2 French/Spanish in America Also settling parts of North America at this time.FrenchFounded QuebecInterested in fishing, trapping, and had a profitable Trade.Got along with theNative Americans
3 French Cont.Frenchmen, Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette-explored the Mississippi River by canoe. Looking for a passageway to the Pacific but turned back disappointed.Later-Robert Cavelier de La Salle followed the Mississippi all the way to the Gulf of Mexico. Claimed the land for France and called it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.
4 Spanish InterestsStill controlled most of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America.Also expanded to western and southern parts of the US.Moved into what is present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Texas and parts of California. Built forts, other military posts and missions.
6 Cause #1: English Colonial Rule *The Navigation ActsEngland viewed the colonies as an economic resource.Made sure only England benefited from trade with the colonies. Passed between
7 Navigation Acts Cont.Describe: Couldn’t use foreign ships even if rates were cheaper. Could only send products to places in England’s Empire.Reaction: Colonists started to resent the restrictions. Some ignored the laws and started smuggling or trading illegally.
8 *Colonial GovernmentCharter Colony-Settlers given a charter (grant of rights and privileges) to establish a colony. The people elect the governor of the colony.Proprietary colony-a colony in which the owner or proprietor owned all the land and controlled the government.Royal colony-Britain directly ruled and the king appointed a governor.
9 Cause #2: The French and Indian War. Both wanted control of the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.The French had the advantage of many Native American allies.The French were mostly interested in fur trading instead of taking land from Native Americans.
10 *Iroquois Confederacy Most powerful group of Native Americans in the Northeast.English referred to the confederacy as the Six Nations.They played the British and French against each other by trading with both.
11 The Albany Plan Plan made up by Benjamin Franklin Called for a united, “One Colonial Government.”None of the colonies approved the plan. They were afraid to give up their own power.Failed to unite colonists in fighting the FrenchLiterary analysis questions?
12 *The French and Indian War Breaks Out. Fought between Britain and France for control of world trade.However, in the early stages, Colonists fought most of the battles against the French and Indians.
13 French and Indian War Cont. The French and Indian War was also known as The Seven Years War in Europe..William Pitt-Military planner was sent over from England. He decided Britain would pay for the war and ran up tremendous debt.
14 *The Treaty of Paris 1763France had to give Great Britain Canada and most of its lands east of the Mississippi River.The treaty marked the end of France as a power North America and divided the continent between Britain and Spain.
15 Cause #3: The Proclamation of 1763 French loss dealt blow to Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley.They had lost their allies and trading partners. Britain raised the price of their goods. More British settlers were moving onto Native American lands.
16 3. Proclamation Continued Advantages for Britain:-Allowed control of Westward movement.-Avoided conflict with Native Americans.-Kept colonists by the coast to keep trade flourishing.-Could keep control of the fur trade in the frontier.The Proclamation of 1763 stopped colonists from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains.
17 Cause #4: Taxation without Representation Britain had huge debt from the French and Indian War. They issued taxes on colonies and enforced existing tax laws more strictly to pay off their debt.Writs of Assistance-Legal documents that allowed customs officers to enter any location to search for smuggled goods.
18 *The Sugar ActParliament passed in It lowered the tax on imported molasses.It was an attempt to control smuggling.It angered the colonists because it took away the right to a jury trial in smuggling cases.
19 *The Stamp ActThis was a tax on almost all printed material. It even included newspapers, wills and playing cards.Opposition:-Colonists didn’t like being taxed directly.-Taxing was happening without the colonists’ consent.
20 Stamp Act Opposition Cont. Patrick HenrySamuel AdamsPersuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to pass a resolution (a formal expression of opinion) declaring on the colonies could tax their citizens.Started an organization in Boston called, “The Sons of Liberty”.They led protests against the Stamp Act.
21 StampAct Opposition Cont. Other groups throughout the colonies protested by burning effigies (rag figures) representing tax collectors and destroyed houses belonging to royal officials.Stamp Act Congress: 9 colonies met and drafted a petition to the king and Parliament.In colonial cities, people refused to use the stamps.Merchants urged colonists to boycott (refuse to buy) British goods.
22 Stamp Act Cont.Parliament eventually repealed (cancelled) the Stamp Act.It was replaced with the Declaratory Act: stated that Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the British colonies “in all cases.”
23 *The Townshend ActsThey were a set of laws that applied to imported goods such as glass, tea, and paper. The tax was paid at the port of entry.Opposition:-Felt only representatives to Parliament should impose taxes on colonists.-Women organized groups called Daughters of Liberty.-They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods they needed and not buy British goods.
24 Cause #5: The Boston Massacre-March 5, 1770 Trouble began in Boston in 1768They (Britain) sent troops after hearing colonists were on the brink of rebellion. They set up camps in the center of the city. Angry citizens called them “Redcoats”.British troops opened fire on a group of protesters killing 5A dock worker Crispus Attucks was one of those who were killed. (1st casualty of the war)
25 Boston Massacre Continued Colonial leaders used the killings as propaganda (information made to influence public opinion).Samuel Adams put up posters calling the incident the Boston Massacre.Paul Revere made an engraving showing the British troops firing on an orderly crowd.
27 Cause #6: The Tea Crisis*Tea Act: Passed by Parliament in 1773 because the British East India Company was facing ruin.It allowed total control (a monopoly) of the tea trade in America.American merchants called for another boycott.
28 *Boston Tea PartyThe Sons of Liberty organized a group, December 16, 1773.They dressed like Mohawk Indians and threw 342 chests of Tea into Boston Harbor.
29 *Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) King George III realized England waslosing control of the colonies.-Act was designed to punish the colonists.-Closed Boston Harbor until the ruined tea was paid for.-Food and supplies couldn’t get in.-Town meetings were banned.-Forced Bostonians to house British soldiers in colonists’ homes. (Quartering Act)