake.’ Tikoy-kay-a=sneosmimi:di. kill-INV-V=F.ABSART.N.PSTsnake ‘The/a snake killed her.’

45 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG45 Clauses: Non-hierarchical ordering: Morphosyntactic factors Dutch Ik zag hem. Isee.PST.SGhim ‘I saw him.’ Hetregen-t. itrain-PRS.3.SG ‘It’s raining.’

46 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG46 Clauses: dummies Janwandelt. Johnwalks Gisteren wandelde Jan YesterdaywalkedJohn Hetregenthierniet Itrainsherenot ‘It doesn’t rain here.’ Regen-endoethethierniet. rain-INFdoesitherenot ‘It doesn’t rain here.’

47 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG47 Clauses: agreement Nouschant-ons. wesing-1.PL ‘We are singing.’ (Cl i : [(Np i : (Nw i : /nu/ (Nw i )) (Np i )) Subj (Vp i : (Vw i : /ʃãt/-pres (Vw i )) (Vp i )] (Cl i )) Copying -> (Cl i : [(Np i : (Nw i : /nu/ (Nw i )) (Np i )) Subj (Vp i : (Vw i : /ʃãt/- pres (Vw i )) (Vp i )] (Cl i ))

48 Words

49 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG49 Words Words are built up in exactly the same way as clauses and phrase Syntax and morphology can in this way be seen as pertaining to the same level Syntax is fully recursive at this level too: (Xw 1 : [(Xs) (Aff) (Xw) (Xp) (Cl)] (Xw 1 ))

50 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG50 Words: hierarchical ordering Tsafiki Manuelanofi-nu-ti-e. Manuelfoodeat-PERC-REP-DECL ‘It is said Manuel must have eaten.’

51 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG51 Words: hierarchical ordering Manuelanofi-nu-ti-e. Manuelfoodeat-PERC-REP-DECL ‘It is said Manuel must have eaten.’ P F --

52 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG52 Words: hierarchical ordering Manuelanofi-nu-ti-e. Manuelfoodeat-PERC-REP-DECL ‘It is said Manuel must have eaten.’ P F-1 P F ---e

53 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG53 Words: hierarchical ordering Manuelanofi-nu-ti-e. Manuelfoodeat-PERC-REP-DECL ‘It is said Manuel must have eaten.’ P F-2 P F-1 P F ---ti-e

54 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG54 Words: hierarchical ordering Manuelanofi-nu-ti-e. Manuelfoodeat-PERC-REP-DECL ‘It is said Manuel must have eaten.’ P F-3 P F-2 P F-1 P F ---nu-ti-e

55 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG55 Word: Interpersonal Alignment Nivkh T’aku-ñivɣ-əz-ja. PROHDEM-person-call-IMP.SG ‘Don’t call that person.’ Ku-ñivxt’aj-əz-ja. DEM-personPROH3.SG.U-call-IMP.SG ‘That person, don’t call him/her.’

56 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG56 Word: Representational Alignment Southern Tiwa I-k’uru-k’euwe-m. 3.SG.SBJ-dipper-old-PRS ‘The dipper is old.’ *I-musa-k’euwe-m. 3.SG.SBJ-cat-old-PRS ‘The cat is old.’

57 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG57 Word: Morphosyntactic Alignment Nivkh Təf tiv-d̹. housecold-IND ‘The house is cold.’ Atakk‛e-seu-d̹. grandfathernet-dry-IND ‘Grandfather dried the net.’

58 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG58 Word: Morphosyntactic Alignment Nivkh Atakk‛e-seu-d̹. grandfathernet-dry-IND ‘Grandfather dried the net.’ Objezdt̹̔ikk‛eatak-asqam-d̹. bay_watchernetgrandfather-take_away-IND ‘The bay watcher took the net away from grandfather

59 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG59 Word: Morphosyntactic Alignment Southern Tiwa Ti-seuan-mũ-ban. 1.SG.SBJ>SG.OBJ-man-see-PST ‘I saw the/a man.’ Ti-‘u‘u-wia-banĩ-‘ay. 1.SG.SBJ>SG.OBJ-baby-give-PST2.SG-ALL ‘I gave the baby to you.’

60 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG60 Word: non-hierarchical ordering Yimas wa-mpu-ŋa-r-akn 3.SG.ABS-3.PL.ERG-give-PERF-3.SG.DAT ‘they gave it to them’

61 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG61 Word: dummies Tariana nu-pitana 1.SG-name ‘my name’ kuphei-pitana fishINDEF-name ‘the name of a fish’

62 The Morphosyntactic Level in FDG62 Word: agreement Southern Tiwa Te-shut-pe-ban 1.SG.SBJ>PL.OBJ-shirt-make-PST 'I made (the) shirts.'

63 keeshengeveld.nl


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