Presentation on theme: "Copyright FJ 2011 Essential Student Academic Writing Skills Undergrad.Stage 1 BSc.Programmes 20 th Oct. 2011, 3pm. BOO5 Dr. Felicity Johnson (in partnership."— Presentation transcript:
copyright FJ 2011 Essential Student Academic Writing Skills Undergrad.Stage 1 BSc.Programmes 20 th Oct. 2011, 3pm. BOO5 Dr. Felicity Johnson (in partnership with Dr. Barbara Coughlan - Coordinator Psychology & IP Skills Module) 1
copyright FJ Why academic writing skills? Today’s environment of rapidly-changing health care & information technology - nurses need information literacy skills to use & communicate information effectively. As a professional-crucial to write well Writing clearly & persuasively a valuable skill-can be developed - does not require unique talent/outstanding ability. - everyone has basic skills necessary to write well Writing skills = powerful tool in the academic world Academic literacy = Academic literacy = knowing how to find, evaluate & process information. For a nursing student = being able to locate clinical texts, examine their relevancy & use this information appropriately in context of evidence-based practice (EBP)
Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956) copyright FJ A pyramid of skills - academic writing
copyright FJ The writing process Who? Who for? What? What for? When? needs to be submitted? Why? For what reason? Where? Where submitted? 5 steps in writing process: Prewriting Drafting Revising Editing Presenting Academic writing is formal & with rules to follow. Writing a paper not only a matter of gathering & presenting Information – also an exercise in comprehension and critical analysis.
copyright FJ rd level writing Descriptive: Portrayal of main features. Analytical :Stating a point, providing evidence, contrasting with other evidence, drawing logical conclusions. Anecdotal Anecdotal : Personal experience of self/others. Empirical/evidence-based Empirical/evidence-based: Scientifically verified & published. Not complex English & long words! Clear, simple writing best! Student’s ‘voice’ heard throughout. Not a narrative - an argument. Must be logical & clear. Formal, logical, cautious & unemotional language. No slang, jargon, personal anecdotes, exclamation marks & contractions (e.g. can not rather than can’t).
3 rd level writing Clear English, correct spelling, grammar & punctuation. Not colloquial (conversational ): e.g. ‘When the obs were done, we did lots of walking with him & he was thrilled ’. Language must be professional: e.g. ‘After performing routine observations for blood pressure and pulse, (to check the patient was not tachycardic/ hypotensive), we helped the patient to mobilise. He walked a significant distance and was pleased with his achievement ’. Use literature to support ideas. Focus on few key issues - explored in-depth within word limit. Once literature presented, student puts in own interpretation. If omitting words from quotation, use three spaced dots... If pointing out error in quotation, follow error with (sic). Watch apostrophes!-e.g. the nurse’s role, nurses’ responsibilities Similar sounding but different meaning-e.g. discreet/discrete; there/ their. copyright FJ
Critiquing/being critical As an academic writer, you are expected to be critical of the sources/references that you use. This means questioning what you read & not necessarily agreeing with it, just because it has been published. Requires you to identify problems with a writer's arguments /methods or perhaps to refer to other people's criticisms. Constructive criticism suggests ways in which a piece of research/writing could be improved. Important to integrate relevant information within essay; you need to weave it into your answer and provide evidence to support your argument. copyright FJ
8 ‘Rules’ of academic writing Avoid 1 st person (I, me, my & mine): 3 rd person better (check with module leader) – this writer believes that… ‘this student’s experience has been’… the research suggests… ‘Times New Roman’ script Size 12 font. Double-spaced between lines One side of page only & number pages; wide margins top, bottom, right & left Word Count: all words from beginning of introduction to end of conclusion. Title Page, References List & Appendices not included in word count. Penalties for under/exceeding word limit.
Use dictionary/thesaurus/computer ‘grammar & spell check ’ (note: American spelling) Be cautious with your ‘spellchecker ’! I have a spelling checker, it came with my PC, it plainly marks four my revue, mistakes I cannot sea, I've run this poem threw it, I'm sure your pleased to no, its letter perfect in it's weigh, my checker tolled me so! copyright FJ
10 Assignment Submission Assignments must be submitted by stated date, unless agreed otherwise with Module Co-ordinator. A late submission form must be completed by student. Sliding scale of penalties for late submission may be applied. If a student is ill, a medical certificate must be provided. Work submitted late without a negotiated reason may not receive a grade higher than D- & may not be processed for next Examination Board. Proof reading is essential before submitting your assignment. A fresh eye is good – friend/relative. Give yourself enough time - Start early! our student support servicesIf you are aware of difficulties in academic writing because of dyslexia/other slight problem, please approach our student support services -on website
Brevity is the soul of wit (and academic writing!) Verbose Verbose In spite of the fact that... In the event that... With the possible exception of... Due to the fact that... For the purpose of... At the present moment... Are of the same opinion... At the present moment... Less frequently occurring... Concise Concise Although If Except Because For Now Agree Now Rare copyright FJ
The Literature Identify appropriate literature. Identify appropriate literature.: Demonstrates wide reading & variety of references to support points you are making. Every assignment must be supported by relevant literature (i.e.be evidence-based ). Preferably within past decade (10 yrs.) unless a seminal work 100s of nursing journals available & on-line. CINAHL is the main ‘nursing’ database. Also Medline, OVID etc. Other sources of literature: Abstracts; books; case reports; theses. A peer-reviewed journal article=undergoes peer review/ referee process Peer reviewed = academic rigour. when experts examine it for quality. Peer reviewed = academic rigour. Examples of scholarly/peer reviewed journals: Journal of Advanced Nursing :Journal of Nursing Scholarship. Examples of non-peer reviewed sources: Nursing Times :Nursing Standard: World of Irish Nursing Many websites copyright FJ
copyright FJ Referencing Harvard system of referencing only In the text (essay itself): Name & date in the text (Jones, 2009) & then listed in the References List at the back of the assignment. Two writers – Holloway & Jones, (2005) believe that… Three or more writers - give the surname of the first author followed by et al. e.g. Campbell et al. (2001) stated that... The Leas Cross Report (DoHC,2009) found that the quality of patient care deteriorated as the level of staffing numbers fell. Moreover, this Report also found that serious disquiet had been expressed by various agencies in the preceding four years.
Referencing Why do I need to use evidence/references? Academic Reasons : To show wide variety & relevance of sources used & that you considered topic comprehensively. To support ideas and arguments. To avoid plagiarising Practical Reasons: To help reader to trace sources you have used. To help you retrace sources you used in the past. The ways in which you use sources will help to support your essay statement, argument & flow of essay. copyright FJ
Evidence/referencing You need to use evidence whenever: - you refer to a theory; - you make a claim; - you mention a particular study or researcher; - you quote or paraphrase. Examples: Any time a theory is mentioned;... several studies have suggested that the model of the staff relationship to the client is one of ‘befriending’ (Benner, 1984; Bone, 2002). Anytime a claim is being made;... the erosion of interpersonal barriers entails a closer and more reciprocal relationship (Aldridge, 1994 ). Any time a study or researcher is mentioned; Benner (1984) suggests that Nurses should fully understand the emotional relationships they maintain with clients. copyright FJ
The References List if you mention it in the text – you must reference it! At the end/last page of your essay/assignment. References are in alphabetical order. Must include the books, journals, chapters and websites that you refer to in your writing. Only exception is ‘common knowledge’ Common knowledge is information that majority of people already know – e.g. the world is round. copyright FJ
copyright FJ Quotations Froman, (2008) believes that nursing is a theory- driven, scientifically based profession (paraphrasing/your own words) Page number & double quotation marks when directly quoting -e.g. Wynd, (2003:251) stated that “today’s profession of nursing is evolving as a valuable public service” (verbatim/word-for-word). Quotations of 2/more lines must be indented & single-spaced : The more skilled the nurse becomes in perceiving and empathising with the lives of others, the more knowledge or understanding will be gained of alternative modes of perceived reality. (Carper, 1992: 219 ). Direct quotes should be used sparingly, as they involve little mental processing; e.g. According to Johnson, (1990) nursing is: an external regulatory force that acts to preserve the organisation and integration of the patient’s behaviour at the highest possible level... (Johnson 1990:29) Better approach (paraphrasing) involves more interpretation e.g. Johnson (1990) suggests that…
copyright FJ Primary & Secondary Sources Where possible, use original/primary sources – e.g. Benner (1984)... When this is not possible & you are using a secondary source, you should use the term ‘cited by’ in text, followed by reference e.g. Colaizzi, (1978), cited by Valle & King, (2002), believed that the phenomenological approach was particularly suited to nursing research because of its focus on the individual and his/her beliefs and perceptions.
Referencing in text Nurse education in Ireland has undergone great change in a Relatively short period of time. It moved from a three-year hospital-based apprenticeship model of training in 1995, to a three year hospital based Diploma in 1998 and subsequently, to a four year full time university degree in 2002 (Cleary-Holdforth 2007). The Irish Nursing Board (An Bord Altranais), requires nurse education programmes to yield graduates who “demonstrate the development of skills of analysis, critical thinking, problem solving and reflective practice”(An Bord Altranais p. 9). copyright FJ
copyright FJ literature & referencing Provide referenced examples from the literature first before making your own comments/reflections. e.g.– poor: ‘Communication in nursing is the most important thing of all. When this student approaches the patients on the ward, she makes sure that she establishes eye contact first and holds their hand to show that she cares about them. Non-verbal communication is just as important as verbal communication’. Better: Many authors such as Kemp & Smith (2004), agree that communication is the most important therapeutic skill in nursing. Moreover, Brown (2005) emphasizes that nurses must appreciate that non-verbal Communication is an essential pre-requisite to establishing a trusting nurse-patient relationship before verbal communication commences. In this student’s own experience on her recent clinical placement, she found that patients responded positively to her if she established eye contact first and also reached out to touch their arm or hold their hand’.
copyright FJ Referencing a journal article in References List Alphabetical order – by author’s surname Alphabetical order – by author’s surname : Author(s) surname, followed by initials. Year of publication, in brackets. Title of the article. Title of the journal, in capitals and in italics. Volume & edition series number. Number of the first and last pages of the article. Ensign J. (2006) Perspectives and experiences of homeless young people. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 54,(6), Ryan D. & Maguire J. (2006) Aggression and violence – a problem in Irish Accident and Emergency Departments? Journal of Nursing Management, 14,(2), Thompson C., Spilsbury K., Dowding D., Pattenden J. & Brownlow R. (2008) Do heart failure specialist nurses think differently when faced with ‘hard’ or ‘easy’ decisions?: a judgement analysis. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17,2174–2184
copyright FJ Referencing a book in the References List Author(s)’ surname, followed by initials. Year of publication in brackets. Full title of the book, capitalised, in italics. Edition of work, if more than one edition. Town/city of publication. Name of publisher. Burns, T. and Sinfield, S. (2008) Essential Study Skills: The Complete Guide to Success at University. London: Sage.
copyright FJ Plagiarism ‘ Literary theft’ & totally unacceptable ; the use of ideas, quotations, pieces of text, pictures, tables, graphs/other work without referring to original writer. Contravenes UCD’s examination regulations & regarded as very serious offence, with severe consequences Copyright… Academic Integrity & intellectual property - respec t for intellectual community in which you are participating as a student & the standards governing it; means that you are accountable for the honesty of the work that you submit Whether intentional or not, Whether intentional or not, failing to give credit referencing) for words, ideas or concepts that y ou get from any source is plagiarism.
copyright FJ Plagiarism As a student, it is your responsibility to know & understand UCD’s policies on academic fraud. Every piece of course work submitted requires a signed form to confirm that the work is your own. Course work goes through a plagiarism detection software programme –SafeAssign The rules apply whether the offence is intentional/not. Plagiarism comes in many forms: Using an author’s words/ideas without proper reference Failing to put quotation marks around words taken from a source. Falsifying/inventing information or data ‘Cutting and pasting’ from the internet.
To avoid plagiarism… Cite your sources in text & in References List. Use quotation marks ”….”, surname, date & page numbers on exact words. Use citations for ALL information in your work. Do not turn in another’s work as your own or copy from another person’s work.
Mind mapping Mind mapping When discussing a concept, e.g. ‘globalisation’ - the five fingered approach: What is globalisation? Where did it originate? When was the word first coined? Why was the word coined? Who coined the first word? 27 copyright FJ 2011
copyright FJ Words used in assignments Outline = brief description. Usually there are follow up parts to this question. Identify = Establish clearly nature of; list, with examples. Explain = Make plain, interpret, account for, give reasons for. Discuss = examine by argument; give reasons for & against. Analyse = distinguish/examine closely the elements of this issue. Criticise = give judgement about merit of theories/opinions & back up judgement by discussion of evidence/reasoning involved. Critically evaluate = thoughtful, thorough,balanced appraisal, assessing both strengths & limitations. Assess = estimate value & importance of issue. Define = set down precise meaning of this issue. Examine = unravel events that led to a particular set of circumstances or validity of the reasoning that underlies a particular point of view. Stress relative importance of different arguments & relevance to issue. Distinguish = need to show you understand differences between two concepts. Similarities & differences need to be discussed.
copyright FJ Suggested approach
copyright FJ Assignments An Assignment Form must be completed & signed (from School Office, 1st Floor ). Students must keep a copy of all their work. Must have a title page & be stapled. Top right corner: Student’ name, Course title. Top left corner: Name of Module Leader Centre: Title of assignment, date due, date submitted. Bottom left-hand corner: Word limit for assignment, Actual word count
copyright FJ Module Leader: Ms. F. Johnson Student: Molly Lynch Module: Nursing 111 Student no BSc. Stage I (General) Assignment Title: Date for submission: Date submitted: Word limit: 1,000 Actual word count: 1,004
copyright FJ Essay Identify exactly what its about-check with module coordinator if in doubt. Divide task into sub-tasks- e.g. library search. Brainstorm ideas & make initial plan for essay. Search for & select appropriate information; read & make notes. Write first draft, include introduction, middle & conclusion. Sentences short, one idea per sentence: One main theme per paragraph. Section headings/subheadings are a good idea. Read & reread essay; alter parts you are not happy with; check spelling & grammar; check References List. Have Referencing Guidelines on hand for reference Write final version, proof read. Submit on time.
copyright FJ Structure of an essay Introduction Main text/body. Conclusion References Bibliography (optional) - list of books,journals & websites read as background information, not actually mentioned in text. Appendix/Appendices (optional ) Title page Title page Introduction Main body References Conclusion Bibliography Appendix
copyright FJ Good introduction Introduction immediately gives reader impression of academic ability. A good introduction will do 3 things: Introduce topic of essay; Present thesis/essay statement; Provide signposts for reader. So, an introduction should give a brief overview of topic& say what your argument is and how you are going to argue it. Your aim is stated in first sentence & clearly identify what you are trying to achieve in your essay: e.g.’ …the overall aim of this essay is to discuss the implications of using Orem’s Model (Orem 1993) to deliver nursing care to a patient who was admitted following a stroke. Then need to clearly state how you intend to achieve this aim: e.g. ’This will be achieved by using Orem’s Model as a framework to identify the biopsychosocial needs of an eighty year old patient recovering from a left- sided hemiplegia’. You then identify the key issues that you intend to address within your essay: e.g. ’ The key issues that will be explored are …
copyright FJ Good main body Present your argument, references etc. Identify the key issues that you will be discussing in essay. Provide definitions for key terms that you introduce, (e.g. the nursing process, accountability etc.) Focus immediately on exact requirements of essay. No waffle! Divide into paragraphs, looking at specific aspects of problem (issue). -Reader should be able to understand relevance of each paragraph & how they relate to each other. - Avoid paragraphs that are too short/long – min. of 4 sentences per paragraph. Key knowledge, understanding & insight that are essential in ensuring safe & best practice safe & best practice. Nursing assignments focused on these key issues because ultimately, patients’ lives may be at risk if you lack this fundamental knowledge.
copyright FJ Main body-content Must follow assessment guidelines - certain key characteristics, e.g. if the essay requires you to write on professional, legal & ethical issues and you choose only to concentrate on professional & ethical, then you miss key content and & waste marks. application/integration.An essential requirement is to apply theory to practice = application/integration. - Need to demonstrate that not only do you understand the theory, but you also understand the implications/difficulties of implementing this in practice (e.g. knowing about the dangers of smoking is different to actually empowering a patient to give up smoking for the good of his/her health).
copyright FJ Good conclusion No bombshells/unexpected material! Conclusions are important as they are the last impression you leave your reader with. A good conclusion will recall the thesis statement & issues mentioned in introduction; draw together the main points of the essay; make any final comments. A summary of your main results & what you believe are the most important points. Explain the significance of your conclusions & provide suggestions for future research. Leave the reader with a sense that the purpose as set out in the introduction, has been achieved. e.g. ‘ In conclusion, this essay examined the needs of a patient with congestive cardiac failure and discussed the Activities of Daily Living Model. The patient had many needs and the model identified and addressed these needs. This essay highlighted the importance of using an appropriate nursing model to ensure that the holistic needs of patients are addressed, resulting in optimum nursing care and a good experience for both the patient and the nurse.
copyright FJ Assessment Criteria Analysis: Engagement with question. Focus on relevant points. Identification of strengths & weaknesses, different viewpoints & research findings. Threads drawn together in conclusion. Content: Enough facts to support analysis. Use of relevant material. Awareness of different schools-of-thought. Use of relevant & up-to-date literature. Avoidance of broad, sweeping statements. Structure. Introduction which shows why topic is important & the key points to be discussed. Sections introduced. Logical sequencing of points. Relevant links made between points. Use of signposts. Drawing threads together in conclusion. Referencing: Use of suitable evidence to substantiate ideas & cited clearly. Clear indication of sources. Comprehensive reference list. Literary Style: Objective & accurate writing style. Written in own words (except when directly quoting). Grammatical sentences, consistency of tenses, correct spelling, punctuation, use of paragraphs etc. Avoidance of clichés, abbreviations, slang & jargon.
copyright FJ Grade Stage 1 and Stage 2 Knowledge Understanding & Application Stage 3 and Stage 4 Analysis Synthesis & EvaluationA+AA – – – Excellent A comprehensive, highly-structured, focused and concise response to the assessment task. A deep & systematic engagement with assessment task, with a consistently impressive demonstration of a comprehensive mastery of subject matter. B+BB – – – Very Good A thorough and well-organised response to assessment task. A substantial engagement with assessment task. C+CC – – – Good An adequate and competent response to the assessment task. An intellectually competent & factually-sound answer. D+D – – Satisfactory An acceptable response to the assessment task. Acceptable level of intellectual engagement with assessment task D – Acceptable The minimum acceptable standard of response to the assessment task. Minimum acceptable level of intellectual engagement with assessment task. E+EE – – – Marginal A response to the assessment task which fails to meet the minimum acceptable standards. A factually sound answer with a partially successful attempt. F+FF – – – Unacceptable A response to the assessment task that is unacceptable. An unacceptable level of intellectual engagement with assessment task. G+GG – – – Wholly unacceptableNo intellectual engagement with assessment task. NG – No Grade No work submitted by student, or student absent from assessment/work submitted did not merit a grade.
copyright FJ Time management... If you run into trouble… helping hand If you run into trouble… helping hand Your Module Coordinator Your Personal Tutor Finally...don’t leave it to last minute – technology will often leave you down!
copyright FJ References List An Bord Altranais (2005) Requirements and Standards for Nurse Registration Education Programmes, 3rd edn, Dublin: An Bord Altranais. Campbell, T., Draper, S., Reid J. & Robinson L. (2001) The management of constipation in people with advanced cancer. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 79, (3), Benner, P. (1984). From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. California: Addison-Wesley. Cleary-Holdforth, J. (2007) Student non-attendance in higher education A phenomenon of student apathy or poor pedagogy?. LEVEL 3 - A DIT Online Publication holdforth/cleary_holdforth.pdf, 5 Department of Health and Children (DoHC) (2009) The Commission of Investigation (Leas Cross Nursing Home) Final Report. Dublin: Government Publications. Holloway S. & Jones V. (2005) The importance of skin care and assessment. British Journal of Nursing, 14, (22), National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2006) About Clinical Guidelines. Available at: 18 th Nov. 2009). Valle, R. and King, M.(eds). (2002) Existential Phenomenological Alternatives for Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press World Health Organization (WHO) (2008) The World Health Report 2008-Primary Health Care (now more than ever). Geneva: WHO Publications.