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Chapter 15 Manifest Destiny & the Growing Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Manifest Destiny & the Growing Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Manifest Destiny & the Growing Nation

2 Introduction: Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny = obvious fate It was America’s “manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent…the God of nature and nations has marked it for our own.” –John O’Sullivan, 1845

3 Manifest Destiny

4 I. Louisiana Purchase A.Opportunity for Expansion 1. US wanted port city of New Orleans a)Farmers sent crops down Mississippi to Orleans to get them to market b)From New Orleans, crops were shipped to Europe and rest of East Coast B.Louisiana 1. Stretched from Canada to Texas, from Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains 2. First claimed by France, but given to Spain during French- Indian War – Napoleon convinced Spain to return it to France

5 I. Louisiana Purchase C.“A Noble Bargain” – Jefferson sent Monroe to France with offer to buy New Orleans for $7.5 million 2. France and Britain were also on brink of war 3. Napoleon offered to sell all of Louisiana. 4. Monroe signed treaty giving Louisiana to US for $15 million D.Purchase Debate 1. New territory would double the country’s size a)Some worried it would be impossible to govern b)Others said Constitution made no provisions for purchasing foreign territory c)Senate ratified the Louisiana Purchase treaty in late 1803

6 Louisiana Purchase

7 II. Florida A.Heading South – Jefferson sent 2 diplomats to Spain to buy Florida. Spain – No Deal 2. Regular raids on Georgia farms by ex-slaves and Seminoles living in Florida B.Andrew Jackson Invades Florida –President Monroe sent Jackson to Georgia with orders to end the raids a)Told he could chase Seminoles into Florida b)Was told not to invade Spanish colony 2. Marched into Florida with 1,700 troops a)Captured nearly every military post b)Tried, arrested, executed 2 British subjects for stirring up Indian attacks c)Replaced Spanish governor with American C.“Govern or Get Out” 1. Adams suggested that Monroe tell Spain to govern Florida properly or get out – Spain agreed to give Florida to US in exchange of US paying off $5 million in settlers’ claims

8 The United States Florida 1819

9 III. Texas A.Americans Come to Texas – Spanish officials granted American Moses Austin with tract of land a) Dreamed of starting an American colony 2. Austin’s son took over as Mexico declared independence from Spain. Mexico had conditions a)Had to choose moral and hardworking settlers b)Settlers had to promise to become Mexican citizens and join Catholic Church – 297 families went to Texas B.Rising Tensions – 25,000 Americans in Texas (only 4,000 Texans of Mexican descent) 2. Tensions rose a)Americans resented taking orders from Mexican officials, unhappy that official documents had to be in Spanish, and Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829 b)Mexican Texans were unhappy Americans were coming to Texas illegally, had little respect for the culture ad had no intention of becoming citizens 3. Mexican government closed Texas to further immigration

10 III. Texas C.Texans Rebel Austin asked Mexico to reopen Texas to immigration and make it a separate Mexican state so Texans could run own affairs 2. Santa Anna threw Austin in jail for promoting rebellion – After Austin’s release, Texans rose in revolt D.The Alamo – Santa Anna’s army of 6,000 reached San Antonio where 180 Texans (including Davy Crockett) had taken over an old mission 2. Santa Anna’s troops surrounded Alamo 3. Texans sent messages to other towns pleading for reinforcements and vowing not to abandon the Alamo days – Mexicans pounded Alamo with cannonballs before storming the fort 5. Battle lasted 90 minutes, and all of Alamo’s defenders were dead

11 The Alamo

12 III. Texas E.Texas Wins Its Independence 1. Sam Houston, Commander of Texas Revolutionary Army, retreated east hoping that by luring Santa Anna deeper, it would make it harder for him to supply his army 2. When Santa Anna caught up, men stayed awake all night expecting the Texans to attack. a)Texans attacked late in afternoon after Mexicans had relaxed. b)Santa Anna fled but was captured the next day c)In exchange for his freedom, he ordered remaining troops out of Texas F.Annex Texas or Not? 1. Became known as the Lone Star Republic (an independent country) 2. Remained independent for 10 years 3. US divided on annexation a)South wanted another slave state b)North wanted to keep Texas out Presidential Campaign influenced by question of expanding territory 5. After James Polk was elected, Congress voted to annex Texas – Texas became 28 th state

13 Texas The United States 1845

14 IV. Oregon Country A.New Wilderness 1. Stretched from Rocky Mountains to Pacific Ocean, from Russian Alaska to Spanish California – Oregon claimed by 4 nations: Russia, Spain, Great Britain and US a)Spain first to drop out – as part of treaty to purchase Florida b)1825 – Russia agreed to limit claim to territory north of 54*40 parallel (southern border of Alaska) c)Last 2 agreed to joint occupation B.Discovering Oregon – Lewis and Clark led small band of explorers through wilderness to Oregon coast –Jebediah Smith found a better way through a passage in the Rocky Mountains

15 Lewis and Clark

16 IV. Oregon Country C.Oregon Fever 1. First to travel were missionaries hoping to convert Indians 2. reports of fertile soil attracted settlers a) 1835 – 1,000 pioneers headed out in covered wagons D.All of Oregon or Half? Presidential Campaign –Polk promised not to rest until US annexed all of Oregon Country 2. Compromised with Britain in a treaty that divided Oregon roughly in half at the 49 th parallel (border of US and Canada)

17 The United States Oregon 1846 Treaty Line of 1846

18 V. War with Mexico A.More Territory? 1. Polk determined to have California and New Mexico B.War Breaks Out in Texas 1. To Mexico, annexation of Texas was act of war a) Could not agree on a border 1- Texas claimed Rio Grande as border 2- Mexico wanted border to be Nueces River – Mexican soldiers fired on American troops patrolling the Rio Grande a)16 Americans killed b)Congress declared war 2 days later

19 V. War with Mexico C.Fall of New Mexico and California 1. Under General Kearny, Americans took control of New Mexico without firing a shot 2. John Fremont launched rebellion against Mexican rule in California a)Arrested and jailed commander of Northern CA. b)Declared California as Bear Flag Republic c)Kearny joined Fremont and put all of CA under American control D.US Invades Mexico 1. American troops battled way south from Texas a)6,000 troops took Mexican city of Monterrey only to be stopped by Santa Anna’s 20,000 troops b)1847 – battled near Buena Vista. Ended with Santa Anna retreating South 2. American forces landed in Southern Mexico a)Met resistance outside capital (1,000 Mexican soldier and 100 cadets) b)Captured city in 1847

20 V. War with Mexico E.Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – signed treaty in which Mexico agreed to give up Texas and present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming 2. In return US paid $15 million and promised to protect 80, ,000 Mexicans living in acquired territory BrainPOP F.“From Sea to Shining Sea” –James Gadsden arranged purchase of strip of land just below newly acquired territory for $10 million a) Wanted because it could serve as good railroad route

21 Land acquired by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo The Gadsden Purchase 1853 The United States


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