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FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme The Skeleton- Bones, Joint, and muscle The Skeleton- Bones, Joint, and muscle dr. E. Suryadi, S.U. Department.

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Presentation on theme: "FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme The Skeleton- Bones, Joint, and muscle The Skeleton- Bones, Joint, and muscle dr. E. Suryadi, S.U. Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme The Skeleton- Bones, Joint, and muscle The Skeleton- Bones, Joint, and muscle dr. E. Suryadi, S.U. Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Anthropology

2 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Selected Key Terms  Amphiarthrosis  Bursa  Circumduction  Diaphysis  Diarthrosis  Endosteum  Epiphysis  Fontanel  Origo  Joint  Osteoblast  Osteoclast  Osteocyte  Periosteum  Resorption  Synarthrosis  Synovial  Insertio The following terms are defined in the glossary:

3 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Role osteology in the medical science learning  Osteology  !  Anatomy (included Human biology)  !  Physiology  !  Pathology  !  Clinical sciences

4 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme For example  Low back pain that be caused nucleus pulposus hernia  Pain spreading from lumbar region until in leg or foot  Fracture middle clavicle, surgical neck humeri  To lie stetoscope when Aucultation of heart  Palpation of the lever and the appendix

5 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Bone structure  Cells 1.Osteoblasts Bone forming cells 2.Osteocytes mature bone cells that maintain bone 3.Osteoclasts cells that break down (resorp) bone

6 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Tissue 1.Compact shaft (diaphysis) of long bones; outside of other bones 2.Spongy end (epiphysis) of long bones; center of other bones

7 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Marrow –Red ends of long bones, center of other bones –Yellow center of long bones

8 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Membranes contain bone-forming cells 1.Periosteum covers bones 2.Endosteum lines marrow cavities

9 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme begins in center of shaft and continues at ends of bone; growing area forms line across epiphysis (epiphysios disc) LONG BONE GROWTH BONE FUNCTIONS serve as body framework; protect organs; serve as levers; store calcium; form blood cells

10 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Divisions of the skeleton 1. Head a.Cranial (neurocranium) frontal, parietals, temporal bones, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital b. Facial (viscerocranium) mandible, maxillae, zygomatic bones, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, vomer, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae. c. Other ossicles (of ear), hyoid bone  AXIAL

11 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme 2. Trunk a.Vertebral column cervical (VC), thoracic (VTh), lumbar (VL), sacral (VS), coccygeal (V Co) b. thorax (1) Sternum (2) Ribs =costae –True = costa vera first seven pairs –False = costa spuria and fluctuantes remaining five pairs, including two floating ribs

12 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme 1. shoulder girdle (cingulum superius) clavicle, scapula 2. upper extremity (arm) humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges 3. pelvic girdle (cingulum inferius) ilium, ischium, pubis 4. lower extremity (leg) femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, phalanges B. APPENDICULAR

13 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme The carpal bones = ossa carpalia  Scapoid = navicular  Lunatum  Triquetrum  Pisiform  Trapezium = multanguli major  Trapezoid = multanguli minor  Capitatum  hamatum

14 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme The tarsal bones = ossa tarsalia  Os Talus  Os Calcaneum  Os Naviculare  Os cuboideum  Os medial cuneiforme (primus]  Os intermediate cuneiforme( secundus)  Os lateral cuneiforme (tertius)

15 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Joint classification  Synarthrosis immovable  Amphiarthrosis slightly moveable  diarthrosis (synovial joints) freely movable

16 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Structure of synovial joints  Joint capsule (ligaments) holds joint together  Cartilage cover ends of bones  Joint cavity filled with synovial fluid  Bursae fluid-filled sacs nearer joints; cushion and protect joints and surrounding tissue

17 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball-and-socket Types of synovial joints Movement at synovial joints flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation, supination, pronation, inversion, eversion.

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31 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Landmark of bones  Processes mastoid process, acromion process, olecranon process, iliac crest, iliac spines, ishical spine and tuberosity, trochanters, malleoli  Foramina foramen magnum, intervertebral foramina, obturator foramina  Fossae and grooves  Fontanels anterior and others in infant skull

32 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme TERM of MORPHOLOGI at BONE/SKELETON  Foramen =hole  Foramina = many hole  Fissura = Fissure  Aditus = Hole Into = To Come To  Exitus = Hole Out Of  Fenestra = Window  Apertura = Hole into  Hiatus = An Opening  Rima = A Cleft  Ostium = A door = An Entrance  Orificium  Porus =poros =pori = a narrow passase

33 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme ROOM / SPACE  Cavum = Cavity  Sinus = Hollow  Recessus = Recess = Hiding Place  Meatus = Passage  Vestibulum = The Entrance Region of Tube  Cellulae = Small Compartment  Saccus = SAC  Atrium = An Entrance Room

34 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme PROTRUSION  Processus = Process  Condylus = knob  Spina = thorn  Tuber = a hump  Tuberculum = Tubercle

35 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Crista = Crest  Linea = Line  Eminentia = Eminence = Hill  Protuberantia = Protuberance  Tuberosity : Rough Tuber  Hamulus = A hook  Trochanter = a great protrusion

36 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme CANAL  Canalis = Canal  Canaliculi = a small canal  Ductus = a canal which be through something  Ductuli = a small duct  Tubus = a pipe shape duct  Tubuli = a small tube

37 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme VALLEY/PLANE  Fossa = A Slope Valley  Fovea = A Steep Valley  Foveola = A small fovea  Facies = Facet = face  Planum = Surface  Sulcus = Groove  Incisura = Notch  Impressio = a hollow because be crushed something

38 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme OTHERS  Caput = Cephale = head  Capitulum = a small head  Angulus = Angle  Arcus = Arch = Curve = Bend  Collum = Cervix = Neck  Spatium = Space  Corpus = Truncus = Body = trunk  Radix = root  Apex = top  Basis = base

39 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Ramus = Branch  Clivus = Steep = A slope  Discus = Quoit = Disc  Stylo = Pencil  Mast = Breast  Ala = Wing  Saeptum = A Barrier = Enclosure  Margo = Border  Cornu = Horn Shaped

40 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Atrium = a small chamber  Cingulum = a girdle  Cornu = horn shape  Malleus = a hammer  Olecranon = the point of the elbow  Acromion = the point of the shoulder  Diastema = an interval; distance

41 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Direction  Superior = above  Supra = over  Inferior = below  Infra = under  Anterior = before = to front  Posterior = after = to back  Lateral = to side  Medial = to middle  Cranial = to head  Caudal = to tail

42 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Proximal = base =upper course  Distal = tip =lower course  Profundal = to deeper  Superficial = to outer (to surface)  Major = bigger = greater  Minor = lesser  Dorsal = to back  Ventral = to front  Transversal = transverse  Longitudinal = long

43 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme The samples of term in the part of bone  Foramen occipitale magnum  Processus styloideus radii  Tuber ischiadicum  Canalis mandibularis  Crista tuberculi majoris humeri  Sulcus nervi ulnalis  Incisura scapulae  Caput femoris  Collum costae  Protuberantia occipitalis externa  Spina iliaca anterior superior

44 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  Processus mastoideus  Impressio trigemini  Fossa supra spinosus scapulae  Foramen infra orbitale  Porus acusticus externus  Crista iliaca externa  Linea intertrochanterica  Apertura canaliculi tympanici superior  Angulus sterni  Fovea petrosa

45 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme NAMES OF JOINT  Articulatio Temporo Mandibularis  Articulatio Atlanto Occipitalis  Articulatio Intervertebralis  Articulatio Sterno Clavicularis  Articulatio Acromio Clavicularis  Articulatio Humeri  Articulatio Cubiti  Articulatio Radio Carpae  Articulatio Coxae  Articulatio Genu  Articulatio Talo Cruralis

46 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme NAMES OF LIGAMENTUM  BASED ON  ATTACHED: LIG. CORACO ACROMIALE  POSITION : LIG. COLATERALE MEDIALE  SHAPE : LIG. ANNULARE  LIE : LIG. SUPRA SPINALE  DIRECTION : LIG. TRANSVERSUM CARPI

47 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme ARTHROSES ARTICULATIONES JUNCTURAE DIARTHOSES (SYNOVIAL JOINTS) SYNARTHROSES ARTICULATIONES FIBROSAE ARTICULATIONES CARTILAGINEAE SYNOSTOSES AMPHIARTHOSES UNIAXIAL BIAXIAL MULTIAXIAL (TRI/POLY) - SUTURES - SYNDESMOSE - GOMPHOSES SYNCHONOROSES SYMPHYSES PLANE GINGLYMUS/HINGE BICONDYLAR TROCOID/PIVOT ELLIPSOID SELLAR/SADOLEL SPHEROID ENARTHOSIS = BALL & SOCKET

48 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Musculus

49 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Penamaan (terminologi) otot didasarkan pada karakteristik tertentu misalnya :  Bentuk (quadratus femoris),  Fungsi (levator scapulae),  Posisi (latisimus dorsi),  perlekatan (coracobrachialis),  Panjang dan pendeknya (peroneus longus and peroneus brevis),  Besar dan kecilnya (gluteus maximus), and  Jumlah origo (biceps brachii) dan jumlah perut (digastricus venter anterior)

50 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Bagian ujung otot  They are properly called voluntary, skeletal, or striated muscles.  Setiap otot(musculus) mempunyai dua ujung, keduanya mereka melekat pada bagian tulang atau jaringan yang satu ujung disebut origo dan yang lain disebut insertio.  Origo adalah berposisi tetap dan ujung proximal atau punctum fixum,  Insertio berposisi bergerak dan bagian ujung atau punctum mobile.

51 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Nama gerak tubuh  Flexi : anteflexi, retroflexi/dorsoflexi  Extensi  Abduksi  Adduksi  Rotasi: pronasi- supinasi; endorotasi –exorotasi, inversi -eversi  Elevasi,  Depressi  Aposisi, reposisi

52 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Bagian-bagian otot  Bagian origo otot dinamakan kepala (cephal) dan di bagian insertio dinamakan ekor (caudal), dan bagian tengah otot dinamakan venter.  Tendo dan aponeurosis adalah bagian otot yang tidak mengandung serabut otot dan sebagian besar mengandung jaringan colagen.  Mereka merupakan perpanjangan otot untuk melekat pada tulang dan tidak mengandung serabut kontraktil

53 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme Behavioral Objective  Name the three different types of bone cells and describe the function of each.  Differentiate between compact bone and spongy bone with respect structure and location.  Describe the structure of a long bone  Explain how a long bone grows  Differentiate between red and yellow marrow with respect to function and location. \

54 FACULTY OF MEDICINE International Programme  List the bones in the axial skeleton  List the bones in the appendicular skeleton  Define the three types of joints based on type of movement  Describe the structure of a synovial joint and give six examples of synovial joints  Define six types of movement that occur at synovial joints.


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