2Verbs Definition: A verb expresses action or a state of being (links). Examples: runs, jumps, sings, threw, mailed, is, was
3Action VerbsAction verbs express the action of the subject. They are generally easy to identify. Simply look for a word that is doing something.Examples:The dog ran.Ran expresses the action of the dog.The robber took the money.Took expresses the action of the robber.
4Linking VerbsState of being verbs are also called linking verbs, and will be called linking verbs from this point forward. Linking verbs express the subject’s state of being by linking the subject to a noun or adjective.Examples:The cook is skinny.Is links cook and skinny. Skinny describes cook.Mrs. Gonzalez will be a police officer.Be links Mrs. Gonzalez and police officer. Police officer renames Mrs. Gonzalez. In this case will is a helping verb, which will be dealt with later.
5Linking Verbs cont. The car smelled weird. Smelled links car and weird. This is a case where the linking verb is not one of the main eight. It is clear that the car is not actually doing the smelling, so it must be a linking verb. Weird describes the car.Helpful Hint!The 8 main state of being verbs or linking verbs: is, am, are, was, were, be, being, and, been.
6Practice Write two sentences with action verbs. Write two sentences with linking verbs.
7Warm Up 1. George Washington Carver was a great agricultural chemist. Copy down each sentence. Write (AV) above each action verb and (LV) above each linking verb.1. George Washington Carver was a great agricultural chemist.2. He made discoveries that improved the agriculture of the South.3. As a boy, he often rambled about the countryside, where he would study the ways of plants and animals.4. Carver fought against poverty and prejudice and finally attained his education.5. He worked his way through high school and college.
8Helping VerbsHelping Verbs help express the tense (past, present, future etc), ask questions, make emphasis, express negativity, or show possibility, probability, and necessity. There can be up to three helping verbs helping the main verb. Helping verbs can be used with both types of action verbs and with linking verbs.am, are, is, was, were, be, being, beendo, does, didshall, willmay, must, mighthave, has, hadcan, could, would, shouldCould be linking verbs!
9Helping Verbs cont. The dog will run. Examples:The dog will run.Will helps run express the action of the dog.The robber should have taken the money.Should have helps taken express the action of the robber.Mrs. Gonzalez will be a police officer.Will helps be express the state of being of Mrs. Gonzalez. This sentence is in the future tense. If it was in the present tense it would be “Mrs. Gonzalez is a police officer”. There is no helping verb to help is in this sentence.The car may smell weird.May helps smell express the state of being of the car.
10Helpful Hint Helpful Hint Helping verb always appear before the main verb. Sometimes they happen at the beginning of the sentence (questions), before an adverb (not) or right before the verb.
11Helping or Linking?Am, are, is, was, were, be, being, and been can be either linking verbs or helping verbs. In order to decide whether the verb is acting as a linking verb or a helping verb, look for other verbs in the sentence. If there is another verb in the sentence, and the first verb is helping the second verb, then it is a helping verb.
12Helping or Linking? cont. Examples:The car was swerving.The other verb in the sentence is swerving. Was helps swerving by changing the tense to the past. Because there is another verb and the first verb helps the second one by changes the tense, the first verb is a helping verb.The car was old.There are no other verbs in the sentence. Was links car and old through description. Was is a linking verb.The car is being stupid.There are two verbs in this sentence. Is helps being by changing the tense to present, so is is the helping verb. Being links car and stupid through description, so being is a linking verb.
13Practice The child was playing with matches. Write LV for linking verbs and HV for helping verbs.The child was playing with matches.I am scared for the child.The babysitters were not paying attention.The danger of matches can be overlooked.The child was not being destructive
14Warm UpLabel each action verb (AV), each linking verb (LV) and each helping verb (HV).The result was a small fire.The parents were alarmed.The daycare center is being fined.A lesson should be learned.Fire is dangerous.
15Transitive and Intransitive Verbs There are two main types of action verbs:Transitive VerbsIntransitive Verbs
16Transitive Verbs1. Transitive Verbs express action and are followed be an object. Transitive verbs answer the question “What?” or “Whom?” after the subject and verb.Examples:The robber took the money.Took expresses the action of the robber. This sentence must have money otherwise it would not be complete. “The robber took what?” “The money.” The verb is transitive.The instructor taught the students.Taught expresses the action of the instructor. English adds more detail to the sentence. This is an example of where the object is not needed, but if an object is there, the verb becomes transitive. “The instructor taught whom?” “The students.” The verb is transitive.
17Intransitive Verbs2. Intransitive Verbs express action and are not followed by an object. They only need a subject in order to be a complete sentence. If there is no answer to “What?” or “Whom?” after a verb, then it is intransitive.Examples: The dog ran.Ran expresses the action of the dog. This sentence is complete. There is no answer to “The dog ran what?” or “The dog ran whom?” The verb is intransitive
18Intransitive Verbs cont. The instructor taught.Taught expresses the action of the instructor. This sentence is complete; however, more could be added to the sentence. There is no answer to “The instructor taught what?” or “The instructor taught whom?” the verb is intransitiveThe children played in the pool.Played expresses the action of the children. Even though in the pool describes where the children played, there is no answer to “The children played what?” or “The children played whom?”. The verb is intransitive.
19Hints and Warnings Helpful Hint Ask the question “What?” or “Whom?” after the subject and the verb to decide if it is transitive or intransitive. If there is no answer it is intransitive. If there is an answer then it is transitive.Warning!Many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive depending on what sentence they are used in. The best way to find the difference is to use the “What?” or “Whom?” test. Do not be tricked by answers to “How?” or “Where?”.
20Practice Label transitive verbs (TV) and intransitive verbs (IV). The students worked on the computers.The child spoke French.The dog barked loud.The mouse squeaked.The building toppled over.
21Warm Up Label transitive verbs (TV) and intransitive verbs (IV). Mr. Lee drove the bus.You aced the test.The player hit the ball over the fence.The students jumped with joy.The band played in the halls.
22SubjectDefinition: The subject of a sentence is a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase that is doing or is being something.Examples: The dog ran.Dog is doing the action ran.The robber took the money.Robber is doing the action took.The cook is skinny.Cook is being described by skinny.Mrs. Gonzalez will be a police officer.Mrs. Gonzalez is being renamed as a police officer.
23Finding the SubjectIn order to find the subject of the sentence, locate the verb using the methods described in the previous section. Then ask the question, “Who?” or “What?” before the verb.Examples:The dog ran.Ran is the verb because it expresses action. “Who or what ran?” “Dog.” Dog is the subject.
24Finding the Subject cont. The cook is skinny.Is is the verb because it links cook and skinny. “Who or what is skinny?” “Cook.” Cook is the subject.After the long drive home, Jeremy was tired.Was is the verb because it links Jeremy and tired. “Who or what was tired?” “Jeremy.” Jeremy is the subject.The house, in the middle of the forest by the river, scared people away.Scared is the verb because it expresses action. “Who or what scared?” “House.” The subject is house.
25Simple Steps1. Find the verb.2. Ask “Who” or “What” before the verb.
26Practice Write three sentences. Write S above the subject, IV or TV above the action verbs, LV above linking verbs and HV above helping verbs.
27Warm Up The students have worked on the computers. Find the verb in the sentences below. Label the action verbs as IV or TV, linking verbs as LV and helping verbs as HV.Then ask “who” or “what” before the verb to find the subject. Label the subject S.The students have worked on the computers.The child spoke French.The dog is being loud.The mouse was loud.It toppled over.
28Compound SubjectsCompound Subjects happen in a sentence when there is more than one subject that is doing or being the same thing.Example:The boy and the dog ran through the field.Ran is the verb because it expresses action. “Who or what ran?” “Boy and dog.” Boy and dog is the compound subject.The house by the river and the farm across the street are old.Are is the verb because it links house and farm to old. “Who or what are old?” “House and farm.” House and farm is the compound subject.
29PracticeWrite three sentences with compound subjects.
30Warm UpLabel the verbs and the subject. If it is a compound subject label it CS.The computer shut downLights faded.The boys and girls ran.The teacher shouted directions.The thunder and lightening stopped.
31Linking Verbs and Complements Linking verbs express the subject’s state of being by linking the subject to a noun or adjective. The noun or adjective that is linked to the subject is the complement. This complement is called a subject complement because it refers back to the subject. There are two categories of subject complements.
32Predicate NounA Predicate Noun (also called Predicate Nominative) is a noun, pronoun or noun phrase that comes after the linking verb and renames the subject. A predicate noun refers to the exact same noun as the subject.Example:You are a student.Are is the linking verb. Student is a noun that refers back to you.
33More Examples The captain was he. The Vatican City is a country. He and captain are referring to the exact same personThe Vatican City is a country.Vatican City and country are referring to the exact same place.
34PracticeWrite three sentences with predicate nouns.
35Warm UpLabel the verbs, the subject (S) and the predicate noun (PN). If there is not a predicate noun, only label the subject and verb.The dog is being loud.The mouse was loud.She will become the president.The Mrs. Jones is a teacher.You are a great student.
36Warm UpLabel the verbs, the subject (S) and the predicate noun (PN). If there is not a predicate noun, only label the subject and verb.The clock is fast.The book under the desk is old.Last year was a busy time.The socks smell awful.The computer in the corner looks new and improved.
37Warm UpLabel the verbs, the subject (S) and the predicate noun (PN). If there is not a predicate noun, only label the subject and verb.The man was a robber.The girl was shy.The house in the forest is an A-frame.It was a very old house.It looked cool.
38Predicate AdjectiveA Predicate Adjective is an adjective that comes after the linking verb and describes the subject.Examples:The mouse was loud.Was is the linking verb. Loud is an adjective that refers back to mouse.The fifth answer will be wrong.Be is the linking verb. Will is the helping verb. Wrong is an adjective that refers back to answer.
39Warm Up Label the verbs, the subject, the predicate noun (PN) and the predicate adjective (PA)I am shy.The mouse is being loud.The outside water faucet was leaky.It would have been rainy outside.The fans were happy
40Warm Up Label the verbs, the subject, the predicate noun (PN) and the predicate adjective (PA).The dog is being loud.The mouse was loud.She will become the president.Mrs. Jones is a teacher.You are a great student.
41Warm Up Label the verbs, the subject, the predicate noun (PN) and the predicate adjective (PA).The clock is fast.The book under the desk is old.Last year was a busy time.The socks smell awful.The computer in the corner looks new and improved.
42Transitive Verbs and Complements Transitive verbs are the only action verbs that have complements. The complements of a transitive verb are called objects because they do not refer to or identify the subject. There are two types of objects.Direct Objects and Indirect Objects
43Direct ObjectsA Direct Object is a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase that tells who or what receives the action of the transitive verb, or what the result is of the transitive verb.The robber took the money.Took is a transitive verb that needs money to complete the sentence. Money does not rename or describe the robber; therefore, it is not a subject complement. Money does tell who or what receives the action of the verb; therefore, money is a direct object.
44Direct Objects cont. The farmer fed the rabbits and the sheep. Fed is a transitive verb that needs rabbits and sheep to complete the sentence. Rabbits and sheep do not rename or describe the farmer; therefore, it is not a subject complement. Rabbits and sheep do tell who or what receives the action of the verb; therefore, rabbits and sheep are direct objects.
45How to Find Direct Objects Ask the question, “What?” or “Whom?” after the subject and transitive verb in order to find a direct object.The robber took the money.“The robber took what?” “The money.” Money is a direct object.The farmer fed the rabbits and the sheep.“The farmer fed what?” “The rabbits and the sheep.” Rabbits and sheep are direct objects.The boss paid the workers.“The boss paid whom?” “The workers.” Workers is the direct object
46Warm Up Label the subject, type of verb, and direct objects. Mr. Lee is driving the bus.You ran.The player hit the ball over the fence.The students are watching the TV.It grows in the shade.
47Warm Up Label the subject, type of verb, and direct objects. The bird built a nest.The teacher was assigning homework.During storms, the children hid downstairs.The firemen cut a hole in the roof.After the rain, a rainbow appeared in the sky.Write a sentence with a direct object.
48Warm Up Valerie Brisco won three gold medals at the 1984 Olympics. In Caddo tales, Coyote plays the role of the trickster.The state gives a test to each new driver.The Parents' Club bought a videotape machine for the school.The druggist sold me some sunblock.
49Indirect ObjectsAn Indirect Object is a noun, a pronoun, or a noun phrase that tells to whom, to what, for whom, or for what the action of the transitive verb is done.The quarterback threw the wide receiver the ball.Wide receiver tells to whom the quarterback threw the ball.The professor taught the class Spanish.Class tells to whom the professor taught Spanish.He baked his wife a cake.Wife tells for whom he baked a cake.
50Warnings and Hints Warning! Helpful Hint Indirect Objects are never in prepositional phrases and they always come before the direct object.Helpful HintA sentence must have a direct object to have an indirect object, but a sentence does not have to have an indirect object to have a direct object.
51How to Find Indirect Objects Ask the question, “To whom?”, “To what?”, “For whom?”, or “For what?” after the subject, transitive verb, and direct object.The quarterback threw the wide receiver the ball.Threw is a transitive verb. “Who threw?” “Quarterback” Quarterback is the subject. “Quarterback threw what?” “Ball.” Ball is the direct object. “The quarterback threw the ball to whom?” “The wide receiver.” Wide receiver is the indirect object.
52More Examples The professor taught the class Spanish. “The professor taught Spanish to whom?” “The class.” Class is the indirect object.He baked his wife a cake.“He baked a cake for whom?” “His wife.” Wife is the indirect object.
53Warning!The questions to find an indirect object include for and to, but if for or to are actually in the sentence then the word is not an indirect object. For and to are prepositions. Indirect objects can never be inside a prepositional phrase.
54Warm Up The dog found itself a warm place in the kitchen. The Parents' Club bought a videotape machine for the school.The druggist sold me some sunblock.A slight blur gives a picture the effect of real action.The Kings are selling Sonia their old car.
55Warm Up We then told Mrs. Rivera our side of the story. Ms. Meyer gave herself the smallest portion of the pie.The little girl carried a bouquet of flowers.This course gives you an overall view.The farmer showed us the best place to plant.
56Warm Up The water ran under the bridge. The water is flowing The water is dark and murky.He answered it and listened.The teacher gave the class a pop quiz.The students were given a pop quiz.It helped measure the students’ knowledge of the subject matter.
57PrepositionsDefinition: A preposition is a word that connects a noun or pronoun to the sentence by showing some type of relationship or location.
58Common prepositions include, but are not limited to: about above across after against around at before behind below beneath beside besidesbetweenbeyond by down during except for from in inside into like near of offonout outside over since through throughout till to toward under until up upon with without
59Warm Up We went to the mall Over river and through the woods, to grandmother’s house we go.Without any help, it will be a long night in the rain.Inside the house, the people sit comfortably.The fire gave warmth to the room.
60Object of the Preposition An object of the preposition is the noun or pronoun that is being connected to the rest of the sentence.In frontTo youFrom Santa ClausWithout help
61Prepositional PhraseA prepositional phrase includes the preposition, the object of the preposition and any modifiers (adverbs, adjective, and articles).She looked (through the glass).The moon glowed (in the far off distance).(At the beginning) (of the game), it began raining.
62ReminderThe subject, direct object, and indirect object are never in prepositional phrases.
63Warm UpPut parentheses around the prepositional phrases, label the preposition (P) and the object of the preposition (OP). Label the subject, verb and any complements.We went to the mallOver river and through the woods, to grandmother’s house we go.Without any help, it will be a long night in the rain.Inside the house, the people sit comfortably.The fire gave warmth to the room.
64Review for Parts of Sentences Test Review the grammar definitions from the chart.Review how to label a sentence.