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Western Civilization Chapter 5.

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1 Western Civilization Chapter 5

2 Origins Rome, as a dominant force in the Mediterranean, owed much to both geographical features and human resources Geographical features: Located in the middle of Mediterranean region Had productive farmland Had mineral deposits and good timber Had mild climate – good for agriculture

3 Background: 2000 B.C., Italy experienced invasions of Indo-Europeans who brought with them technical skills effective military political skills language that was basis for Latin

4 The culture of the Greek city-states in southern Italy and Sicily spread north
Etruscans, who were migrants from Asia Minor settling in Northern Italy near the Tiber River, proved to be a major influence Etruscans had technical skills economic trade practices political techniques religious ideas an alphabet, architecture (arch), sculpture, and Latin

5 Etruscan Territory

6 Near the mouth of the Tiber River were the villages that were to become Rome
It was a settling place for herder farmers The area was called Latium with the villages arranged around the 7 Palantine Hillls Soon after 600B.C., the villages were united as one city-state by Etruscan warlord A single government led by a king

7 7 Palantine Hills

8 King had advisors: Senate who were wealthy heads of families
Freemen who were the bulk of citizen body formed 2 assemblies Curiae Centuries

9 The city’s population was divided into 2 classes
Patricians who were the upper class and had great influence Plebeians who were the ordinary folk Plebeians were usually known as clients. Patricians acted as their patrons offering legal protection, material assistance, jobs, political direction. They acted as patriarchs.

10 Patrician and Plebeian

11 Romans didn’t like Etruscan power and challenged them
Etruscans were also having trouble with Greeks and Carthaginians Instability resulted Romans were able to dethrone the Etruscan king In his place were 2 patrician consuls elected annually This marked the beginning of the Roman Republic, 509 B.C.

12 Early Roman Republic, 509 – 265 B.C.
Struggled at first Rome asked other cities in the area of Latium for cooperation and formed the Latin League The Latin League fought more battles with the Etruscans Gaul then sacked Rome and Rome had to pay them tribute until 295 B.C. when Rome crushed Gaul Rome came to dominate the Latin League and took control of it

13 Rome began to spread out and establish dominance in Italy
They fought the Samnites, the Gauls, and the Etruscans Afterwards, they fought the Greeks to the south Rome was quickly becoming a world power had military organization enlightened treatment of those conquered established and deepened the loyalty of citizens

14 Military known as Roman Legion citizen army
masses of well-armed infantry soldiers who showed flexibility and independence of action when needed formidable and tough to beat

15 Roman Legion

16 Treatment of those conquered
extended outright citizenship to many, especially in Latium others in organized city-states were partial citizens had the right to trade had the right to marry Roman citizens could not participate in Roman politics owed financial and military obligations to Rome could continue to govern themselves in most matters

17 Allies lived a little further out in conquered territory
had local independence had no control over foreign affairs had financial and military obligations to Rome assumed that at some point they could become full citizens Most conquered peoples still had a considerable degree of independence but were tied to Rome through taxes and the military. Most received the promise of future citizenship Their actions promoted allegiance and loyalty

18 Struggle of Orders Two centuries after the start of the Republic, there was the “Struggle of Orders”, a conflict between Patricians and Plebeians The Patrician oligarchy was under constant pressure to give Plebeians more voice in government Plebs began to organize in response to Patrician control

19 Plebeians gained power gradually – mostly through threats and strikes
They threatened to secede, and they threatened not to act as soldiers Each crisis was followed by bargaining and compromises Plebeians eventually won important victories

20 494 B.C. – plebeians gained the right to elect officials called Tribunes who had veto power
Tribunes had protection: anyone harming a tribune could be killed without trial A new plebeian assembly developed called The Assembly of Tribes

21 450 B.C. – written law called the Twelve Tables was passed
It codified ancient custom It protected ordinary citizens from arbitrary decisions by patricians judges It covered private, criminal, sacred, and public matters Other laws were enacted to protect debtors, to permit intermarriage of patricians to plebeians, limit patrician control of land, encourage colonizing, and give land grants to the poor

22 By 367 B.C., elective offices were gradually opened to plebeians, and they were allowed to become consuls By 287 B.C., decisions of pleb council were binding on all citizens, patrician and plebeian alike By 265 B.C., Rome was theoretically governed by the decisions of a total citizen body acting through its assemblies

23 By 265 B.C., the Roman Republic was outwardly a democracy, but it was still dominated by a wealthy landed aristocracy, still largely hereditary Patricians still managed the elections and manipulated the Assemblies through the client system -- making deals for votes

24 Punic Wars By 265 B.C. Rome was a major world power
It was fighting wars of expansion throughout the Mediterranean world Their next opponent was Carthage, a thriving commercial empire They were drawn into war over Sicily Carthage tried to defend the Greek city-state, Messina from another Greek city-state, Syracuse

25 Carthage

26 Sicily

27 The result was the First Punic War (264-241 B.C.)
Rome intervened to keep Carthage from getting too close to their Republic The result was the First Punic War ( B.C.) With help from the Greeks Rome won Carthaginian seaports and control of the waters around Sicily Treaty in 241 B.C. named Rome the victor Rome gained Sicily and a monetary payment from Carthage for war expenses

28 After the war, Carthage tried to rebuild its strength by conquering Spain
Rome was unaware for a time but then learned of Carthaginian actions when Carthage tried to take over a Spanish city that was a Roman ally This led to the Second Punic War ( B.C.)

29 In this war Rome faced Hannibal who hated Rome
Hannibal brought his troops into Italy by a northern route through the Alps; enemies of Rome joined in Rome was taken unaware Beginning in 218 B.C. Rome challenged Hannibal and were defeated again and again Rome knew it couldn’t win in a direct battle, so they settled for harassing his troops Hannibal was in Italy for 15 years

30 Hannibal

31 Hannibal failed to totally defeat Rome
In 205 B.C. the Roman , Scipio Africanus was sent to Carthage to defeat the Carthaginians Hannibal was recalled to help Rome defeated Carthage at Zama in 202 B.C. Treaty: Spain went to Rome No Carthaginian navy allowed Carthage received a heavy fine Carthage could not wage war outside of Africa without first getting permission from Rome

32 Carthage became a minor power
Rome was dominant in the western Mediterranean Carthage continued to haunt Rome; they were afraid it would rise again Out of fear and vengeance and under the pretense of a treaty violation, Rome attacked Carthage in the Third Punic War ( B.C.)

33 It was a slaughter Carthage was completely destroyed in 146 B.C. They then threw salt on Carthaginian soil, so it would never rise again By 146 B.C. the Roman Republic controlled the whole rim of the Mediterranean

34 Ruins of Carthage

35 The Romans Romans became more and more familiar with Hellenistic culture as they took over more of Alexander’s empire Rome was still Roman Rome was created by very practical, realistic, down-to-earth farmers and soldiers Typical farmer worked a small farm, not a great estate

36 Farmers raised grain, beans, and hogs for his family to consume
They raised olives and grapes as a cash crop They just squeaked by These farmers were also the ones who became soldiers They would plant and go off and fight They returned home to harvest crops

37 Most soldiers were foot soldiers
There was also a cavalry -- elite equestrians (equus is Latin for horse) The Infantry Main fighting force Used Greek phalanx idea for the Legion 30 companies of 120 soldiers each, lined up in 3 rows Used javelins & short swords

38 Great discipline and a chain of command
Constant training and preparation Also used a catapult and built bridges as needed If soldiers were victorious, they were allowed to kill everyone of the enemy and then pillage Booty was then distributed among all of the Legion As fighting became more international and soldiers were far away from home, they could no longer farm As a result, many lost their farms to great estates Without land, their sons were excluded from the military

39 Before 250 B.C., Romans had little interest in cultural life
They were occupied with war, politics, and making a living Basic Roman Outlook: Family life was close-knit and patriarchal with respect for authority Agriculture made them realistic and practical Warfare created a sense of duty to home & country Religion : felt unseen spirits were in control

40 Romans borrowed Greek mythology and just renamed the gods
Roman religion was formal and unemotional All this made Romans sensible, unemotional, hardworking, disciplined, and practical people

41 Roman Family The father was the master of the family
He was called the paterfamilias Had authority over the wife, the children , and any slaves Upon his death, authority passed to his son Male dominated world The girl became the responsibility of her husband and his family upon marriage

42 Women were in charge of the moral education of her children
The man could divorce his wife easily: he returned her and her dowry to her father Women were in charge of the moral education of her children She was in charge of the household It was the father who decided if a child would live or be left out to exposure to die Defective child Too many kids already unwanted

43 Abandoned children could be adopted by others and/or sold as slaves
Often if these children lived, they would be slaves or prostitutes If a family had no son, it could adopt one who would have the same legal rights as the other children in the family Slaves were present in Rome -- treated well or not

44 The House Domus Center of everyday life Simple low building
No outside windows ( protected from dust and noise) Rooms arranged around an atrium, an open courtyard – provided sunlight Collecting pools for rain water under the opening

45 Roman House

46 House was decorated with busts in niches of the walls and with wall paintings

47 Women As the boundaries of the Roman Republic expanded, some women began to take a more active role in public life Some escaped the authority of their husbands Fewer fathers handed over authority to new husband The daughter, in that case, would remain under her father’s authority until he died; then the woman would be independent of male authority

48 She would then manage her own affairs without asking her husband for permission
Women at this time were not legally related ti their children and not fully part of the husband’s family They had sealed alliances with men Fathers could force daughters to divorce in order to make a better alliance for her family Divorce was commonplace in 2nd century B.C.

49 As the wealth of the Roman Republic increased, so did the wealth of some individuals who would make their homes and family members more elegant Some lived well Some had no homes at all Housing was a problem There were multi-storied apartment buildings

50 They were a fire danger because they were made of wood
Buildings were cramped Rooms were 10 ft. square There would be wealthy home, poor apartment buildings, and shopkeepers all crowded into the same area This proximity could bring friction

51 Roman Religion Polytheistic A god for every aspect of life
The Roman love of order and authority was reflected in their religion Priests were public office holders and members of the elite Romans absorbed Etruscan and Greek gods into their religion

52 Cults developed – some accepted by the state and some not
Religion was not about a personal relationship with the gods; it was a state activity that held society together Cults developed – some accepted by the state and some not The Cult of Bacchus was seen as a threat to traditional Roman values with its orgies and drinking

53 Bacchus

54 Bacchus and Ariadne

55 Roman Letters Romans absorbed the alphabet of the Etruscans
They also adopted and adapted Greek culture when their boundaries spread into the Hellenistic world Romans modeled their writing after the Greek This began a cultural revolution in Rome

56 This revolution was influenced heavily by the Greeks in 5 ways:
Adoption of a new educational system Formerly males were taught at home Greek tutors stepped in Private schools were built Grammar and rhetoric were taught

57 Romans imitated Greek writers by writing
Epic poems Dramas Histories philosophies

58 Romans produced copies of Greek art
Romans borrowed and then added to the Greek style of architecture Romans were chiefly touched by Greek religion, especially mystery cults Warring had left Romans intellectually and emotionally lost Greek religion offered more emotional satisfaction, especially the mystery cults Romans borrowed from the Greeks and then made Greek culture their own by adding to it to suit themselves

59 Law Very important to the Romans First codified with the Twelve Tables
Scholars studied law and advised judges Unified code of law meant exercising authority more uniformly and effectively Law was consistent but flexible It had to serve the needs of all men and women

60 Romans as Spreaders of Culture
Romans largest achievement was their talent for spreading culture to all in their realm This later influenced the culture of the West Roman soldiers, merchants, and officials were instrumental in the spread of culture The study of grammar, rhetoric, literature, and philosophy established common ideas and tastes in the Empire

61 Rome encouraged artistic and intellectual talents
Latin influenced languages to come: French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish – the Romance languages Not all liked moving toward Greek ways They thought they were moving away from Roman traditions of simplicity and frugality

62 Others felt personal ambition and greed undermining their way of government
Some saw Rome’s success due to its authoritarianism Others saw success stemming from its ability to adapt They had also been successful in their treatment of those conquered, giving them a stake in the Republic

63 Older senators weren’t willing to change and give more participation to the people conquered
The result was a hundred years of conflict and civil war that finally destroyed the Republic (133 – 31 B.C.) Certain problems emerged by 133 B.C. that were dangerous to the survival of the Republic

64 5 Major problems There were new and extensive frontiers to be protected and conquered people to be governed The system to govern proved inadequate The conquered were no longer given the promise of citizenship They had no stake in Rome; they were subjects to be exploited Governing power was given to the military and governors

65 Publicans or tax collectors exploited the people
They gave what they had to to Rome and kept the rest for themselves The citizen army wasn’t prepared to defend such long borders

66 Rome’s economy was subjected to major strains and changes
Rome’s allies were not rewarded as promised for their aid and loyalty during times of war, and they became rebellious in 125 B.C. and again from B.C. Rome’s economy was subjected to major strains and changes Most of the wealth was in the hands of the few Farming became unprofitable because of imports, the use of slaves, & devastated land after Hannibal’s attacks

67 Trade and manufacturing became important to the economy
There were changes in the economic order

68 Small farmers lost their land and became tenant farmers forced to compete with slaves for work
Others moved to the cities Economic conditions improved for those who learned a skill Some became the proletariat, rootless and restless people with the rights of citizens, but no jobs; some sold their votes in the assemblies

69 New social class, the equites ( wealthy businessmen)
Military suppliers Large-scale traders Bankers, moneylenders Wanted more power in government

70 New Ideologies, Hellenistic influences
Mystery religions Taste for luxury items from Greece, ex.: couches Higher tolerance for violence and arrogance because of military ventures Less willing to follow set moral standards Didn’t want to continue the rustic simplicity of life before

71 Party Struggles, 133 – 79 B.C. Struggle for power in government: optimates vs. populares Optimates: ruling nobility, oligarchy who believed political decisions should be made by the Senate (elected from nobles) Populares: “the people” felt citizens should have an important role in decision making Two brothers led the populares at different times: Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

72 Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus

73 The Gracchus brothers were concerned with the plight of the small farmer and the urban poor
Tiberius was elected Tribune in 133 B.C. and proposed a new land law to help those people No one could have more than 312 acres of public land Land recovered through this law was to be given to the landless poor

74 The law was not supported by Senate
To get law passed, Tiberius by-passed the Senate and took it to the Plebeian Assembly whose decisions were binding on all since 287 B.C. The law passed but the Senate was angry and wouldn’t give the law funding Tiberius got money from provinces

75 The Senate was really angry now
Senate charged Tiberius was trying to be a dictator They had Tiberius killed plus 300 of his followers After his death, the law was carried out

76 Gaius Gracchus followed in 122 B.C. as Tribune
He got the Assembly of Tribes to: ass new land laws give cheap grain to the masses establish colonies for resettlement of poor Romans extend the political privileges to Italian Allies give equestrians the right to investigate provincial corruption

77 There were Senatorial objections and violence broke out
Senate said the state was in danger and had Gaius killed plus 3,000 of his followers This was the beginning of a precedent: Senate used violence to remove opposition

78 Gaius Marius In 111 B.C. a new leader of the populares emerged: Gaius Marius

79 He wasn’t a nobleman had great military talent
ran for Consul (108 B.C.) saying the Senate was incompetent and corrupt and won was given command of an army ignored property qualification and enlisted landless, poor peasants and had state outfit them had the backing of his army

80 By 100 B.C., he was elected Consul for the 6th time and proposed many reforms – similar to the Gracchus brothers He wanted to reward soldiers for their service by giving them land He later became a tool of the Senate; they began to manipulate him

81 Sulla Emerged as leader by 88 B.C. after defeating the king of Pontius in Asia Minor Sulla returned to Rome to find the Senate under the thumb of the populares He and his soldiers re-established the old order

82 Sulla got rid of Marius’ followers and proclaimed himself dictator (r
Sulla got rid of Marius’ followers and proclaimed himself dictator (r. 82 – 79 B.C.) He executed thousands of Marius’ followers and put the populares in their place Sulla doubled the size of the Senate giving new seats to equites and upper class Italians He restored the power of the Senate and the retired in 79 B.C. This reflected a reliance on force

83 Era of Strong Men, B.C. Senate was weak after Sulla’s retirement and had many governing problems This culminated in a series of revolts in Italy, Spain, and threats from pirates on the seas To stop the revolts and threats, the Senate relied on forceful men: Pompey and Crassus Pompey won the favor of the populares by doing away with Sulla’s restrictions on them

84 Pompey

85 Pompey: given a military command secured Roman rule in Asia Minor
proved to be a genius at administering to the provinces

86 Crassus

87 Julius Caesar

88 Crassus and Julius Caesar were fearful of Pompey’s power and so rose to power themselves to keep an eye on him Julius Caesar: patrician supporter of Marius and populares cause orator political manipulator great ambition

89 Crassus and Julius Caesar wanted to challenge Pompey’s power by having armies of their own
This was resisted by the Senate Pompey disbanded his army in 62 B.C. and wanted their loyalty rewarded Senate refused Pompey Senate limited the power of tax collectors(Crassus got money from them)

90 So there were 3 disgruntled men:
Julius Caesar could not have an army Pompey was unable to get a reward for his soldiers Crassus could no longer get much money from tax collectors They joined together to form the First Triumverate They said they’d support each other, so each could get what he wanted

91 Caesar was elected Consul and said he’d work for the other two
He then took an army to Gaul and worked for himself Caesar spent time building up his own power backed by a loyal army The longer he was in Gaul, the weaker the Triumverate got

92 Crassus was killed in 53 B.C. while leading his army in Syria
Pompey then challenged Caesar for power with backing from the Senate 49 B.C. the Senate wanted to strip Caesar of his power and order him home Caesar rebelled and led his men across the Rubicon River in northern Italy and plunged Italy into civil war

93 One Man Rule: Julius Caesar (49-44 B.C.)
Caesar won in Italy and then defeated Pompey in northern Gaul Pompey retreated to Egypt where he was murdered Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt and became involved in Egyptian politics when he became Cleopatra’s lover He then helped her seize power from her brother/husband Ptolemy XII

94 Cleopatra

95 Caesar then hunted down Pompey’s followers until 45 B.C.
When Caesar returned to Rome, he was Master of the Roman World He declared himself dictator in 44 B.C. and took control of: finances provincial administration military forces All former jobs of the Senate

96 He did try to solve some of Rome’s problems: debt regulation, people on the dole, and violence
Declaring himself dictator was too much for the Senators The Senate with the help of Cassius and Brutus had Julius Caesar killed on the Ides of March (15 march), stabbed during a meeting of the Senate

97 Ides of March Returned Rome to Civil War

98 Struggle for Succession, 44 – 31 B.C.
Two candidates emerged to take Caesar’s place: Mark Antony ( Caesar’s military commander) and Octavian (Caesar’s grand nephew and adopted son) The Senate was concerned about Antony and his army, so they supported Octavian When Octavian realized he was being used by the Senate, he joined with Antony and Lepidus to form the Second Triumverate, dedicated to punishing Caesar’s murderers

99 The Triumverate was given power to rule Rome, but each was planning to get rid of the other two
Antony went east to reestablish control over the provinces and became involved with Cleopatra This brought about his downfall Antony married her and Rome was afraid he would pass power to her offspring

100 Mark Antony

101 Octavian worked to establish a solid hold in Italy and points west
He eliminated Lepidus whose troops abandoned him . He retired in obscurity Octavian tried to secure land for veterans and to root out anti-Caesar forces in the west Octavian met Antony at Actium and fought in 31 B.C. Antony lost and he and Cleopatra committed suicide

102 Octavian then ruled supreme in Rome by 29 B.C.
Even though there were political problems in the Late Republic, it was economically prosperous Wealth poured in from the provinces There were profits from trade Rome was dependent on the money from the provinces

103 Agriculture was still the backbone of the Italian economy
Small farmers worked to make ends meet Urban poor was being resettled on land outside of Rome Large estates grew cash crops and prospered. This was the chief basis of wealth for the Roman aristocracy

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