2I. The Parts of Speech Nouns: names a person, place, thing, or idea Verbs: shows action or a state of beingAdjectives: describes the qualities of a noun or pronounAdverbs: describes the qualities of a verb, an adjective, or another adverbPronouns: words that take the place of a noun.Prepositions: show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentenceInterjections: a word or phrase that expresses strong emotionConjunctions: a word that connects words of groups of wordsVerbals: words made from verbs that function as another part of speech
3Yowza, Umberto ate nearly forty tacos at lunch! Interjection Noun Verb Adverb Adjective Noun Preposition NounAfter lunch, Umberto felt very sleepy and took a nap in the library.Preposition Noun Noun Verb Adverb Adjective Conjunction Verb Adjective Noun Preposition Adjective NounHugo happily took a large woman on a date to McDonalds for a Happymeal.Noun Adverb Verb Adjective Adjective Noun Preposition Adjective Noun Preposition Noun Preposition Adjective NounShe ate nearly sixty nuggets and Hugo carried her home.Pronoun Verb Adverb Adjective Noun Conjunction Noun Verb Pronoun Noun
4II. Some BasicsSentences contain a noun and a verb, and make sense on their ownSentence: The remarkably silly boy danced with his pet goat.Not A Sentence: Since the goat had eaten so much cheese.B. Verbs can be action verbs or linking verbsAction Verb: The goat ate a frightening quantity of cheese.Action Verb: He stole it from the local grocery store.Linking Verb: He felt incredibly sick.Linking Verb: He was a very naughty goat.
6III. Nouns Nouns can be the subject of a sentence The subject tells what or who the sentence is about.Appears before the verb in a sentence.Paco ate over two dozen Doritos Locos Tacos.Afterwards, the poor boy felt sick for days.B. Nouns can be a subject complement in a sentence.The subject complement renames or identifies the subjectIt always follows a linking verbIt can also be a pronounHulk Hogan was a WWE champion in the 1980’s.He later became a sellout on reality tv.The most disappointed people are fans of WWE who watched him fail.
7Practice: Write Each Sentence. Underline the subject once Practice: Write Each Sentence. Underline the subject once. If there is a subject complement, underline it twice.Chik-Fil-A offers a variety of delicious meal options.Their best-known item is the spicy chicken sandwich.Polynesian is the best flavor for dipping.Their waffle fries taste absolutely delicious.Further Practice: Textbook Page 6 and 7, exercises 1 and 2
8III. Nouns (cont.) C. Nouns can be used as direct objects 1. A Direct object receives the action of a verb2. Always comes after action verbChris Davis clobbered the baseball.John Cena elbowed the face of CM PunkD. Nouns can be used as indirect objects.1. An indirect object tells “to whom” or “for whom” anaction is done2. Always is followed by a direct object.The fans gave John Cena a standing ovation after the match.Mr. Bailey bought his wife a prized llama for Valentine’s Day.
9III. Nouns (cont.)E. Nouns can be used as objects of prepositions. 1. Noun is last word of prepositional phrase 2. Prepositional phrase begins with a preposition The adorable llama kicked Mr. Bailey in the stomach. Remarkably, Mr. Bailey somehow flew through the window and landed behind the dumpster. F. Nouns can be used as object complements. 1. An object complement renames a direct object. 2. Often follows verbs like “call” “consider” “chose” “elect” “make” and “name.” I consider the Orioles a good team. Students often call the Orioles the O’s. It is often difficult to make English a fun class.
10Practice Identify whether the red word is a direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, or object complement.The grateful students gave Mr. Bailey a pound of waffle fries for Christmas.Fans of the WWE call The Undertaker the Phenom.Remarkably, the rabid llama viciously bit Napoleon on the arm.In many horror movies, the beautiful girl finds herself the victim of grisly murder.After being without power for many days, the student was depressed from lack of Playstation 3 gaming time.Further Practice: Textbook Pages 8 and 9, exercises 1-2
11III. Nouns (cont.)G. Nouns can be used as appositives 1. An appositive is a word that follows a noun and helps identify it My home state, Maryland, is home to the Orioles. I once met the player Adam Jones. 2. An appositive phrase is an appositive and all words that modify it Paco, a very bovine boy, ate too much cheese. He slept in the back of the Home Depot, a store near his house.
12III. Nouns (cont.)3. Appositives can be restrictive or nonrestrictive a. Restrictive: information directly related to topic of the sentence; essential b. Nonrestrictive: unnecessary information; unrelated to main idea Mr. Bailey, a huge Orioles fan, teaches at Loyola Blakefield. His favorite period of the day is his class English 8. Paco has a tendency to eat far too much at Chik-Fil-A, a restaurant in Parkville. Paco is a descendent of the great president William Howard Taft.
13Practice Part I Write the sentence. Underline the appositive phrase. The coach and mentor Buck Showalter led the team to the playoffs in 2012.The Orioles, an often disappointing team, are finishing a succesful season.An incredible year in Orioles history was 1997, an unforgettable year.Star shortstop Cal Ripken led his team to a playoff run.
14Practice Part 2 Copy the sentence. Underline the appositive Practice Part 2 Copy the sentence. Underline the appositive. Add commas if and where necessary.John Cena a seven time champion is in a feud with CM Punk.Arby’s my favorite restaurant serves delicious roast beef sandwiches.The actor Will Ferrel is in many hilarious movies.My favorite character that he played was Ron Burgandy an anchorman.Further Practice: Textbook page 15 exercise 1.5 (#’s 44-48).
15Final Practice With Nouns Decide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.Umberto has studied jazz flute for 10 years.Many women give Umberto their love.Umberto, a shy man, usually just runs away from them.
16Final Practice With Nouns Decide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.Everyone declared the field trip an enjoyable experience.Well, except for Humbert, who was kicked in the stomach by a rabid llama.Humbert was trying to give the llama a bag of Cheetos.
17Final Practice With Nouns Decide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.Despite losing to the Rock, John Cena never gave up.The champion CM Punk challenged him to a match.CM Punk is a very skillful wrestler with a painful finishing move.
18Final Practice With Nouns Decide what Each Noun Is Functioning AS In A Sentence subject subject complement direct object indirect object object of a preposition object complement appositive.The PS3 is truly the superior gaming system.Many students unwisely waste their money on XBOX.The PS3 offers gamers a superior experience due to its advanced hardware.
19Further PracticeWrite a sentence with an indirect object and a direct object.Write a sentence with a subject complement and an object of a preposition.Write a sentence with a restrictive appositive (or appositive phrase) and a direct object.Write a sentence with a nonrestrictive appositive (or appositive phrase) and a subject complement.
21IV. PronounsPersonal pronouns can be subjects, objects, or possessive.As SubjectAs ObjectAs Possessive1st person singularIMeMy, mine1st person pluralWeUsOurs, our2nd person singular and pluralYouYour, yours3rd person singularHe, She, ItHim, Her, ItHis, Her, Hers, Its3rd person pluralTheyThemTheir, TheirsCopy This Chart!
22IV. Pronouns (cont.)A subject pronoun can be the subject or subject complement in a sentence.I rode the llama twice at the fair. (subject)The man who owned the llama was he. (subject complement)Remember to use a subject pronoun even when the subject or complement is compound.Paco and I went to the llama festival. (subject)The men riding the llamas were Paco and I. (subject complement)
23Pronouns (cont.)3. Object pronouns are used as the object of an action verb, and indirect object, or a preposition. Paco claimed the llama kicked him. (direct object) Paco later sued the llama’s owner because of the emotional damage caused by it. (object of a preposition) The owner gave him nearly a million dollars in damages. (indirect object)
24Practice Read the sentence. Circle the personal pronoun Practice Read the sentence. Circle the personal pronoun. Identify it as a subject, subject complement, direct object, indirect object, or object of preposition.The unfortunate students who were caught stealing Mr. Bailey’s lunch were he and Paco.The young men sold it to their friend Umberto for five dollars.Umberto opened the lunch, and he was horrified to find that Mr. Bailey ate bologna and olives each day.He found Mr. Bailey’s car and put the lunch inside of it.Needless to say, the terrible aroma soon offended him greatly.Further Practice: Textbook Page 54 exercises 3.2 and 3.3
25Pronouns (cont)B. The words “than” and “as” are used in comparisons, and make using pronouns difficult. 1. Sentences that use these words often omit information needed to help determine pronoun use 2. You need to add missing words to determine usage. Examples: Judges choose him as a winner more often than they choose (she/her) Judges choose him as a winner more often than they choose her. Jacob is as good a competitive eater as (she/her) Jacob is as good a competitive eater as she is. Jacob’s hot dog eating impressed me more than (they/them) Jacob’s hot dog eating impressed me more than it impressed them. I’ve known Jacob longer than (he/him) I’ve known Jacob longer than he has known Jacob.
26Practice Choose the correct pronoun to complete each sentence. Jacob eats more quickly than (she/her).Dustin rides llamas better than (I / me).Juan is much more bovine than (I / me).Paco’s singing impressed me as much as (she / her).Everyone is as excited about the taco-eating contest as (I / me).No one was more pleased with the success of the taco-eating contest than (he / him).The English teacher helped Umberto more than (he /him).More Practice: Textbook page 39 exercise 2
27Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns Pronouns (cont)C. Pronouns can be intensive pronouns, which emphasize a preceding noun. D. Pronouns can be reflexive pronouns, which are the object of a verb or preposition.Intensive and Reflexive PronounsSingularPluralFirst PersonMyselfOurselvesSecond PersonYourselfYourselvesThird PersonHimself/Herself/ItselfThemselves
28Practice Fill in the blank with the appropriate intensive or reflexive pronoun. Hubert ate fourteen tacos by ___________.Florence ______________ prepared them for him.Afterwards, Florence blamed __________________ for the mess Hubert made.It seems that the tacos had spoiled _______________ in the hot sun.More Practice: Page 43 exercise 3
29Demonstrative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Pronouns (cont.)E. Pronouns can be demonstrative, which point out a particular person, place, or thing. F. Pronouns can be interrogative, which ask questions.Demonstrative PronounsSingularPluralThis, ThatThese, ThoseInterrogative PronounsSubjectObjectPossessiveWhoWhomWhoseWhoeverWhomeverWhoseverWhichWhat
30Who Or Whom? Can also be used as relative pronouns. Who is also a subjectWhom is always an objectWho visited Mexico? (subject)Whom did you visit there? (object)Who gave you the burrito? (subject)To whom did you give the burrito? (object)Paco is the man who gave it to me. (subject)Paco is the man to whom it was given. (object)
31Practice Fill in the blank with either “who” or “whom” (who / whom) is the last Oriole to play 162 games?To ( who / whom ) is the Most Valuable Oriole award going?Adam Jones is the player ( who / whom) is winning the award.Many of the players ( who / whom ) play on the Orioles had great seasons.Many players on the Nationals, for ( who / whom ) winning is not a usual event, are excited to win their division.The Nationals are a team about ( who / whom ) we talk very little.They are the team (who / whom) plays in Washington.
32Pronouns (cont.)G. Pronouns can be relative pronouns. Relative pronouns join a subordinate clause to its antecedent in the independent clause. 1. Relative pronouns are who, whom, that, those, and which The Nationals are a team that relies on good starting pitching. Steven Strasburg was their ace who hurt his arm last year. The decision to shut down Strasburg, which many fans protested, may cost the team the World Series. Mr. Bailey, whose dream is an Orioles/Nationals World Series, remains hopeful.
33Pronouns (cont.)H. A pronoun can be an indefinite pronoun. An indefinite pronoun refers to any or all of a group of people, places, or things. 1. Full list appears on page 50 of textbook. Few may know that the MLB hall of fame is located in New York. Its purpose is to honor players and others who had contributed to baseball history. All of those in the hall are acknowledged greats. Several of the Orioles are elected into the Hall of Fame. Can anybody name some of those 5 players?
34Practice Write the Sentence. Circle the Pronoun Practice Write the Sentence. Circle the Pronoun. Identify whether it is a relative pronoun or an indefinite pronoun. Sentences may have more than 1Buck Showalter is largely viewed as the manager who really turned around the Orioles franchise.Anybody who has watched the team this year has seen their hustle.Many have played better than expected.Chris Davis, whose exceeded expectations, clobbered 52 homeruns, which is a team record.Camden Yards, which celebrated its 21th anniversary, is a stadium that everyone can agree is beautiful.
36V. InterjectionsAn interjection is a word or phrase that expresses a strong emotion.Ouch, I just smashed my toe.Yowza, that burrito is spicy.Nonesense, I will never eat snail meat.B. As a general rule, never use interjections in academic writing.
38VI. Adjectives Descriptive adjectives describe a noun or pronoun. The spicy, hot burrito scorched my tongue.The boy fell in love with the beautiful woman.They can be a subject complement when they follow a linking verb.Mr. Bailey was hungry after school.Pedro is afraid that goblins will steal his Xbox.2. They can be an object complement when they follow a direct object.The burrito left Umberto sick.The snowstorm made the students happy.
39Adjectives (cont.)B. Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite pronouns can all be used as adjectives if they precede a noun.This cheeseburger is delicious. (as adjective)This is a delicious cheeseburger. (as pronoun)Which fast food restaurant do you prefer? (as adjective)Which is the restaurant you prefer? (as pronoun)Some students believe that Five Guys is the most delicious. (as adjective)Some feel that Arby’s offers the best food. (as pronoun)
40Practice In each of the following sentences, circle all instances of adjectives. (remember a, an, and the are adjectives)Umberto took Olga to a popular restaurant.Olga felt queasy after consuming rancid tacos.They made Olga sick.Frightening noises emanated from Olga’s rumbling stomach.Umberto was disappointed by the miserable date.
41More Practice Write the sentence More Practice Write the sentence. Circle the demonstrative, interrogative, or indefinite word and write whether it is a pronoun or adjective.Who agrees Five Guys is delicious?That restaurant serves the best hamburgers in town.The owners fill every bag with a mountain of hot french fries.What is your favorite topping on a hamburger?Many tell me they prefer bacon.Personally, I request several handfuls of jalapenos.HW: WB Pages 13 and 14
42Adjectives (cont.)C. Most adjectives have three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative.1. Positive degree shows a quality of a noun2. Comparative degree compares two items or sets of items3. Superlative degree compares three or more items.PositiveComparativeSuperlativeAdjectives of one syllable and some adjectives of two.WarmWarmerWarmestSunnySunnierSunniestAdjectives of three or more syllables, and some adjectives of two.ImportantMore importantMost importantExtremeMore extremeMost extremeIrregular AdjectivesGoodBetterBestManyMoreMostLittleLessLeastBadWorseWorst
43Adjectives (cont.)D. The adjectives few and less have a special rule that applies to them. 1. Use “few/fewer/fewest” to compare concrete nouns that can be counted. 2. Use “little/less/least” to compare abstract nouns or nouns that cannot be counted by quantity. Olga can eat fewer tacos than Umberto. Umberto puts less hot sauce on his tacos. Umberto’s mom ate the fewest menu items of all. Olga possesses the least love for Chipotle.
44Practice Write the sentence being described. Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “delicious.”Write a sentence that uses the comparative degree of “smart”Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “bad”
45Practice Write the sentence being described. Write a sentence that uses the comparative degree of “few”Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “few”Write a sentence that uses the comparative degree of “little”Write a sentence that uses the superlative degree of “little”HW: WB Pages 16 and 17
46A clause always has a noun and a verb. Can be Independent (meaning can stand by itself as a sentence)Can be Subordinate (meaning must be attached to an independent clause)Review: Clauses
47Clause practice is each indicated clause independent or subordinate? Despite the fact that he already ate four hamburgers for lunch, Umberto ate dinner at Five Guys. The remarkably beautiful girl, who always flirted with Umberto, overlooked his disgustingly greasy appearance. When the two of them got married, the couple honeymooned at a Golden Corral. They bought a new house together in Texas, which is a state notorious for having overweight people.
48I found the rotten taco under the table. A phrase is always missing either a noun or a verb.A common type of phrase is a prepositional phrase.Here are the 25 most common prepositions:Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun.I found the rotten taco under the table.One of my favorite stories is by the illustrious Edgar Allan Poe, who lived in Baltimore.Review: PhrasesOfInToForwithOnAtFromByaboutAsIntoLikeThroughafterOverBetweenOutAgainstduringWithoutBeforeUnderAroundamong
50Adjectives (cont.)E. Some subordinate clauses are adjective clauses which describe nouns. 1. They always begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, which, where, and when) 2. They can be restrictive or nonrestrictive Chimichangas, which are fried burritos, are a delicious meal. (nonrestrictive) The chimichangas that we ate at dinner were very filling.(restrictive) Humbert was the kid who ate too many of them. (restrictive) Humbert, whose mom is a nurse, had to carry him to the car. (nonrestrictive) Unfortunately for her, the car is the place where he got very sick. (restrictive)
51Adjectives (cont.)F. Some prepositional phrases are adjective phrases that describe nouns. The sandwiches at Chick Fil A are absolutely delicious. The pickles on the sandwich are a flavorful touch. I personally love the taste of polynesian sauce. Many of my students appreciate the sandwiches with barbecue sauce.
52Why are these prepositional phrases not adjective phrases? Pedro thought it would be funny to spit in the eye of the llama.Unfortunately for Pedro, he was kicked in the stomach.He had to be driven towards the hospital.
53Practice Write a sentence with a nonrestricive adjective clause. Write a sentence with a restrictive adjective clause.Write a sentence with an adjectival prepositional phrase.Homework: WB Pages 18 and 19
55VII. AdverbsAdverbs are words that describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.There are many types of adverbsAdverbs can describe time, place, manner, degree, affirmation, or negation.Time (when or how often): I frequently visit the Outer Banks.Place (where): It is far away, but worth the journey.Manner (how or in what way): We spend our days peacefully on the beach.Degree (how much or little): The beaches there are very beautiful.Affirmation (expresses approval): It is undoubtedly the best place to vacation.Negation (expresses a negative condition or refusal): I hope my family never stops visiting the Outer Banks.
56Practice Write the sentence being described Write a sentence with an adverb of mannerWrite a sentence with an adverb of degreeWrite a sentence with an adverb of negationWrite a sentence with an adverb of timeHomework: Workbook page 73
57Adverbs (cont.)B. There are four interrogative adverbs: how, when, where, and why. Interrogative adverbs begin a question. Where did you vacation last year? When was the last time you visited Disney World? How do you usually get to your vacation destination?Note: Don’t confuse these words with the interrogative pronouns we learned last month: who, whom, whose, which, and what
58Adverbs (cont.)C. There are adverbial nouns, which are nouns acting as adverbs. They express time, distance, measure, value, or direction. I drove south to get to North Carolina. We survived four weeks after the zombie apocolypse. My fullness lasted three days after the all-u-can-eat crabs. The human stomach has the capability of holding four liters. Fernando ran four miles to escape the marauding elves.Practice: WB 74, 75Or Textbook 113
59Check textbook 114 for a list of all irregular adverbs. Adverbs (cont.)D. Adverbs, like adjectives, have comparative and superlative forms.1. Adverbs ending in –ly use “more/less” and “most/least”2. Adverbs that do not end in –ly get “-er/-est” as their endingsPositiveComparativeSuperlativeAdverbs ending in -lyCarefullyMore CarefullyLess CarefullyMost CarefullyLeast CarefullyBeautifullyMore BeautifullyLess BeautifullyMost BeautifullyLeast BeautifullyAdverbs ending in -erFastFasterFastestLoudLouderLoudestIrregular AdverbsWellBetterBestBadlyWorseWorstMuchMoreMostCheck textbook 114 for a list of all irregular adverbs.
6025 most used prepositions Adverbs (cont.)E. Prepositional phrases can be used as adverbs. Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun. Once, I visited England in the fall. I spent nearly four months living in Norwich, England. People in England speak with a strange accent. They also believe that Americans talk in a funny way.OfInToForwithOnAtFromByaboutAsIntoLikeThroughafterOverBetweenOutAgainstduringWithoutBeforeUnderAroundamong25 most used prepositions
61Be careful not to confuse prepositional phrases that are being used as adjectives with ones being used as adverbs.A popular English dish is frying fish and chips in batter.Many students ate fish and chips at a restaurant on the school’s campus.In England, people refer to “pants” as “trousers.”They also call fried potatoes in a bag “crisps.”During my trip, I also learned that “wanker” is a British insult.British students refer to the Revolutionary War as the “colonial uprising.”
62Adverbs( concluded)F. Subordinate clauses can also be used as adverbs in sentences. Subordinate clauses have a noun and a verb, but cannot stand on their own as sentences. The English have a tenuous relationship with the Irish because the Irish fought for their independence. When England lost the war, they still held onto a small part of Northern Ireland. Because Ireland was successful, Scotland has also attempted to earn independence from Britain. They remain a British colony since they lost the revolution.
63Be careful not to confuse subordinate clauses that are being used as adjectives with ones being used as adverbs.William Wallace was a Scottish revolutionary who was slaughtered by the English.Although Northern Ireland belongs to England, it is more like Ireland than its motherland.There was a time when Northern Ireland was overwhelmed with terrorism.Since I have visited both Ireland and England, I believe I enjoyed England far better.England was the place where I had a great deal more fun.While England had better food and kinder people, Ireland offered beautiful scenery.
64Practice Write a sentence with an adverbial prepositional phrase. Write a sentence with an adjectival prepositional phraseWrite a sentence with an adverbial subordinate clause.Write a sentence with an adjectival subordinate clause.Homework: WB 79 and 80
66VIII. PrepositionsA preposition shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in a sentence.A preposition cannot stand by itself; it is always part of a phrase. A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.Near Loyola, you will find a store called Legends.Legends is a shop that carries a variety of comics and games.Among their many products, you will find a game called Magic: The Gathering.
67VIII. Prepositions (cont.) Olga is the girl I want to dance with.Olga is the girl with whom I want dance.That is the movie I was telling you about.That is the movie about which I was telling you.Do you know what college you want to go to?Do you know to which college you want to go?Very Common Mistake:Prepositions Cannot End Sentences
68Practice Identify the prepositional phrase in each of the following sentences. They may have more than one.Magic: The Gathering is a game about dueling wizards.Wizards, called Planeswalkers, summon monsters with the magical essence mana.In the challenging game, players utilize collectible trading cards adorned with colorful illustrations.Many students at the illustrious Loyola Blakefield play Magic after school.
69VIII. Prepositions (cont.) C. Some words can be used as either prepositions or adverbs. Remember that prepositions always have objects, adverbs will not. Inside my house, you will find two cats. Both of the cats live inside. The explorers knew that treasure was beneath the temple. They had no idea what type of treasure could lay beneath.
70VIII. Prepositions (cont.) D. Prepositional phrases can function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns in sentences.As Adjectives:The Hobbit is a book by J.R. Tolkein.The book tells the exciting story of a Hobbit’s journey.As Adverbs:The book is being made into a movie.The director worked with tremendous dedication to ensure the movie is great.As Nouns:A beautiful place to film a movie is on the island nation New Zealand.After the movie is a great time to discuss it.
71Practice Identify the prepositional phrase by circling it Practice Identify the prepositional phrase by circling it. Then write whether it is an adjective, adverb, or noun.After school is the best time to play games.My family often plays games at the beach.My sister and I like to play monopoly with our cousins.Monopoly sometimes lasts for three hours.The object of the game is bankrupt your opponents.
73IX. ConjunctionsConjunctions can be coordinating conjunctions, which connect words or groups of words that are similar.ForAndNorButOrYetSo
74IX. Conjunction (cont.)B. Correlative Conjunctions are conjunctions that are always used in pairs to connect words or groups of words that have equal importance. both…and either…or neither…nor not only…but also whether…or
75Practice: Workbook Pages. WB Page 109, #’s 8-19WB Page 110, #’s 1-12Homework: Memorize the coordinating and correlative conjunctions for a quiz tomorrow.
76IX. Conjunctions (cont.) C. Conjunctions can take the form of conjunctive adverbs. Conjunctive adverbs connect independent clauses. A semicolon always appears before conjunctive adverbs, and commas appear after them.Here are the most common:AlsoBesidesConsequentlyFinallyFurthermoreHenceHoweverIn factIndeedInsteadLaterLikewiseMoreoverNeverthelessNonethelessOtherwiseStillSubsequentlyThereforethus
77Practice Identify the Conjunctive Adverb Risk is a game that takes a long time to play; in fact, some games have lasted several days.Chess is a game that requires strategy and attention; consequently, many of the smartest men in history have played it.
78Here Are Some Common Examples IX. ConjunctionsD. Conjunctions can be subordinate conjunctions. Subordinate conjunctions join a subordinate clause to an independent clause. They almost always introduce adverb clauses.Here Are Some Common ExamplesAfterIn order thatAlthoughOnceUnlessProvidedUntilAs ifSinceWheneverBecauseWhetherBeforeThanWhileHowThatWhyIfEven ifThere are more. See textbook page 172.
79Subordinating Conjunctions Unless you really like fantasy literature, you should avoid playing Dungeons and Dragons. Dungeons and Dragons is an intense game because you do not have a board or rulebook.Subordinate ClauseIndependent ClauseIndependent ClauseSubordinate Clause
80Additional Practice: Textbook pages 172-173 exercise 1. Practice Underline the subordinate Clause. Circle the subordinate conjunction.Pokemon cards were extremely popular when they debuted in 1996.Once Yu-Gi-Oh was released in 1999, it became the highest selling card game in history.Yu-Gi-Oh still remains popular to this day, while Pokemon has seen its sales steadily decline.Additional Practice: Textbook pages exercise 1.
82ACTION LINKING AUXILIARY (HELPING) A. Types of VerbsVERBSACTION LINKING AUXILIARY (HELPING)Transitive IntransitiveActive Passive
83B. Principal Parts of a Verb Every verb has four principal parts, shown in the chart below.Participles can function as verbs (which show action or state of being), or as adjectives or nouns (if used as verbals).Base FormPast FormPast ParticiplePresent ParticipleTo TalkTalkedTalkingTo TypeTypedTypingTo CallCalledCallingTo HideHidHiddenHidingTo FreezeFrozeFrozenFreezingNotice how sometimes the past and past participle forms are the same, but other times, they are different.
84But how can the same word be used as a verb, an adjective, and a noun? The suffering students are freezing in the cold weather. (as verb)The freezing temperature causes chills. (as adjective)The protagonist of “To Build a Fire” did not consider the danger of freezing. (as noun)
85C. Verb PhrasesA VERB PHRASE is one or more verbs that work together as a unit.In verb phrases, the main verb is supported by an auxiliary verb.Common Auxiliary Verbs are BE, HAVE, DO, DID, CAN, MAY, SHOULD, COULD.Note: past participles take helping verbs, but past stands alone.Examples:The new Nintendo system is called the Wii U. (past participle)Previous systems had offered backwards compatibility with Gamecube. (past participle)The new system is not providing the ability to play Gamecube games. (present participle)
86Practice. Identify the verb or verb phrase Practice. Identify the verb or verb phrase. Then, identify its principal part.Mario’s companion is named Yoshi.Yoshi had not appeared in a game prior to 1991.Nintendo introduced Yoshi in Super Mario World for SNES.The dinosaur can perform a variety of skills.Yoshi will eat villains such as goombas and koopas for Mario.Many fans are hoping for Yoshi in the new Super Smash Brothers game.Homework: WB Page 41
87D. Action Verbs Action verbs can be transitive or intransitive. Transitive verbs express an action that passes to a receiverIntransitive verbs do not have a receiver for its actionCompetitive video game players practice their games for hours. (transitive)The student practiced after the school day concluded. (intransitive)In Super Smash Brothers, Mario can fight Luigi in an epic deathmatch. (transitive)The many Nintendo characters fight among themselves. (intransitive)
88Note:Your textbook has a term in it called the “phrasal verb.” A “phrasal verb” in your textbook is a transitive action verb with a preposition after it.The odor of the particular child cleared out the room.A good teacher must work to win over his class.CM Punk smacked down his opponent in the ring.
89The odor of the particular child cleared out the room. A good teacher must work to win over his class.CM Punk smacked down his opponent in the ring.Very controversial! Many would say that the preposition is NOT part of the verb, but is an adverbial prepositional phrase.
90Practice Circle the verb Practice Circle the verb. Identify whether it is transitive or intransitive. If it is transitive, draw an arrow to the direct object.Many students received Assassins Creed for Christmas.The students boast of the game’s quality.This game franchise recounts the adventures of a legacy of assassins.The storyline occurs throughout history.
91Yoda: Jedi Master, English Failure “Named must your fear be before banish it you can.”“The dark side I sense in you”
92“Named must your fear be before banish it you can.” “The dark side I sense in you”ObjectSubjectSubjectObject
93Quality writers put subjects first. “Named must your fear be before banish it you can.”You must name your fear before you banish it.“The dark side I sense in you”I sense the dark side in you.
94D. Action Verbs (cont.)2. A transitive action verb has a voice. It can be in the active voice or the passive voice.a. In the active voice, the subject is the doer of the action.b. In the passive voice, the subject is the receiver of the action.Active Voice:Bethesda Games created Elder Scrolls: Skyrim.In the game, your avatar battles fierce dragons and monsters.Passive Voice:Elder Scrolls: Skyrim was created by Bethesda Games.Fierce dragons and monsters are battled by your avatar in the game.
95NEVER USE THE PASSIVE VOICE! Seriously. Superior authors consistently select the active voice. Passive writing bogs down compositions and sounds dull.
96Practice Write the sentence. Then, rewrite it in the active voice. The video game industry was changed by the first Zelda game.The ability to save was the new feature Zelda offered.The game’s epic storyline and length were lauded by video game critics.Homework: handout
97More Practice: Active or Passive More Practice: Active or Passive? (questions from a 10th grade grammar exam)1. The sidewalks were covered with snow.A. ActiveB. Passive2. Mark Twain wrote Huckleberry Finn in the 1st person point of view.3. One may argue that Chief Bromden represents the central character in Cuckoo's Nest.4. The black veil is perceived by the townspeople as a sign of secret sin Mr. Hooper has committed.5. Tybalt is brutally slaughtered by Romeo after he murdered Mercutio under his arm.6. Lennie and George in Of Mice and Men are presented by John Steinbeck as being likeable but flawed.7. The Baltimore Orioles present the illusion of promise but submit their fans to endless suffering.8. Rarely do students at Loyola find themselves being subjected to poor teachers who lack intelligence.
98E. Linking VerbsLinking Verbs join a subject with a subject complement.Remember that subject complements rename or describe the subject.A very popular game in the library is chess.For many Loyola students, chess is extremely fun.The student who was the champion at chess is him.
99Note:The verb “to be” is the most common linking verb. (AM, IS, ARE, WAS, WERE, WILL BE, HAS BEEN, HAD BEEN, ETC.)HOWEVERIt is not the only one. Other linking verbs are words like appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn.To many video game fans, the Wii U appears very bad.Many longtime Nintendo players feel disgusted with Nintendo’s lack of progress.However, the Wii U could become amazing if it offers games like Super Smash Bros.
100Some words can be used as either. Action or Linking?Some words can be used as either.When playing Fallout 3, it is important to constantly look at the map.Cities, quests, and shops will look different on the map after you discover them.Many players remain in their basements playing Fallout 3 for hours.Of all the games I have played, Fallout 3 remains the best.People who play video games for too long often smell bad.You can practically smell them when you walk in the room.
101Practice Write the sentence described. Write the word “feel” as an action verb.Write the word “feel” as a linking verb.Write a single sentence that uses the word “grow” twice, once as an action verb and again as a linking verb.
102F. The Tenses of verbsVerbs indicate tense, which is the time of the action.Mr. Bailey constructed a handout on this.Present SimplePlayEatSmellPresent ProgressiveIs PlayingIs EatingIs SmellingPresent Perfect activeHave PlayedHave EatenHave SmelledPresent Perfect PassiveHas Been PlayedHas Been EatenHas Been SmelledPresent Perfect ProgressiveHave Been PlayingHave Been EatingHave Been SmellingPast SimplePlayedAteSmelledPast ProgressiveWas PlayingWas EatingWas SmellingPast Perfect ActiveHad playedHad EatenHad SmelledPast Perfect PassiveHad been playedHad Been EatenHad Been SmelledPast Perfect ProgressiveHad been playingHad Been EatingHad Been SmellingFuture SimpleWill PlayWill EatWill SmellFuture ProgressiveWill Be PlayingWill Be EatingWill Be SmellingFuture Perfect ActiveWill Have PlayedWill Have EatenWill Have SmelledFuture Perfect PassiveWill Have Been PlayedWill Have Been EatenWill Have Been SmelledFuture Perfect ProgressiveWill Have Been PlayingWill Have Been EatingWill Have Been Smelling
103G. The Mood of VerbsVerb forms can indicate mood. There are three moods in English.Indicative mood: states a fact or asks a question. Any verb tense can be used for this mood.Microsoft is working on a new Xbox.The new system will possess a blu-ray player.b. Imperative mood: gives a command. Use base form of the verb and add “do not” if you want to use the negative.Play Fallout 3 as soon as possible.Do not play the very disappointing Fallout: New Vegas.Subject is “you”
104Huh? G. Mood of Verbs (cont.) c. Subjunctive Mood: is used in contrary to fact statements (after if or as though) and in statements expressing a wish.Huh?
108Agreement Rules What is wrong with the following sentences? Many of the authors we study writes about life in America.Edgar Allan Poe and Mark Twain is some of the most famous.Neither Mr. Bailey nor his students likes the New York Yankees.
109Agreement Rules The verbs do not agree with the subjects in number. A singular subject must get a singular verb. A plural subject must get a plural verb.Many of the authors we study writes about life in America.Many of the authors we study write about life in America.Edgar Allan Poe and Mark Twain is some of the most famous.Edgar Allan Poe and Mark Twain are some of the most famous.Neither Mr. Bailey nor his students likes the New York Yankees.Neither Mr. Bailey nor his students like the New York Yankees.
110Agreement Rules (continued) Any two nouns joined by “and” get a plural verb except when the two items count as one (like “spaghetti and meatballs” or “peanut butter and jelly”)Mr. Bailey and Dr. Donovan are English teachers.The students and teachers enjoy the Turkey Bowl.
111Agreement rules (continued) If two nouns are joined by “nor,” or “or”, the noun closer to the verb decides whether the verb is singular or plural.Neither Mr. Bailey nor his students cheer for the Yankees.Neither his students nor Mr. Bailey cheers for the Yankees.
112Agreement Rules (continued) If the words “each,” “either,” neither,” “anyone,” “someone,” “everyone,” “anybody,” “somebody,” or “everybody” are used AS A SUBJECT, they get a singular verbEveryone enjoys Mr. Bailey’s English class.Each of the students enjoys Mr. Bailey’s English class.Neither boy enjoys Mr. Bailey’s English class.Either of the teachers will proctor your class.
113Agreement Rules (continued) If the words “several,” “few,” “both,” or “many” are used, the verb is plural.Several of the students play Modern Warfare.Many of the students prefer XboxBoth of the teachers play PS3.
115Note: Not Everyone Considers This To Be Its Own Part of Speech XI. VerbalsNote: Not Everyone Considers This To Be Its Own Part of Speech
116What are some words ending in –ing that could describe this picture?
117XI. VerbalsVerbals are words made from verbs that function as other parts of speech.Verbals can be participles.A participle is a verb form used as an adjective.Remember that verbs can have a past, present, or perfect participle form.Participles can be used alone or as part of participial phrases, which include the participle, its object or complement, and any modifiers.
118Participle ExamplesA sizzling piece of steak tempts any hungry man. (present participle alone)Sizzling on its plate, the sirloin beckoned to be consumed. (present participle in phrase)A seasoned cut of sirloin provides the perfect summer meal. (past participle alone)Seasoned with Old Bay and pepper, the cut of mean emanated flavor. (past participle in phrase)The talented chef lit the grill for his marinating steak. (present participle alone)Having marinated for hours, the steak appeared tender and juicy. (perfect participle in phrase)
119Practice Underline the participial phrase in each sentence Practice Underline the participial phrase in each sentence. Then decide whether it is present, past, or perfect tense.The best chefs, having studied the art of butchery, know where to harvest the best beef from a cow. Cut from the short loin of a cow, the porterhouse offers the richest flavor. The rear end of a cow, packed with juicy fat, provides bottom round for roast beef. Butchers utilize the breast of a cow for ground beef, constituting the majority of hamburgers in America.
120Participles (cont.)4. Participles are commonly misused. A dangling participle does not appear to modify any word in a sentence. A misplaced participle seems to modify the wrong word.The hungry student gazed upon the t-bone steak drooling at the mouth. (misplaced)Having burned it on both sides, the chef felt disappointed. (dangling)Covered in a spicy seasoning blend, the chef placed the steak on the grill. (misplaced)Having been eaten by the hungry customer, the chef threw the bone to his dog. (dangling)
121XI. Verbals (continued) Verbals can be gerunds.A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing used as a noun.Gerunds, like participles, can be used in phrases.Gerunds can be used as subjects, objects, or appositives.Many men in America relish the act of eating. (as object)Devouring delicious pork has become a popular choice. (as subject)Many do not realize the abundance of pig parts fit for cooking in a variety of ways. (as object)The idea behind a brine, soaking pork in sugar and salt, is to enrich the flavor of the meat. (as appositive)
122Note:Remember: the same word can be used as a participle (verb used as adjective) or as a gerund (verb used as a noun)Cooking Bacon in the morning causes the house to emanate with aroma. (as gerund)The cooking bacon began to burn on the skillet. (as participle)
123Practice Underline the verbal or verbal phrase in each sentence Practice Underline the verbal or verbal phrase in each sentence. Then, decide whether it is a gerund or a participle.Though many consider pigs dirty, butchering a pig yields many flavorful cuts of meat.Used for lunchmeat ham, the pig’s rear end offers fatty, flavorful flesh.Pig’s stomachs, salted and smoked, produce crispy bacon.Carnivores everywhere enjoy devouring succulent bacon.
124XI. Verbals (cont.)D. Verbals can be infinitives. 1. An infinitive is a verb form preceded by the word “to” that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. 2. Infinitives can be used on their own or as part of phrases. 3. Infinitives can be used as subjects, complements, objects, adjectives, adverbs, or appositives. (yikes!)
125Infinitive ExamplesTo eat crabs gives many Marylanders pleasure. (as subject) Fishermen now struggle to catch enough crabs. (as object) The primary task of environmentalists in Maryland is to preserve the crab population. (as complement) Their goal, to restore the crab population, requires a great deal of work. (as appositive) In the summer, my family visits the Wye River to catch crabs. (as adverb) There are fewer crabs to catch than ever before. (as adjective)
126Infinitives (cont.)4. Some infinitives are “hidden,” meaning the word “to” does not appear before the verb. This is only used after the verbs “hear,” “see,” “feel,” “let,” “make,” “dare,” “need,” and “help.” For example: We heard our teacher talk about a very large man. The teacher saw the man eat over three dozen crabs. We would not dare eat as many crabs as the fat man. 5. Do not “split” infinitives. This refers to placing an adverb between the word “to” and the verb. All-U-Can-Eat restaurants allow customers to joyfully eat unlimited crabs. Many kindly offer customers the chance to continuously consume steamed shrimp as well.
127Practice Identify the infinitive phrase in each sentence Practice Identify the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Then identify whether it is being used as a subject, object, complement, appositive, adjective, or adverbEveryone sat around the picnic table to pick crabs. People from outside of Maryland often must learn to pick crabs appropriately. If you get the chance to eat snow crab, I highly encourage it. To catch snowcrabs proves a difficult and challenging lifestyle. Snowcrab fishermen must travel to the far reaches of Earth to find the elusive creatures. Their life choice, to spend many cold nights on the arctic sea, is confusing to many people. One day, my hope is to try a fresh snow crab.