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Common Wealth and Empire

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1 Common Wealth and Empire
Chapter 20 Out of Many Faragher AP 5th Edition

2 Key Topics The growth of federal and state governments and the consolidation of the modern 2-party system The development of mass protest movements Economic and political crisis in the 1890s The United States as a world power The Spanish American War

3 Cooperative Commonwealth
Edward Bellamy’s novel about community and cooperation in the year 2000 but written in He sees America as an Utopian Society in the year 2000 as opposed to the great social division in the United States… After Uncle Tom’s Cabin this was the most read book in America. Click on picture for summary of novel by Spark Notes

4 Dreams of the Future The United States was to be a Utopia that encouraged the highest possible physical, as and mental development, and all would share in the fruits of their labor.. 1890’s produced disciples that began a community in Point Loma, California much like today’s cooperatives. Read about Point Loma

5 The Change in Government
All levels of government increase along with the fast growing economy Politicians took advantage and developed strategies to control power and “votes” All offices of government at municipal, state , and federal levels grow exponentially. ICC (1877) becomes the first independent agency to bring order to state laws previously governing the rails.

6 Can You Interpret These Cartoons?

7 Two Party System Republicans stand on their Civil War and Reconstruction efforts through the passage of reform legislation Democrats wanted to slash the influence of the federal government by repealing legislation and gaining the support of immigrants and Southern white voters Presidents of the latter part of the century were nothing special and not very memorable Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, Cleveland –again…let Congress run the show.

8 The Machinery of Politics
Major issue was tariffs (sound familiar?) The North favored tariffs to protect industries The South needed imported goods and did not agree with the tariff Campaign paraphernalia adds to the expense of election campaigns: inscribed playing cards, banners, hats, flags, etc. Pendleton Civil Service Act passed intended to end the “spoils system "or patronage *

9 Farmers and Workers Organize
What is this poster saying? Represented the Grangers faith that all social value could be traced to honest hard work of the farmers.

10 Farmers and Workers Organize Their Communities
The Grange was a national organization of farm owners Farmers and other workers start to organize against what is seen as the wealthy and powerful (railroads and banks) against the little guy (farmer and worker) David and Goliath (As railroads grew larger and unregulated it was the little guy against the big guy) A new political movement began called the Populist Party – they ran on the platform supported by Bellamy of equality and fairness—a socialist viewpoint

11 Strike of 1877 Munn v Illinois 1877 – Supreme Court ruling that found the states had the power to regulate privately owned businesses like the railroads The Great Uprising 1st nationwide work stoppage . President Hayes sends in the US Army to end the strike and in the process 100 people total In the late 1800’s labor parties were elected to serve as members of city councils, and state legislatures. Write a letter to a friend in another city from the perspective of a striking laborer. Describe what happened in Pittsburg from your perspective… Are there an comparisons you can draw to the Wall Street Protestors of the years ?

12 Labor vs. Big Business Look at the map on page 691 of your text which states had the highest number of strikes? Why do you think that is? (What were the industries in these areas?) How did the Knights of Labor and the Farmers Alliance help women to organize? Who was Francis Willard? Why is she important ? President of the largest women’s organization in the world promoted the evils of alcohol and equality.

13 NAWSA—1890 This organization is responsible for helping women gain suffrage (the American Woman's Suffrage and the National Woman's Suffrage organizations). What states were first to gain suffrage for women?

14 Woman’s Suffrage

15 1893 Depression Reading and Pennsylvania Railroads collapse
150 banks collapse (prior to FDIC) 15,000 businesses went bankrupt Farmers suffer with low prices Unemployment reached 25% Men took to riding the rails to look for jobs but found themselves in jail for vagrancy. Coxey’s Army tries to march to Washington to protest but Attorney General Olney (former RR attorney)had them arrested and clubbed for trespassing. Click on photo for more

16 1896 Election The two party system was greatly weakened by the economic crisis of economic crisis. The Populists mounted a third-party threat but were co-opted by the Democrats when Bryan ran as their candidate. The Republicans (McKinley) won the 1896 election after outspending Bryan 10 to 1 by gaining business support of over $7 million dollars. (There were no super pacs in the 1800’s…)

17 Segregation Made Law This period of time threw Americans into a frenzy of White Supremacy. Local and state laws codified the racist ideology and segregation. “Jim Crow” laws were given new life… “On the eve of the Civil War, the Jim Crow idea was one of many stereotypical images of black inferiority in the popular culture of the day--along with Sambos, Coons, and Zip Dandies. The word Jim Crow became a racial slur synonymous with black, colored, or Negro in the vocabulary of many whites; and by the end of the century acts of racial discrimination toward blacks were often referred to as Jim Crow laws and practices.” (

18 Plessey vs. Ferguson 1896 “Homer Adolph Plessey was a successful Louisiana businessman living in Baton Rouge. Comfortable in the society of both racial groups, Plessey had had one African-American grandparent. Although he did not consider himself African American, Louisiana law defined him as “octoroon”—one-eighth African American. Plessey, acting on behalf of a committee that had been formed to challenge Jim Crow laws, intentionally broke the law in order to initiate a case. Returning by rail from New Orleans to Baton Rouge, Plessey was asked by railroad officials to sit in the segregated area of the train. He refused. Arrested and charged, Plessey petitioned the Louisiana Supreme Court for a writ against Ferguson, the trial court judge, to stop the proceedings against him for criminal violation of the State law. But the Louisiana State Supreme Court refused. Convicted and fined, Plessey then appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States…. Justice Henry B. Brown of Michigan delivered the 7-1 decision of the Court that upheld the Louisiana law requiring segregation. Brown noted that the law did not violate either the 13th or 14th Amendments. He stated that the 13th Amendment applied only to slavery, and the 14th amendment was not intended to give African Americans social equality but only political and civil equality with white people.”

19 Segregation Continued
“--Somewhat ironically, while Brown, a Northerner, justified the segregation of the races, Justice John Marshall Harlan, a Southerner from Kentucky, made a lone, resounding, and prophetic dissent. “The Thirteenth Amendment…struck down the institution of slavery [and]…decreed universal civil freedom,” Harlan declared. “Our Constitution is color-blind and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.” Harlan's dissent became the main theme of the unanimous decision of the Court in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. No great national protest followed in the wake of the Plessy decision. Somewhat ironically, while Brown, a Northerner, justified the segregation of the races, Justice John Marshall Harlan, a Southerner from Kentucky, made a lone, resounding, and prophetic dissent. “The Thirteenth Amendment…struck down the institution of slavery [and]…decreed universal civil freedom,” Harlan declared. “Our Constitution is color-blind and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.” Harlan's dissent became the main theme of the unanimous decision of the Court in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. No great national protest followed in the wake of the Plessy decision. Segregation was an issue shunted off to the corner of our national life, and would remain so for nearly 60 years.“ (

20 Grandfather Clauses Louisiana invention that kept African Americans from having their freedom to vote and were barred from public office Plessey vs. Ferguson sealed the deal for “whites” Voting was restricted to so called qualified voters or to those that owned property valued at $300-$500, had the ability to read and write and have the ability to pay poll taxes if requested. Which the Supreme Court upheld The consequence of which was more lynching and rioting

21 Imperialism of Righteousness
The White Man's Burden Chicago Exposition Gave credence to the idea of the superiority of the white race Evidence was through the Agricultural Hall which showed how widespread American technology had grown The idea of a canal connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans was showcased (it was go be through Nicaragua) After reading “The White Man’s Burden” think about these questions: Is Kipling approving or disapproving of the actions of the imperialists? How do you know? Do you agree or disagree with his viewpoint?

22 Foreign Missions Josiah Strong points out that “Commerce follows missionary.” Claims of conversion extend to Native Americans, recent immigrants, Hawaii (not yet a territory) and to foreign lands such China, and Sri Lanka Thus began the Good Neighbor Policy which was spearheaded under Garfield and Harrison – it gave permission for American dominance in the Caribbean and Central America (America gave herself that permission not Central America or the Caribbean Islands) America’s economic interests drove the expansion this being the America idea that nearby nations should be controlled by US interests (American Revolution, Manifest destiny, Monroe Doctrine forward) Expansionism became a race among nations to control the most resources. See Spark Notes Imperialism

23 Hawaii and then the Harmonious Righteous Fists
Hawaii was annexed in 1900 because of vast American interests, a weak ruler, and the US need for military bases China wanted foreign interests out as well however they too failed. They are duped by the British into purchases vast amounts of opium so that Britain can maintain a healthy balance of trade (Opium Wars ensue); US rail investors called the American China Development Company (1896) fear the Manchu government will topple and the European, Russian, and Japanese will prohibit trade. US declares the Open Door Policy in 1899 maintaining that US has rights around the world equal to any other imperialist nation The Chinese respond with the Harmonious Righteous Fists (Boxer Rebellion) The rebellion is crushed by joined international forces including the US

24 The Spanish American War
A splendid little war (16 weeks) against Spain Popular war in America 2500 dead from typhoid and yellow fevers, and malaria 250 killed in combat 250 million $’s Then onto the Philippines …

25 War in the Philippines Teddy Roosevelt, as Secretary of the Navy, encouraged President McKinley to seek expansion in the Philippines. After given their independence from Spain the Filipinos the Americans to leave but we did not. Skirmishes developed and Americans were hurt so they retaliated by abusing the civilians and raping their women. The result was a guerrilla war with 4300 Americans dying and 1 in every 5 Filipinos. The Philippines remained a US territory until 1946 – (the Japanese conquered the islands during WWII).

26 Critics of the Empire The Anti-Imperialist League brought together like minded people who hoped to stop the atrocities in the Philippines and military action elsewhere in the world Members included Samuel Clements (Mark Twain), W.E.B. DuBois, and other famous Americans and their formal membership clamied to have over 500,000 members. However the vast majority of Americans agreed with Teddy Roosevelt when he said “No triumph of peace is quite so great as the supreme triumphs of war.” Do you agree with Mr. Roosevelt? What about our current conflicts in the Middle East –Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Egypt, Syria?) What is our mission (s) and are we being successful ?

27 Conclusion After reading Chapter 20 and some of the assigned excerpts can you answer these questions? Why was there such growth of the federal, and state governments, and how did the two party system get solidified? What were some of the mass protests about? What was the economic crisis of the 1890’s How did the US become a world power Why was the Spanish American war fought and what were the missions? How was America changed?

28 Links to Cool Helpful Sites
Vassar College website for 1896 Election. Great collection of news, campaigns, cartoons, etc. Spark Notes Imperialism

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