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BIRTH OF THE nazi party CHAPTER 2. Birth of the Nazi Party Sunday November 10,1918; while recovering from British gas attack at a military hospital in.

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Presentation on theme: "BIRTH OF THE nazi party CHAPTER 2. Birth of the Nazi Party Sunday November 10,1918; while recovering from British gas attack at a military hospital in."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIRTH OF THE nazi party CHAPTER 2

2 Birth of the Nazi Party Sunday November 10,1918; while recovering from British gas attack at a military hospital in Pasewalk, Hitler was informed of German surrender by Kaiser & formation of republic in Berlin Sunday November 10,1918; while recovering from British gas attack at a military hospital in Pasewalk, Hitler was informed of German surrender by Kaiser & formation of republic in Berlin One of worst days in Hitler’s life One of worst days in Hitler’s life

3 Birth of the Nazi Party “I could stand it no longer…Everything went black again before my eyes; I tottered and groped my way back to the ward, threw myself on my bunk, and dug my burning head into my blanket and pillow…So it had all been in vain. In vain all the sacrifices and privations…in vain the hours in which, with mortal fear clutching at our hearts, we nevertheless did our duty; in vain the death of two million who died… Had they died for this?...Did this happen only so that a gang of wretched criminals could lay hands on the Fatherlands?”--Hitler

4 Birth of the Nazi Party Hitler, like many other Germans, couldn’t tolerate the idea of a German defeat Hitler, like many other Germans, couldn’t tolerate the idea of a German defeat Served as a dispatch runner in the First Company of the 16 th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment starting in October 1914 Served as a dispatch runner in the First Company of the 16 th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment starting in October 1914 Unit picked apart during fighting at First Battle of Ypres Unit picked apart during fighting at First Battle of Ypres 3,500 men reduced to 600 3,500 men reduced to 600

5 Birth of the Nazi Party Twice awarded medals for bravery Twice awarded medals for bravery Dec 1914 Iron Cross, Second Class Dec 1914 Iron Cross, Second Class August 1918 Iron Cross, First Class; rare for common soldier August 1918 Iron Cross, First Class; rare for common soldier Though successful, seen as different by fellow soldiers Though successful, seen as different by fellow soldiers Often stayed to himself, never asked for leave or received letters/ packages from home, never complained; launch into verbal attacks on Jews & Marxists Often stayed to himself, never asked for leave or received letters/ packages from home, never complained; launch into verbal attacks on Jews & Marxists

6 Birth of the Nazi Party To Hitler, & many other Germans, Germany had not lost on the battlefield, but destroyed from within To Hitler, & many other Germans, Germany had not lost on the battlefield, but destroyed from within Hitler saw cause as Jewish sabotage Hitler saw cause as Jewish sabotage Many officers were Jews, war financed by Jews, Jews wished for early end to conflict Many officers were Jews, war financed by Jews, Jews wished for early end to conflict “I saw with horror a catastrophe approaching” & idea of being “stabbed in the back” took hold in German “I saw with horror a catastrophe approaching” & idea of being “stabbed in the back” took hold in German

7 Birth of the Nazi Party Fact is German military pushed for armistice & the signing of the Treaty of Versailles Fact is German military pushed for armistice & the signing of the Treaty of Versailles “German militarism simply committed suicide.”—General Freiherr von Schoenaich, Frankfuter Zeitung 1924 “German militarism simply committed suicide.”—General Freiherr von Schoenaich, Frankfuter Zeitung 1924

8 Birth of the Nazi Party Germans needed to find a “scapegoat” & would in those who signed surrender & establishing democratic government—“November Criminals” Germans needed to find a “scapegoat” & would in those who signed surrender & establishing democratic government—“November Criminals” As Hitler stewed in his disgust & hatred, he realized his purpose “My own fate became known to me. I decided to go into politics.” As Hitler stewed in his disgust & hatred, he realized his purpose “My own fate became known to me. I decided to go into politics.”

9 The Beginning of the Nazi Party Hitler’s political career was not destine from beginning Hitler’s political career was not destine from beginning No friend or money; no job, no trade/ profession or regular employment history; no political experience No friend or money; no job, no trade/ profession or regular employment history; no political experience

10 Return to Munich November 1918; Munich much different than the Munich Hitler left before the war November 1918; Munich much different than the Munich Hitler left before the war Political turmoil & revolution ruled Political turmoil & revolution ruled Wittelbach King of Bavaria abdicated throne Wittelbach King of Bavaria abdicated throne Social Democrats gained power under Kurt Eisner, popular Jewish writer Social Democrats gained power under Kurt Eisner, popular Jewish writer Assassinated 3 months later Assassinated 3 months later Soviet Republic (communist) established by workers for a short time Soviet Republic (communist) established by workers for a short time Overthrown by Berlin & Bavarian Freikorps (Free Corps) Overthrown by Berlin & Bavarian Freikorps (Free Corps)

11 Return to Munich Reichwehr (Regular Army) & monarchists assumed power at this time Reichwehr (Regular Army) & monarchists assumed power at this time Wished for monarchy to be restored under Wittelbachs Wished for monarchy to be restored under Wittelbachs Hated democratic government in Berlin (Weimar Republic) Hated democratic government in Berlin (Weimar Republic) Included large portions of former soldiers who couldn’t find work & found it hard to assimilate back into peacetime society Included large portions of former soldiers who couldn’t find work & found it hard to assimilate back into peacetime society

12 Return to Munich Quickly, armed Freikorps bands developed with goal of overthrowing republic in Berlin Quickly, armed Freikorps bands developed with goal of overthrowing republic in Berlin Assassination attempts common in Munich against those blamed for defeat in WWI Assassination attempts common in Munich against those blamed for defeat in WWI Matthias Erxberger (signed armistice) & Walther Rathenau (Jewish & attempted to fulfill Treaty of Versailles) Matthias Erxberger (signed armistice) & Walther Rathenau (Jewish & attempted to fulfill Treaty of Versailles) This is the climate Hitler found himself in as he aimed to start his political career This is the climate Hitler found himself in as he aimed to start his political career

13 As Hitler attempted to start his political career, what are some of the characteristics of the post-war Germany and Munich?

14 Beginnings of Political Interest Quickly Hitler gained favor from military leaders Quickly Hitler gained favor from military leaders As military established more influence over politics of Bavaria, Hitler would be given educational officer position; task was to combat dangerous ideas—pacifism, socialism, democracy As military established more influence over politics of Bavaria, Hitler would be given educational officer position; task was to combat dangerous ideas—pacifism, socialism, democracy First major step in Hitler political career First major step in Hitler political career Practiced oratorical skills; would use to rally millions of Germans to his cause Practiced oratorical skills; would use to rally millions of Germans to his cause

15 German Workers’ Party September 1919, Hitler assigned to spy on tiny political group in Munich—German Workers’ Party (DAP or Deutsch Arbeiterpartei); attempting to understand groups political leaning September 1919, Hitler assigned to spy on tiny political group in Munich—German Workers’ Party (DAP or Deutsch Arbeiterpartei); attempting to understand groups political leaning After hearing a speech given by a professor in the group about Bavarian separatism, Hitler verbally attacked professor, blaming people like him for the demise of the German state After hearing a speech given by a professor in the group about Bavarian separatism, Hitler verbally attacked professor, blaming people like him for the demise of the German state

16 German Workers’ Party Anton Drexler, founding member of DAP, handed Hitler a pamphlet after hearing his emotional attack Anton Drexler, founding member of DAP, handed Hitler a pamphlet after hearing his emotional attack Hitler found many similarities with his beliefs Hitler found many similarities with his beliefs Creation of a political party of the working class, but strongly nationalistic Creation of a political party of the working class, but strongly nationalistic Hitler’s time in Vienna made him despise the lack of concern for working-class & social issues Hitler’s time in Vienna made him despise the lack of concern for working-class & social issues

17 German Workers’ Party Hitler offered chance to join; he saw opportunity “for real personal activity” in the small group Hitler offered chance to join; he saw opportunity “for real personal activity” in the small group

18 Ernst Roehm Homosexual (we will get to the importance of that later) Homosexual (we will get to the importance of that later) Member of DAP at time of Hitler’s joining & Army District Command VII; Member of DAP at time of Hitler’s joining & Army District Command VII; Hatred for Weimar Republic; wished to create nationalist Germany based on lower classes Hatred for Weimar Republic; wished to create nationalist Germany based on lower classes

19 Ernst Roehm Helped organize first Nazi squads of S.A. (Nazi storm troopers); also known as Brownshirts Helped organize first Nazi squads of S.A. (Nazi storm troopers); also known as Brownshirts Brought ex-servicemen into party & provided Hitler with support & protection during his rise to power Brought ex-servicemen into party & provided Hitler with support & protection during his rise to power

20 Dietrich Eckart Spiritual founder of National Socialism Spiritual founder of National Socialism Preached Aryan superiority & elimination of Jewish race & downfall of “swine” in Berlin Preached Aryan superiority & elimination of Jewish race & downfall of “swine” in Berlin

21 Dietrich Eckart Viewed Hitler as the perfect leader of the DAP Viewed Hitler as the perfect leader of the DAP Fine-tuned Hitler’s spoken & written German, connected him with important friends (and their wealth), & served as close advisor during his rise to power Fine-tuned Hitler’s spoken & written German, connected him with important friends (and their wealth), & served as close advisor during his rise to power

22 “ One of the best, who devoted his life to the awakening of our people, in his writings and his thoughts and finally in his deeds. ”

23 Hitler’s Early Involvement in DAP Hitler gained support for DAP by promoting meetings, speaking at events, running party’s propaganda Hitler gained support for DAP by promoting meetings, speaking at events, running party’s propaganda Organized large meeting of DAP of 2,000 to drum up support for party & shared DAP 25 Points Program Organized large meeting of DAP of 2,000 to drum up support for party & shared DAP 25 Points Program Name officially changed from German Workers’ Party to National Socialist German Workers’ Party (N.S.D.A.P.) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei Name officially changed from German Workers’ Party to National Socialist German Workers’ Party (N.S.D.A.P.) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei

24 25 Points of the DAP Union of all of Germans into a Greater Germany Union of all of Germans into a Greater Germany Great number of anti-Semitic points, hoping to deny Jews employment, citizenship, etc. Great number of anti-Semitic points, hoping to deny Jews employment, citizenship, etc. Many also appealed to lower classes Many also appealed to lower classes Abolishment of land rent, sharing of profits from industries with the state, maintenance of a “sound middle class” Abolishment of land rent, sharing of profits from industries with the state, maintenance of a “sound middle class”

25 25 Points of the DAP Abolition of the treaties of Versailles & St. Germain Abolition of the treaties of Versailles & St. Germain Insisted on “the creation of a strong central power of the State” Insisted on “the creation of a strong central power of the State” Difficult to push in Bavaria due to strong ideas of separatism Difficult to push in Bavaria due to strong ideas of separatism

26 What about Bavarians led to their interest in separating from the rest of Germany?

27 Hitler’s Move toward Violate Oppression Started by silencing hecklers Started by silencing hecklers Organization of Ordnertruppe (future Sturmabteilung or S.A.) Organization of Ordnertruppe (future Sturmabteilung or S.A.) Disguised as “Gymnastic and Sport Division” of party to reduce perceived threat Disguised as “Gymnastic and Sport Division” of party to reduce perceived threat

28 Hitler’s Move toward Violate Oppression S.A. soon starting breaking up meetings of other parties S.A. soon starting breaking up meetings of other parties “The National Socialist Movement will in the future ruthlessly prevent—if necessary by force—all meetings or lectures that are likely to distract the minds of our fellow countrymen.” “The National Socialist Movement will in the future ruthlessly prevent—if necessary by force—all meetings or lectures that are likely to distract the minds of our fellow countrymen.” Hitler jailed for leading attack on opposing party; Hitler became more popular through experience Hitler jailed for leading attack on opposing party; Hitler became more popular through experience

29 Development of a Symbol Hitler felt party lacked a symbol, flag, & emblem Hitler felt party lacked a symbol, flag, & emblem Needed to express party’s stance & connect with masses Needed to express party’s stance & connect with masses People needed a “banner” to follow People needed a “banner” to follow

30 Development of a Symbol Hitler personally designed the red flag, white disk in the middle, & black hooked cross (swastika) Hitler personally designed the red flag, white disk in the middle, & black hooked cross (swastika) Colors of old imperial flag; “the most brilliant harmony in existence”—Hitler Colors of old imperial flag; “the most brilliant harmony in existence”—Hitler Colors of the Germany many had fought for & longed to regain Colors of the Germany many had fought for & longed to regain “In red we see the social idea of the movement, in white the nationalist idea, in the swastika the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man.” “In red we see the social idea of the movement, in white the nationalist idea, in the swastika the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man.”

31 Development of a Symbol Swastika armbands soon became part of the party uniform Swastika armbands soon became part of the party uniform Would become the symbol of fear & authority of the Nazi Party Would become the symbol of fear & authority of the Nazi Party

32 Nazi Standard Black swastika surrounded by silver wreath surmounted by eagle, initials of NSDAP below Black swastika surrounded by silver wreath surmounted by eagle, initials of NSDAP below Deutschland Erwache —“Germany Awake!”Deutschland Erwache —“Germany Awake!” These symbols lured the masses behind the Nazi Party with almost mystical power These symbols lured the masses behind the Nazi Party with almost mystical power

33 Advent of the “Fuehrer” By summer of 1921, Hitler had assumed undisputed leadership of NSDAP By summer of 1921, Hitler had assumed undisputed leadership of NSDAP Provided first glimpse at ruthlessness & shrewdness with which he was to gain success Provided first glimpse at ruthlessness & shrewdness with which he was to gain success While in Berlin, other members of Nazi Party attempted to weaken Hitler’s power While in Berlin, other members of Nazi Party attempted to weaken Hitler’s power

34 Advent of the “Fuehrer” Hitler offered to resign from party Hitler offered to resign from party Members realized his resignation would only destroy the party due to his organization, ability to speak, & skill for collecting funding Members realized his resignation would only destroy the party due to his organization, ability to speak, & skill for collecting funding

35 Advent of the “Fuehrer” Hitler, attempting to reassert his authority, demanded power as sole leader, abolition of the committee, & an end of merging with other groups Hitler, attempting to reassert his authority, demanded power as sole leader, abolition of the committee, & an end of merging with other groups After a series of meetings, Hitler would gain authority as party president (sole leader) After a series of meetings, Hitler would gain authority as party president (sole leader) “The Fuehrer” had been born “The Fuehrer” had been born

36 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Hitler acquired new offices & supplies for party headquarters Hitler acquired new offices & supplies for party headquarters December 1920, party gained control of a bi-weekly newspaper, the Voelkischer Beobachter December 1920, party gained control of a bi-weekly newspaper, the Voelkischer Beobachter By 1923, Hitler developed newspaper into a daily newspaper which preached the party’s gospel By 1923, Hitler developed newspaper into a daily newspaper which preached the party’s gospel

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38 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Many future subordinates of Hitler would join the party at this time Many future subordinates of Hitler would join the party at this time Alfred Rosenberg: 1919; Nazi “philosopher” & foreign policy authority; Baltic German, studied in Moscow; attracted Hitler through hatred of Jews & Bolsheviks Alfred Rosenberg: 1919; Nazi “philosopher” & foreign policy authority; Baltic German, studied in Moscow; attracted Hitler through hatred of Jews & Bolsheviks

39 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Rudolf Hess: 1920; known as anti- Semitist & part of overthrow of Soviet regime in Bavaria; became one of Hitler’s most loyal & trusted followers Rudolf Hess: 1920; known as anti- Semitist & part of overthrow of Soviet regime in Bavaria; became one of Hitler’s most loyal & trusted followers

40 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Hermann Goering: 1921; one of greatest WWI heroes as commander of Richthofen Fighter Squadron; difficult to assimilate into peacetime existence; personally contributed to party (and Hitler’s) treasury; assisted in organization & commander (1922) of S.A. Hermann Goering: 1921; one of greatest WWI heroes as commander of Richthofen Fighter Squadron; difficult to assimilate into peacetime existence; personally contributed to party (and Hitler’s) treasury; assisted in organization & commander (1922) of S.A.

41 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Maxx Amann: business manager of party & stabilized finances of party & Voelkidcher Beonachter Maxx Amann: business manager of party & stabilized finances of party & Voelkidcher Beonachter

42 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Ulrich Graf: Hitler’s personal bodyguard Ulrich Graf: Hitler’s personal bodyguard

43 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Heinrich Hoffmann: “court photographer” only person allowed to photograph Hitler for years Heinrich Hoffmann: “court photographer” only person allowed to photograph Hitler for years

44 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Hermann Esser: Hitler saw Esser as “a scoundrel” but decided to “hold on to him as long as he can be of use…” Hermann Esser: Hitler saw Esser as “a scoundrel” but decided to “hold on to him as long as he can be of use…”

45 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP Julius Streicher: fanatical anti-Semite; known for his tales of Jewish sexual crimes & “ritual murders” Julius Streicher: fanatical anti-Semite; known for his tales of Jewish sexual crimes & “ritual murders”

46 Hitler’s Reorganization of NSDAP No matter how murky their past—murderers, pimps, homosexual perverts, drug addicts, or rowdies were all useful if they served a purpose to Hitler No matter how murky their past—murderers, pimps, homosexual perverts, drug addicts, or rowdies were all useful if they served a purpose to Hitler


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