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Adjective Clauses The first American Thanksgiving feast, which took place in 1621, lasted three days. An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies.

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Presentation on theme: "Adjective Clauses The first American Thanksgiving feast, which took place in 1621, lasted three days. An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adjective Clauses The first American Thanksgiving feast, which took place in 1621, lasted three days. An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. The dependent clause “which took place in 1621” is a relative clause that modifies the noun phrase “the first American Thanksgiving feast”. This noun phrase is the antecedent of the relative clause.

2 Sentences with adjective clauses can be seen as a combination of two sentences. Combine the sentences, using all possible forms. Use (b) as an adjective clause: 1. (a)Louis knows the woman. (b) the woman is meeting us at the airport. 2. (a)The bench was wet. (b) I sat on it. 3. (a) The chair is an antique. (b) Sally inherited it from her grandmother.

3 Adjective Clauses 4.(a) I miss seeing the old woman. (b) She used to sell flowers on that street corner. 5.(a) The architect is brilliant. (b) Mario works with him. 6.(a) Mary tutors students. (b) They need extra help in geometry. 7.(a) I took a picture of the rainbow (b) It appeared in the sky after the shower.

4 Adjective Clauses: Relative pronouns and adverbs An adjective clause uses pronouns to connect the dependent clause to the independent clause. These adjective clause pronouns are also called relative pronouns: who that whose whom which The relative adverbs when and where are also used. Where is used to identify a place: “The building where he lives is very old” When is used to identify an expression of time: “I’ll never forget the day when I met you”

5 Position of relative clauses The book is mine that is on the table. He left the gift in his friend’s car that he had just bought. The Relative Clause is placed after its antecedent, as close as possible, to avoid confusion.

6 Verb agreement in relative clauses A person who works part - time usually receives no benefits.” People who work part - time usually receive no benefits.” The verb in a relative clause should agree in number with its antecedent.

7 Restrictive and Non-restrictive Relative Clauses The professor who teaches my biology class won a Nobel Prize two years ago. Professor Jones, who teaches my biology class, won a Nobel Prize two years ago. Relative clauses are either restrictive (necessary, defining, or essential) or non-restrictive. A restrictive clause is necessary because it identifies its antecedent, it distinguishes one person or thing from another. Do not use commas with restrictive clauses.

8 Professor Jones, who teaches my biology class, won a Nobel Prize two years ago. An adjective clause that is not used to identify someone or something but simply adds extra information is called nonrestrictive (nondefining, nonessential). Use commas with nonrestrictive clauses. Restrictive and Non- restrictive Relative Clauses

9 Compare the meaning: We took some children on a picnic. The children, who wanted to play soccer, ran to an open field as soon as we arrived at the park. We took some children on a picnic. The children who wanted to play soccer ran to an open field as soon as we arrived at the park.

10 Restrictive and Non- restrictive Relative Clauses The teacher thanked the students, who had given her some flowers. The teacher thanked the students who had given her some flowers. He reached in the basket and threw away the apples that were rotten. He reached in the basket and threw away the apples, which were rotten.

11 Relative pronouns used as subjects Relative pronouns used as objects Relative pronouns used as the object of a preposition Possessive relative clauses (using whose) Using where and when in relative clauses Reducing adjective clauses to adjective phrases

12 Relative pronouns used as subjects People who use microwave ovens save time and energy. The book which is on the table is mine. I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen. I told you about the woman that lives next door. Like all clauses, Relative Clauses contain subjects and verbs. The relative pronouns who, that, and which are used as subjects.

13 Relative pronouns used as objects I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference. The Professor that you should see is the Head of the English Department. The movie which we saw last night was not very good. The Relative pronouns whom, that and which are used as objects in relative clauses.

14 Relative pronouns used as the object of a preposition No one had read the book from which he quoted. No one had read the book which he quoted from No one had read the book that he quoted from. No one had read the book he quoted from. These Relative Clauses are formed in two ways: the formal way and the informal way. In the formal pattern, the preposition comes before the relative pronoun. In the informal pattern, the preposition comes at the end of the clause

15 Possessive relative clauses (using whose) I know the man whose bicycle was stolen yesterday. The citizens whose property the government had confiscated could do nothing. Roald Dahl, whose stories we have been reading in our English class, is one of England’s most famous writers. In these clauses, which show possession, the relative pronoun whose replaces a possessive word such as Mary’s, his, our, their, the company’s, etc. Possessive Relative Clauses can follow the subject or the object pattern, and they may be restrictive or non- restrictive.

16 Using where and when in relative clauses Ramadan is the month when devout Muslims fast. The Saudi Arabian city of Mecca, where Mohammed was born, is the holiest city in Islam. Relative clauses may also be introduced by the relative adverbs when and where.(time or place) These relative clauses may be restrictive or nonrestrictive.

17 Using where and when in relative clauses Combine the two sentences in each pair, changing the second sentence into an adverbial relative clause. Add commas if necessary. 1. Germany had been divided into two countries since It was defeated in World War II in was the year. The Berlin Wall was torn down in that year. 3. In 1990, Germany became one country again. East and West Germany were reunited in There was rejoicing in places. Germans looked forward to reunification with their fellow citizens in these places.

18 Relative clauses in context: “What type are you?” Suppose you attend a party where there are several people you know well. The hosts have a new party game. They ask everyone to take five minutes and compare each person to a flower. Which flower would you choose for each person? For that matter, which flower would you choose for yourself? Are you the kind of person who resembles a sunflower, open to the world most of the time? Or are you more like a four o’clock, someone who only opens up at special moments?

19 Relative clauses in context: “What type are you?” This may sound like just a fun activity, something which is suitable only for get-togethers or for amusing yourself. But there is actually a science of identifying personality types. Personality identification grew out of the work of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and the studies Katharine Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs. After considerable study of Jung’s work, Briggs and her daughter developed a system in which they formulated four personality dimensions and sixteen different personality types. This test, which has been refined many times over the decades, has been validated by the millions of people who have taken it.


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