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The Gilded Era and Industrialization. A.Industrial Revolution and the Giant MonopoliesIndustrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies B.Laissez Faire PoliticsLaissez.

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Presentation on theme: "The Gilded Era and Industrialization. A.Industrial Revolution and the Giant MonopoliesIndustrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies B.Laissez Faire PoliticsLaissez."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Gilded Era and Industrialization

2 A.Industrial Revolution and the Giant MonopoliesIndustrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies B.Laissez Faire PoliticsLaissez Faire Politics C.Development of the American Class SystemDevelopment of the American Class System D.Immigration and ImmigrantsImmigration and Immigrants E.Manifest Destiny and the Westward MovementManifest Destiny and the Westward Movement F.Spanish-American War and American ImperialismSpanish-American War and American Imperialism G.Politics of StalematePolitics of Stalemate Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Course Outline

3 Analyze the political and economic transformations which occurred as a result of industrialization from the late 19th century to the present with some evidence of understanding the principles of democracy and capitalism. Study Guide Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #1

4 How has industrialization from the late 19th century to the present transformed American politics and economy? Did industrialization strengthen or weaken democracy? Did industrialization increase or diminish economic competition? Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #1

5 The period of American industrialization after the Civil War has become known as the Gilded Age The term “Gilded Age” was first coined by Mark Twain in his 1873 satire on the American social condition, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (text)Mark Twaintext The gilding of an object is a process for covering an ordinary object with a thin layer of gold to create the illusion that this object was more valuable than it was in realitygilding For Twain and other social critics, the America that was emerging after the Civil War was a society not only one of great wealth but also serious social problems – a “gilded age” Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Introduction

6 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Introduction Mark Twain

7 Industrial Revolution & the Great Monopolies

8 To understand the impact of post-Civil War industrialization on America’s political and economic institutions it must be kept in mind that before the Civil War America was a nation of small farms and villages Most Americans spent their lives with their family and neighbors, not with large, impersonal institutions such as railroads and corporations After the Civil War America was rapidly transformed into a nation of large cities filled with diverse people working in large factories Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

9 Industrialization transformed America into a world power – by 1913 the United States was the world’s largest economy producing one-third of the world’s industrial output; more than the combined output of Great Britain, France, and Germany The foundations for industrialization date back to the beginning of the nation and Alexander Hamilton’s mercantilist economic program which laid the foundations for the early development of the textile industry Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

10 Hamilton’s mercantilist policies reemerged as Clay’s American System after the War of 1812 but the rise of Jacksonian Democracy discouraged economic development while encouraging and protecting the slave economy of the South In 1856 the Republican Party emerged with a program that not only called for an end to the expansion of slavery into the west but also for a program of national economic development, including protective tariffs and support for a transcontinental railroad Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

11 The Civil War would play two important roles in America’s rapid industrialization When the South left the Union the Republicans were left in control of Congress and free to implement its economic program: The first step in the Republican’s economic programs was the passing of a protective tariff, the Morrill Tariff, in 1861Morrill Tariff Soon Congress passed the Homestead Act of 1862 which provided a 160 acres of free public land for any individual who would settle and develop public landHomestead Act Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

12 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies Homestead Act of 1862

13 The long sought transcontinental railroad was also funded with the Pacific Railroad Acts of 1862 and 1864 which provided 100 million acres of Federal land to subsidize the building of the Transcontinental RailroadPacific Railroad Acts Also important for the Republicans was the development of a system of higher education to support “agriculture and the mechanic arts....” In 1862 the Morrill Land Grant Act was passed providing each state with 30,000 acres of Federal alnd to support agricultural and mechanical colleges – Cal Poly PomonaMorrill Land Grant Act Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

14 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies Transcontinental Railroad

15 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies Land Grant College – Class from Oklahoma State University

16 The Civil War also encouraged the expansion and modernization of agriculture and manufacturing because of the large manpower demands caused by the war Many of the “Robber Barons” of the Gilded Age would begin their careers during the Civil War: Andrew Carnegie John D Rockefeller Philip D. Armour Cyrus H McCormick Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

17 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies Andrew Carnegie John D Rockefeller

18 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies Philip D Amour

19 The growth of American industry was made possible by the development of a national system of railroads The railroad encouraged the development of commercial agriculture, urbanization, and economic specialization The North’s extensive railroad system played a major role in its victory From 1860 to 1880 the nation’s railroad mileage tripled and by 1890 five transcontinental railroads had been completed Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

20 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

21 Before the development of the railroads most Americans only interacted with members of their local community With the coming of the railroads many Americans, particularly farmers and railroad workers, for the first time had to deal with a large and impersonal institution Railroads also introduced Americans to the concept of standards No standard had more impact on the lives of all Americans than the adoption of standard time zones in 1883 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

22 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

23 In 1886 the railroads adopted a standard gauge (the width of the train tracks) to allow railroad cars from different companies to travel on the same track The development of railroads also made possible the growth of nationally marketed consumer goods such as Quaker Oats and Ivory Soap The railroad also made it possible for Sears, Roebuck, & Co. in 1888 to introduce the mail- order catalog that give consumers, even in rural America, access to many more goods than they could find in their local stores Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

24 Railroads made it possible for national chain stores such as A & P Grocery to challenge smaller local stores – today many local merchants must compete with Walmart While most Americans welcomed the greater access to consumer goods, many were left uncomfortable with the disappearance of their familiar small town life The railroads also allowed the development of urban centers of production and distribution: Chicago became a national railroad hub as well as a center for food processing Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

25 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

26 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

27 Cincinnati became a center for producing consumer goods such as soap Pittsburg became the center for heavy industry, particularly the production of steel Another factor contributing to the nation’s industrialization was the development of electricity to replace steam power in manufacturing and transportation Not only was electricity a more efficient power source for industry, it made possible the development of consumer goods such as the light bulb and home appliances Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

28 However, like railroads need for standardized time and track gauges, industry also required the development of national standards for the generation and distribution of electricity Initially the nation adopted Thomas Edison’s direct current system (DC) which allowed the transmission of electricity for only a few milesThomas Edison Nikola Tesla suggested a system of alternating current (AC) which could be transmitted hundreds of miles Nikola Tesla With the support of George Westinghouse, Tesla’s AC system would become the national standard Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

29 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies Thomas EdisonNikola Tesla

30 ? Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

31 Finally, industrialization was made possible by the growing use and acceptance of the corporation The building of railroads and the construction of large factories requires vast amounts of capital, money The corporation was developed by the Dutch as a way of pooling funds necessary to finance trading expeditions to the East Indies The corporation limited the risks of the individual investor and in return promised a division of the profits proportional to the investment Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

32 The railroads and factories built after the Civil War were built by corporations, not individual Americans Competition was no longer between individual local businessmen but between large corporations – “big business” The rapid expansion of railroads resulted in too many competing railroads The new large factories were so productive that they produced more goods than demanded by the public Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

33 “Robber Barons” such as John D. Rockefeller would develop new business practices to control production and increase profits for their corporations The railroads developed a process known as the “pool” that divided the market and established prices The “trust” was a legal agreement that allowed several competing companies to be managed by a single board of directors Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

34 The most well-known strategy for managing competition is the “monopoly” when one corporation either buys the competition or drives it out of business Between 1897 and 1904 more than 4,000 firms were merged to form larger corporations After the Civil War the nation also produced large agricultural surpluses but farmers, unlike large corporations, lacked the means for controlling production and prices Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

35 Many farmers lost their farms because falling prices made it difficult to repay the loans necessary to continue to plant and harvest their crops In addition, farmers were also burdened by the monopolistic prices the railroads charged for shipping their crops to market (railroads often charged farmers higher prices than large corporations such as Standard Oil) Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

36 Adding to the problem of falling prices for farm products was the Federal government’s fiscal policies which reduced the supply of money: The Greenback paper currency issued during the Civil War were retired The Federal government also adopted the Gold Standard which fixed the price of gold and limited the growth of the supply of money Decreasing the money supply resulted in falling prices which results in lower wages and lower prices for agriculture commodities Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

37 Because corporations had some ability to control production and prices, their incomes grew faster than the incomes of the farmers and the industrial workers America’s industrialization and the growing power of corporations was beginning to limit the economic opportunities of most Americans The belief that the American Dream was achieved through hard work and honesty began to fade to be replaced by a fear of social conflict The nation now began to debate the causes and solutions for what many called the “Labor Problem” Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization A. Industrial Revolution and the Giant Monopolies

38 Laissez Faire Politics

39 While industrialization impacted the daily lives of Americans, it also impacted the nation’s political institutions The changes in American society led to a growing fear that traditional values were being lost The editors of The Nation asked its readers if “The great curse of the Old World – the division of society into classes,” had come to America Terms such as “respectable classes” and “dangerous classes” now entered the political debate Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

40 Women and minority groups increasingly called for equal opportunities to participate in the American Dream Even the meaning of the American Dream was changing as many Americans began to believe that having access to mass-produced consumer goods was now an American right Traditionally most Americans believed that the American Dream was achieved by hard work and individual effort, not by government assistance For some, the various social movements based upon voluntary cooperation also played a role Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

41 For many Americans the rise of large institutions, particularly business corporations meant that individual initiative was no longer enough to achieve the American Dream However, Americans still believed their government should not interfere in the economy or their personal lives – laissez faire politics Many Americans turned to voluntary social reform movements rather than the government to solve the nation’s growing social problems What do Americans believe today? Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

42 Those Americans who believed in individualism found support in the ideas of Social Darwinism, a social philosophy loosely based upon Charles Darwin’s work on evolutionSocial DarwinismCharles Darwin One of the most prominent Social Darwinists was Herbert Spencer who challenged the assumption found in the Declaration of Independence that all men are created equal Herbert Spencer The Social Darwinists argued that the nation’s class and racial differences were “natural” and needed to be accepted Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

43 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics Charles Darwin Herbert Spencer

44 The most extreme Social Darwinists not only opposed government assistance for the poor but even that of voluntary charities The Social Darwinists also believed the rise of big business was natural and any government interference in the economy would lead to economic inefficiency The most influential American Social Darwinist was William Graham Sumner who wrote that the purpose of government was to protect “the property of men and the honor of women”William Graham Sumner Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

45 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

46 For many Social Darwinists the primary threat to their version of the American Dream was the rise of the labor movement which interfered with the rights of the owners of business In reality, the argument of the Social Darwinists was inconsistent and reflected the bias of their class On one hand the Social Darwinists argued that when businessmen came together to form a corporation it was natural but when workers came together to protect their interests they were violating the laws of nature Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

47 Social Darwinist argued that the guiding principle for labor was the “liberty of contract” – the freedom of individual workers to negotiate their own contracts with the owners of corporations The Social Darwinists were arguing that labor unions and collective bargaining took away the freedom of each worker to determine their own working conditions Both federal and state courts consistently opposed any laws or regulations that interfered with the workers “liberty of contract” Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

48 An example of the principle of “liberty of contract” being used to overturn a government attempt to regulate working conditions is the case of Lochner v New York (1905) where the Supreme Court struck down a state law that limited the working hours of bakers to ten hours per day or sixty hours per week because it infringed upon the freedom of the individual worker to negotiate their own working conditionsLochner v New York Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

49 The courts also used the anti-monopoly provision of the Sherman Antitrust Act that prohibited any interference with trade to prohibit labor strikes because they interfered with the business owners’ freedom of trade In another example of intellectual inconsistency many Social Darwinists such as Francis Galton encouraged the use of Eugenics or “hereditary science” to promote social improvement through selective breedingEugenics Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

50 The United States pioneered the use of Eugenics for social reform Many states passed laws in the 1920’s permitting the involuntary sterilization of individuals determined to be socially unfit As late as the 1960’s some states still permitted involuntarily sterilization The most tragic example of Eugenics was the Nazis Holocaust of World War II where more than 6 million undesirables, mostly Jews, were exterminatedHolocaust Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

51 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics Medical Record of Woman Sterilized for Feeblemindedness

52 What is not widely known is that the first groups to be exterminated were not the Jews but socially undesirable Germans, both mentally and physically While Americans would explore many solutions to the nation’s growing social problems, the reform movements would come to focus on labor unions and agricultural cooperatives Americans closely followed the arguments of Utopian Socialist who believed private property was the source of the nation’s problems but did not propose violent revolution Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

53 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics Auschwitz Death Camp

54 Henry George’s Progress and Poverty (1879) argued that wealth was produced by labor and individuals only had the right to own what they produced, not what nature had produced, including land – (text) Henry Georgetext Rather than taxing the products of labor, George proposed taxing the wealth generated by land and other natural products (gold, oil, etc.) Another widely read book was Edward Bellamy’s Looking Backward, (1888) which describes life in America in 2000 where state ownership of production has brought social harmony and peace – (text)Edward Bellamytext Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

55 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics Henry George

56 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics Edward Bellamy

57 Another solution for the nation’s social problems was a movement known as the Social Gospel which argued that unbridled economic competition was contrary to the Christian idea of brotherhood -Social Gospel In Christianity and the Social Crisis Walter Rauschenbusch writes that “"Whoever uncouples the religious and the social life has not understood Jesus” – (text)Walter Rauschenbuschtext While the American public showed interest in these idealistic proposals they were considered too utopian and impractical Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

58 The nation’s political and business leaders were more concerned with violent social reform movements such as Marxism than the utopian socialist previously discussed Karl Marx in The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867) argued that the struggle between workers and the owners of capital was inevitable called on the workers to unite and violently overthrow their governments – (text) Karl Marxtext Marxism had little appeal for Americans but would eventually establish itself in Russia where it challenged American during the Cold War Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

59 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics Karl Marx

60 The most violent opponents of government and business were the Anarchist who opposed all forms of government and advocated the use of violence to achieve their ends – today’s terrorismAnarchist Beginning in 1881 these violent Anarchists undertook an international campaign of assassination which claimed the lives of several government leaders including Tsar Alexander II of Russia and American President William McKinley Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

61 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics Assassination of William McKinley, 1901

62 Many American business leaders attempted to discredit the labor movement by arguing that it had come under the influence of violent groups like the Anarchists who were responsible for the bloody Haymarket Riot of 1886Haymarket Riot Most American workers rejected social revolution and violence and instead turned to labor unions to provide the unity needed to negotiate with large corporations As discussed earlier, there is a long tradition of Americans coming together in social movements to address national problems – including labor Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

63 Most businesses before the Civil War were small and the owners and workers often had a personal relationship, although not necessary a sense of social equality Often workers joined together to negotiate for higher wages and improved working conditions but local courts often found such actions to be an illegal restraint of trade Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

64 In one notable case, the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled in Commonwealth v Hunt (1842) that workers wereCommonwealth v Hunt free to work for whom the please, or not to work, if they so prefer.... We cannot perceive that it is criminal for men to agree together to exercise their own acknowledged rights, in such a manner as best to subserve their own interests. While the Hunt case is often cited as a major victory for labor its impact was limited because it only applied to the state of Massachusetts Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

65 Terence Powderly in 1869 founded the first effective national labor organization, the Knights of Labor Terence Powderly Knights of Labor Powderly’s goal was to unify all the nation’s producers, not just traditional labor Powderly rejected labor strikes and economic coercion in favor of education and politics While Powderly’s open philosophy led to the dramatic growth of the Knights it also made it more difficult to control the organization Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

66 Soon the Knights were involved in a number of labor strikes including the disastrous Haymarket Riot of 1886 (discussed above) Many government and business leaders now accused the Knights of supporting violent anarchists and soon the Knights collapsed Samuel Gompers was more successful than Powderly in creating a long lasting labor organization, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) – an alliance of independent craft (specialized) unions Samuel GompersAmerican Federation of Labor Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

67 The unions of the AFL were composed primarily of skilled men while unskilled workers, African- Americans, and women were generally excluded While the unions of the AFL were successful, they also reflect the continuing reluctance to include minorities and women in the American Dream America’s small, independent farmers were also challenged by the nation’s industrialization and the growing power of corporations Like labor, farmers tried to address their problems through organization and cooperation Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

68 The most successful of these farm organizations was the Farm Alliance (1877) which encouraged farmers to form agricultural cooperatives for financing and marketing their cropsFarm Alliance Some of these cooperatives, such as Ocean Spray, have survived to the present While private bankers were willing to loan money for industrialization and the creation of monopolies they refused to make loans to the cooperatives because the bankers refused to support efforts to control production and raise prices Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

69 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

70 Unable to find private funding, the Farm Alliance proposed that the Federal Government assist them through a program that came to be know as the “Subtreasury Plan”:Subtreasury Plan The Federal Government would build warehouses for storing crops The stored crops would become collateral allowing the government to make low interest loans to the farmers The Federal Government would use the notes from the farmers to increase the money supply and raise prices, including farm prices Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

71 Today farm production is controlled through the aid of the Federal Government To win support for the Subtreasury Plan the Farmers Alliance would eventually turn to politics In conclusion, Americans generally turned to social movements rather than politics to address the nation’s social problems In addition, the growing political influence of the nation’s corporations also discouraged the search for political solutions to the nation’s social problems Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization B. Laissez Faire Politics

72 Development of the American Class System

73 Americans believed what differentiated them from Europe was the absence of hereditary social classes Alexis de Tocqueville, the famous commentator on American democracy observed “What is most important for democracy is not that great fortunes should not exist, but that great fortunes should not remain in the same hands. In that way there are rich men, but they do not form a class.” Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System

74 The great wealth created by big business was not shared by all Americans By 1890 the income of the richest 1 percent of Americans equaled that of the remaining 99 percent – today? Many of the richest Americans not only lived an aristocratic life style but also began to live in separate neighborhoods such as Nob Hill in San Francisco and “Millionaire Row” in Pasadena Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System

75 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System Wrigley Mansion, Pasadena

76 The growth of big business also led to the emergence of a middle class of managers and professionals The growth of large business required a growing number of managers to oversee the work in the factories and offices There also was a growing demand for attorneys, doctors, and architects However, membership in the middle class was limited to White males Not able to live in the neighborhoods of the rich, the middle class began to move to the suburbs Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System

77 For most American workers industrialization brought economic insecurity and poverty Most workers labored sixty hours per week and received no pensions, no compensation for workplace injuries, and no unemployment insurance The plight of the working class became the subject of investigative reporters The best known of these reporters was Jacob Riis who in his How the other Half Lives (1890) used photographs to illustrate the horrible living conditions of the urban poor – (text) Jacob Riistext Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System

78 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System How the Other Half Lives, 1890

79 Many small farmers, like most industrial workers, did not benefit from the great wealth generated by industrialization American farmers were threatened by falling prices for their produce and growing dependence upon big business, particularly the railroads A growing number of farmers found themselves not able to pay their mortgages and lost their farms Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System

80 The ownership of farms became increasingly concentrated in the hands of large land owners who used low paid farm workers or “share- croppers” who did not own the land but “shared” in the yearly “profits” Some critics, such as Henry George, argued that the new farms were nothing more than plantations and urged the government to take action against the landed monopoly and to “give all men and equal chance” to achieve economic independence Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System

81 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System Small Farm

82 For many Americans the Gilded Age came to symbolize the end of small town American innocence and beginning of social conflict Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization C. Development of the American Class System

83 Immigration and Immigrants

84 Appraise the role that immigration has played in the history the United States since 1876, explaining how government regulations and popular support have changed up until Study Guide Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #5

85 This is a compound question – appraising and explaining When appraising the role of immigration think about whether or not immigration has been good for American society – take a position! When you explain how government regulations and popular support changed over time think about the fact there was virtually no regulation of immigration prior to 1876 Also think about the fact that some immigrants, even before the Civil War were not always welcomed Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #5

86 Few images symbolize America more than the Statue of Liberty Statue of Liberty Few images more clearly reflect the contradictions in America life, particularly toward immigrants, than the Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty was a gift to the American people from the French people to celebrate the 100 th anniversary of the American Revolution The monument was also to remind the American people that it was the aid of the French that made it possible for America to win its independence Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

87 The Statue of Liberty was dedicated in 1886 with a poem by Emma Lazarus: "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

88 Ironically, the Statue of Liberty was dedicated at a time when many Americans were increasingly distrustful of the immigrant and believed they had become a threat to the nation Americans had long considered themselves a unique nation free from the corruption of Europe and destined by God be a model for the rest of the world Is it any wonder that at a time when American society was being challenged by the rapid changes brought about by industrialization that traditional White Americans would blame the nation’s difficulties on recent immigrants Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

89 The experience of Chinese immigrants illustrates the shifting attitudes of native Americans towards immigrants The economic hardships caused by 1848 Taiping Rebellion and the high wages for laborers in California after the discovery of gold encouraged Chinese immigration to California The Chinese would makeup 80% of the workforce building the Central Pacific Railroad Early opposition to Chinese immigrants was led in California by Denis Kearney and his Workingmen’s Party but the Central Pacific continued to employ Chinese workersDenis Kearney Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

90 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

91 Because the nation was moving into a period political stalemate Congress was receptive to California agitation for limiting Chinese immigration and in 1882 passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which suspended Chinese immigration for ten years and prohibited the naturalization of ChineseChinese Exclusion Act The nation’s rapid industrialization dramatically increased the need for workers in the new factories Like the case with the Chinese, developments in Italy and eastern Europe would encourage migration from these areas Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

92 Ironically, Wilson looked more favorably on the Chinese who he considered “to be desired, as workmen if not as citizens, than most of the coarse crew that came crowding in every year in the eastern ports.” Whatever the popular attitude toward the new immigrants, the reality is that the nation needed these unskilled workers for their factories rather than the earlier farmers and skilled artisans Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

93 The new immigrants were also blamed for the political corruption of the big cities Again, the reality was more complex than it appeared to the critics, it must be kept in mind that immigrants had little experience with democracy and faced real challenges adjusting to life in America In addition, political corruption had a long history in America Finally, the urban political machines were not led by the new immigrants but by Irish politicians such as John Fitzgerald, the grandfather of John KennedyJohn Fitzgerald Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

94 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants John FitzgeraldJohn Fitzgerald Kennedy

95 Despite popular pressure from groups such as the Immigration Restriction League (1894), the economic pressure for cheap labor would keep the doors open for eastern Europeans until World War I Immigration Restriction League The advocates for immigration restriction failed to convince President Cleveland to sign an 1897 law barring illiterate immigrants The anti-immigration groups were more successful in getting states to introduce election reforms designed to reduce the ability of the political machines to take advantage of immigrants Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

96 Many states restricted the right to vote to citizens and passed literacy requirements for voting In addition, by 1900 almost all of the states had introduced the “Australian” or secret ballot to limit the ability of the political machines to “help” the immigrants to vote Migration from Mexico also increased dramatically, primarily because of the Mexican Revolution which led almost 10 percent of the Mexican population to emigrate to the United States By 1910, one-seventh of the nation was foreign- born and most of these were concentrated in large cities such as New York, 40 percent foreign born Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization D. Immigration and Immigrants

97 Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

98 Evaluate the effects of the frontier and westward movement upon those who played a major role in it, from the Native Americans and Chicanos who were displaced, to the settlers themselves, and to the effects on the environment. Study Guide Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #4

99 To address this outcome think about whether the westward movement of White settlers was good or bad for (1) Native Americans, (2) Chicanos, (3) Settlers themselves, and (4) the Environment While this section of the lecture focuses on indigenous Americans and to a limited degree Chicanos; the life of the White settlers was discussed in previous sections; and the impact on the Environment is discussed in later lectures Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #4

100 “Manifest Destiny” is the American belief that it was their God-given duty to bring civilization to the West – do Americans still believe in Manifest Destiny?Manifest Destiny During the Gilded Age the Census Department announced that the Western Frontier was now closed By the end of the 1880’s the cattle drives made famous by Hollywood movies had been ended by farmers using barbed wire to close the open range Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

101 By 1890 the rural way of life the West was giving way to urbanization as more people in the West lived in cities than in the country Our own city of Pasadena is an example of the urbanization of the West When the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in Southern California in the 1880’s it promoted Pasadena as a tourist destination and escape from Midwest winters The West was also becoming integrated into the national economy Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

102 The integration of the West into the national economy doomed the indigenous American way of life White Americans believed the indigenous Americans need to change their way of life or vanish: Surrender their lands and nomadic lifestyle of communal property and gender relations Become Christians who owned small farms on reservations Follow White gender norms of men being farmers and women being home-makers Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

103 The Dawes Act of 1887 attempted to persuade indigenous Americans to accept “civilization” by offering them citizenship if they would give up the communal lands of their reservations for individual farmsDawes Act The Dawes Act was a disaster for indigenous Americans because it not only destroyed their culture but also led many of them to lose their lands By 1930 indigenous Americans had lost 86 million of the 136 millions acres they possessed before the Dawes Act Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

104 Many of the individual farms of indigenous Americans were sold to land speculators and farmers The famous Oklahoma Land Rush (Sooners) is an example of White settlers acquiring the former reservation lands of indigenous Americans – The Trail of Tears ended in Oklahoma Trail of Tears Many indigenous Americans tribes violently resisted the efforts to end their way of life To break the resistance of these tribes the Army used the strategy of economic warfare that had proven so effective in the Civil War Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

105 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

106 The Army destroyed villages, took the tribe’s horses and killed the buffalo Facing starvation, many tribes would surrender One of the best known of these Army campaigns was against Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce tribeChief Joseph In 1877 Chief Joseph refused the Army’s demand that the Nez Perce move to Oklahoma and fled with the tribe Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce were pursued by the Army for more than 1170 miles before finally surrendering Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

107 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

108 In 1879 Chief Joseph would travel to Washington, D.C. to meet with President Hayes and asked him to grant him the same freedom and equality enjoyed by other Americans Although President Hayes allowed Chief Joseph to return to Idaho, he was not permitted to return to the homeland of the Nez Perce Other indigenous Americans responded to the attacks on their culture by urging a return to past traditions One of the most popular of these traditions was the “circle dance” which was revived as the Ghost DanceGhost Dance Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

109 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement Chief Joseph and Family

110 During a performance of the Ghost Dance a prophet predicted that the Whites would disappear and the tribes could return to their ancient customs Learning of the prophesy, settlers in South Dakota feared an uprising and persuaded the Army to disarm the Lakota living at Wounded Knee CreekWounded Knee Creek When one of the tribe refused to give up his weapon shots were fired and by the end of the incident nearly 200 members of the tribe, mostly women and children were killed Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

111 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement Ghost Dancers

112 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement Wounded Knee, 1890

113 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement Wounded Knee, 1890

114 Even before the Mexican-American War the United States had envisioned a nation that would extend to the Pacific Ocean – Manifest Destiny Much of this western land would be seized from Mexico during the Mexican-American War ( )Mexican-American War In examining the impact of the Westward Movement on Chicanos it must be kept in mind that the American settlers in Texas and these newly acquired lands showed little respect for Mexican culture or their land titles Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

115 Under Spanish and Mexican governments land titles were often held by communities, such as the sheep farmers in New Mexico Under the United States such communal titles were not recognized which made the these lands available for White settlers No longer having access to their traditional communal lands, many of these Mexicans and their descendants went to work either for the railroads or new the farms and ranches of the new White landowners Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

116 Often the success of the White settlers in transforming the desolate West into a rich and productive land has been attributed to their hard work and sacrifices – their “rugged individualism,” Again, the truth is more complex than the myth, without the active support of the Federal Government much of the West would have never been developed: Acquired western lands by war and treaty from the indigenous Americans Granted land to railroads, mining companies, and farmers Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

117 Developed and managed water resources Administered the western territories and provided security from the indigenous peoples Even though the life of a western farmer or miner was often difficult and dangerous, the White settlers were the primary beneficiaries of the Federal Government’s development of the West Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization E. Manifest Destiny and the Westward Movement

118 Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

119 Evaluate U.S. foreign policy and its role in the world since the 1800's, explaining why the U.S. became involved in the wars and conflicts of the 20th and in the beginning of the 21st centuries. Study Guide Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #6

120 There are two parts to this outcome Evaluate whether American foreign policy has been a success or a failure Explain what motivates American foreign policy Idealism Realism In this lecture we will examine whether the Spanish-American War and the establishment of overseas colonies was a result of idealism or realism Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #6

121 This lecture we will examine whether or not the establishment of an overseas empires was a success of failure for American foreign policy Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Student Performance Outcome #6

122 The United States was the product of an anti- colonial revolution – the American Revolution The period from the 1870’s to the early 1900’s has been labelled the “Age of Imperialism” because European powers and Japan raced to acquire overseas colonies It might be expected that the U.S. would not join in this race for colonies Even though the U.S. economy was growing rapidly and soon would become the most dominant in the world, most of the world considered to a second-rate nation Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

123 As late as 1880 the U.S. Navy was smaller than Chile’s The justification for this imperial expansion was the need to bring “modern” civilization to the native populations However, America would join the race for colonies and despite its claim of “exceptionalism,” it would justify its colonies on the same basis as the other colonial powers The European’s justify their conquest of “primitive” people with the argument that they were bring civilization and eventual self-rule Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

124 Perhaps the best example of the hypocrisy of the colonial powers was King Leopold II’s brutal treatment of natives in the Belgium Congo from King Leopold II The Congo was Leopold’s personal possession from which he extracted a fortune by exploiting the Africans to gather rubber When Africans failed to reach their quotas for collected rubber they were brutally punished and often lost limbs Many Africans would have preferred to remain uncivilized Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

125 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism King Leopold II, Belgium

126 One of the leading advocates for American imperialism was Josiah Strong whose Our Country (1885) argued that Americans had demonstrated in North America their special aptitude for liberty and self-government and therefore Americans had a special mission to spread its values and institutions to the “inferior races” – (text)Josiah Strongtext Strong also argued that civilizing the natives would convert them into consumers of American goods Strong’s argument was a powerful hybrid of idealism and realism Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

127 Perhaps the most influential proponent of imperialism as the American naval officer, Alfred Mahan, whose Influence of Sea Power on History (1890) was widely read, including the Wilhelm II, the German KaiserAlfred Mahan Influenced by Mahan, German and Great Britain would begin and naval race that contributed to the start of World War I Mahan argued that national greatness depended upon international trade protected by a strong navy Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

128 In particular, Mahan pointed out that with the closing of the American frontier the U.S. needed to look overseas for its future economic growth The growing social discontent and ethnic diversity encouraged nationalism and calls for patriotism Shortly after the closing of the frontier the United States suffered the Depression of 1893 which led to increased demands for an aggressive foreign policy and increased foreign trade The growing social discontent and ethnic diversity encouraged nationalism and calls for patriotism Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

129 The Pledge of Allegiance was composed in 1892 by Francis Bellamy, but not formally adopted by Congress in 1942 Francis Bellamy Mass circulation papers like William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal used patriotic sentiment and stories of crime and corruption to sell millions of papers dailyWilliam Randolph Hearst From these various sources would emerge a growing national acceptance of the need for foreign trade and even the acquisition of an overseas empire Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

130 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism Pledge of Allegiance

131 The Spanish-American War was the result of the long-running Cuban War for Independence As the “yellow press” reported on the abuses and atrocities of the Cuban War the American public began to support the Cuban rebels The war in Cuba reached a crisis point when the American battleship Maine was destroyed by an explosion in Havana harborMaine The “yellow press” blamed Spain for the explosion and demanded an end to the suppression of the Cubans Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

132 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

133 McKinley sent an ultimatum to Spain requiring Spain to grant Cuban independence When Spain rejected the ultimatum, McKinley sent the issue to Congress which declared war on Spain In 1898 Congress declared war on Spain but only after including the Teller Amendment prohibiting the United States from annexing of CubaTeller Amendment The war was short and successful Admiral George Dewey destroying the Spanish fleet in Manila and Admiral William Sampson the Spanish fleet in SantiagoAdmiral George DeweyWilliam Sampson Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

134 Theodore Roosevelt became famous by leading a charge up San Juan Hill and later would become Vice-President and eventually President The Treaty of Paris (1898) ended the war: Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam were annexed to the U. S. and Cuba was granted independence The United States paid Spain $20 million In addition, the U.S. forced the newly independent Cubans to adopt the so-called Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution which granted the U.S. the right to intervene with military force whenever the U.S. believed it was necessaryPlatt Amendment Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

135 McKinley sent an ultimatum to Spain requiring Spain to grant Cuban independence When Spain rejected the ultimatum, McKinley sent the issue to Congress which declared war on Spain In 1898 Congress declared war on Spain but only after including the Teller Amendment prohibiting the United States from annexing of CubaTeller Amendment The war was short and successful Admiral George Dewey destroying the Spanish fleet in Manila and Admiral William Sampson the Spanish fleet in SantiagoAdmiral George DeweyWilliam Sampson Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

136 The Cubans were also forced to grant the U. S. a permanent lease on the Guantanamo Bay Naval BaseGuantanamo Bay Naval Base In 1898 McKinley also encouraged Congress to annex the Hawaiian Islands because of their strategic importance (Pearl Harbor) and future role in trade with China Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

137 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

138 Having acquired a colonial empire, the U.S. now faced the “white man’s burden” The right to self-government was the foundation of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution gives no guidance for governing an overseas empire It had been assumed that all new territories would becomes states and join the Union The idea that the benefits of democracy should fall only to the Anglo-Saxons was increasingly accepted Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

139 The Supreme Court would rule that the Constitution does not necessarily apply to the newly acquired territories As Reconstruction had demonstrated, most Americans would not support a multi-racial democracy American writers such as Brooks Adams in The New Empire (1902) were predicting America would soon become one of the great powers of the worldThe New Empire Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization F. Spanish-American War and American Imperialism

140 Political Stalemate,

141 The Compromise of 1877 marked not only the end of Reconstruction but the beginning of the end of Republican control of the national government In fact, by 1877 there was little separating the positions of the Republicans and Democrats As a result there were many close elections and a political stalemate that encouraged a laissez faire attitude toward the growth of corporations and big business – today? In three of the five presidential elections the decision was decided by less than 1 percent of the vote and in two cases the winner of the popular vote lost in the Electoral College Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

142 Congress was paralyzed and not able to deal with the problems of the rapidly expanding economy Important legislation shuttled between the House and Senate – today? Both parties had close ties to business interests and opposed attempts to increase the money supply and encourage inflation The major point of difference between the parties was the tariff issue with Republicans in favor and Democrats opposed A high tariff benefited most large businesses while a low tariff favored farmers and consumers Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

143 In the Election of 1876 the nation was focused on the Depression of 1873Election of 1876 The Compromise of 1877 allowed the Republican Rutherford Hayes to become president but sacrificed the Freedmen’s quest for equality for the sake of national unity and economic prosperityCompromise of 1877 Rutherford Hayes Hayes believed in meritocracy based upon hard work and education – he was an opponent of organized labor Hayes used Federal troops and marshals to end the Railroad Strike of 1877 that had crippled the country Railroad Strike of 1877 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

144 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate Rutherford B HayesSamuel J Tilden

145 Hayes also opposed attempts to inflate the money supply through the coinage of silver When Congress passed the Blaine-Allison Silver Act (1878) requiring coining $2 to $4 millions of silver per month, Hayes vetoed the bill, arguing that the resulting inflation was dishonest and impaired existing contracts based upon gold Hayes kept his pledge that he would serve only one term Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

146 In the Election of 1880 the only campaign issue was the tariff, with Republican James Garfield supporting a high tariff and the Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock in oppositionElection of 1880James GarfieldWinfield Scott Hancock Although Garfield easily won in the Electoral College, he won the popular vote by only 2,000 votes The election clearly reflected the deep divisions of the nation Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

147 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate James GarfieldWinfield Scott Hancock

148 Garfield would only serve four months before he was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker Chester Arthur became President after Garfield’s assassination Chester Arthur To overcome his image as a corrupt politician Arthur signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 which introduced civil service examinations to ensure that government positions were awarded on merit not politicsPendleton Civil Service Act Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

149 An unintended consequence of civil service reform was a shift from candidates relying upon patronage to win political support to a reliance on business and the wealthy – today? Arthur was criticized for doing little to address the problem of the growing budget surplus Arthur suffered from poor health and did little to secure the 1884 presidential nomination In the Election of 1884 The Republicans nominated James B Blaine, former Speaker of the House and the Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland, a reformer and favorite of big businessElection of 1884James B BlaineGrover Cleveland Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

150 Because there were no real policy issues between Blaine and Cleveland the campaign focused on moral issues: The Democrats accused Blaine of taking bribes while the Republicans accused Cleveland of fathering a child out of marriage Cleveland became the first Democrat to be elected President since 1856, winning a narrow victory both in the Electoral College and the popular vote– he won New York by 1,000 votes which allowed him to win the Electoral College Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

151 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate Grover Cleveland

152 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate James Blaine

153 During his first administration Cleveland was faced with many challenges It appeared that the labor movement was turning to violence The most serious outbreak of labor violence was the Chicago Haymarket Riot (1886) when police attempted to breakup a peaceful labor demonstration in Chicago in support of the eight hour work day, somebody threw a bomb at the police who responded by firing into the crowd which resulted in a riot where seven policemen and four protesters were killed – today?Haymarket Riot Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

154 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate Haymarket Riot, 1886

155 The Haymarket Riot encouraged public hostility to labor unions and immigrants The Haymarket Riot was a setback for the American labor movement and its fight for the eight-hour day Another challenge for Cleveland was the unrest of Western farmers and small shippers over the abuse of railroads who charged different rates for different customers and bribing government officials Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

156 Congress in 1887 attempted to end the abusive powers of the railroads by creating the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), the first Federal agency intended to regulate economic activityInterstate Commerce Commission However, the ICC proved be ineffective because it did not have the power to set railroad rates, only to sue them Another issue for Cleveland was the growing budget surplus and the public pressure to lower tariffs and spend the surplus Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

157 Cleveland, a Democrat, opposed the efforts of the Republicans to use some of the surplus to aid farmers and Civil War veterans When Congress passed a bill to aid farmers, Cleveland vetoed it: “I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution, and I do not believe that the power and duty of the general government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit” Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

158 In the Election of 1888 the Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison to run against ClevelandElection of 1888 While Harrison supported the tariff, he also called for limited regulation of industry and an expansion of silver coinage Again, this was an election without issues except for the tariff, with the Republicans calling for an even higher tariff Again, the election was again very close with Cleveland winning the popular vote, but losing the Electoral College because Harrison won in Indiana Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

159 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate Grover ClevelandBenjamin Harrison

160 Harrison and Republicans were committed to supporting Big Business and argued that the best approach to solving the budget surplus was to raise tariffs and thus reduce the volume of imports Democrats argued that high tariffs hurt farmers and consumers and called for lowering the budget surplus through lower tariffs Harrison administration saw the passage of the Mckinley Tariff of 1890 which raised the tariffs on all imported goods from 38% to 49% Mckinley Tariff Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

161 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

162 Harrison did try to win the support of Western farmers and miners by passing the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) which called for the government to purchase approximately $6 million of silver each month and pay for it with Treasury notes that could be redeemed for either gold or silverSherman Silver Purchase Act The Silver Purchase Act proved to be a disaster because the public rushed to redeem the Treasury notes for gold rather than silver which soon led to the exhaustion of the government’s gold reserve The Silver Purchase Act was one of the major causes of the Panic of 1893Panic of 1893 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

163 Finally, Harrison and Republicans also attempted to address the growing public concern with the abuses of monopolies by passing the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) to prohibit unfair competition but not monopoliesSherman Antitrust Act The Election of 1892 was a rematch between Cleveland and Harrison but it also the emergence of a third party, the People’s Party (Populist) which nominated James WeaverJames Weaver The Populists believed that the role of government was to benefit ordinary Americans by controlling the abuses of Big Business Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

164 The platform for the Populists called for Nationalization of the railroads, telegraphs, and telephone Unlimited coinage of silver A graduated income tax The campaign focused on the McKinley Tariff and the issue of currency inflation with Cleveland calling for a lower tariff but opposing all efforts to leave the gold standard Cleveland won the election by more than 400,000 votes and the Democrats also won majorities in both Houses but the Populist received more than 1 million votes and 22 Electoral College Votes Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

165 When Cleveland returned to office he was faced the disastrous Panic of 1893 To end the run on the government’s gold reserves, Cleveland persuaded Congress to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act Cleveland also succeeded in reducing the tariff with the passage of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff (1894)Wilson-Gorman Tariff However, Cleveland would support the effort of Southern Democrats to defeat a bill that would have strengthened the Enforcement Act of 1871 which protects the right of Blacks to vote Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

166 The Panic of 1893 intensified labor unrest such as the Pullman Strike of 1894 which began as a protest by the workers of the Pullman factory (manufactured sleeping cars) for a reduction in their wagesPullman Strike of 1894 The strike expanded when The American Railway Union announced that it would support the Pullman workers and refused to handle any trains with Pullman cars When the strike crippled national railroad traffic the Cleveland administration obtained a court order against the strikers Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

167 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate Pullman Strike, 1894

168 When Federal troops intervened to break the strike there were violent clashes that left 34 people dead The Federal Government finally broke The Pullman Strike when it arrested and convicted the leaders of the Railway Union, including Eugene DebsEugene Debs Debs was charismatic and popular leader who was greeted by a crowd of more 100,000 supporters when he was released in 1895 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

169 In the Election of 1896 the Democratic Party was badly split by Cleveland’s violent suppression of labor and his opposition to currency inflationElection of 1896 With the support of farmers and organized labor, William Jennings Bryan, captured the 1896 Democratic nomination for president William Jennings Bryan The Republicans nominated William Mckinley, author of the protective tariff of 1890 and the candidate of Big BusinessWilliam Mckinley For the first time since the Civil War the American voter was offered two significantly different visions for America’s future Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

170 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate William McKinleyWilliam Jennings Bryan

171 Bryan appealed to the sentiments of the common man, using the words of Jesus, he called on government to help the “little people”: A progressive income tax Regulation of banking The right of workers to form unions Do any of these reforms seem familiar to you? Bryan’s campaign was best know for his passionate call for “free silver” – inflating the money supply by using silver for currency Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

172 Bryan condemned the burden of the gold standard on working people: “You shall not press down upon the brow labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” Bryan’s call for populist’s reforms caused a dilemma for the leaders of the Populist Party who were reluctant to support a Democratic candidate However, the Populists eventually endorsed Bryan’s candidacy because there was no alternative Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

173 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate Bryan’s Cross of Gold

174 Many historians consider Mckinley’s to be the first modern presidential campaign where money and organization are the keys to success Frightened by Bryan’s call for inflation, business contributed more than $10 million to McKinley’s campaign and flooded the country with speakers and campaign materials In contrast, Bryan raised only $300,000 and remained home on his porch during the campaign Mckinley decisively won the election by carrying the industrial states of the East and Midwest Bryan only carried the rural South and West Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

175 The victory of McKinley brought to an end the political stalemate with the Republicans dominating national politics until 1932 The American electorate clearly rejected the populism of Bryan and its emphasis on class conflict The election was the last national election with a high voter turnout, in some states more than 90 percent voted Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

176 While the Election of 1896 is far from the minds of most Americans it was actually the basis of one of the most beloved movies in American history What was this movie? Play Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

177 The Wizard of Oz (1900) by L. Frank Baum is considered by some to be a commentary on the election of 1896: The Emerald City is Washington, D.C. McKinley is the Wizard invisibly ruling through illusion The Yellow (Gold) Brick Road is the only way to Emerald City The Wicked Witches are the industrialists and mine owners Dorothy is from Kansas and in the book she actually wears silver slippers Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization G. Politics of Stalemate

178 American society and life changed dramatically after the Civil War Most Americans believed that the nation’s problems were caused by foreign and un- American forces, not the contradictions between its idealism and its reality American icons such as the Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Liberty clearly contain the nation’s contradictions All men are created equal but not all men have equal rights America prospers because of its immigrants but rejects them when no longer needed Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Summary and Conclusions

179 What does not change during the Gilded Age is the American belief that they are not only uniquely blessed by God but they also have a duty to spread liberty to all people: “Unlike the government of every other great state, ancient or modern, the government of the United States was set up for the benefit of mankind as well as for the benefit of its own people....” Woodrow Wilson as quoted in A Scott Berg, Wilson (2013), p. 725 Lecture 2: The Gilded Age and Industrialization Summary and Conclusions


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