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Presentation on theme: "1914 to 1920 WORLD WAR I. WORLD WAR I BREAKS OUT."— Presentation transcript:

1 1914 to 1920 WORLD WAR I


3  August of 1914  Former president Taft expressed the surprise and fear that many Americans felt at the news that Europe was at war. Few Americans had seen war coming. Europe had appeared peaceful for more than 40 years. While the Wilson administration wrestled with the problems created by the Mexican Revolution, tensions in Europe exploded into global war. “ A MESSAGE TO THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES”

4  Nationalism  Imperialism  Militarism  Alliances THE CAUSES OF THE WAR


6  National pride or loyalty (devotion to your own nation)  leads to rivalries among nations  Ethnic groups resent domination and long for an independent nation  Russia- Slavic and Bulgaria  Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina…angers Serbs NATIONALISM

7  Quest for colonial empires  Germany  Industrializing and able to compete with other European nations (Britain & France) IMPERIALISM

8  Glorification of military strength  Empires are expensive to build and defend  Arms Race  Competition between countries to achieve superiority in quantity and quality of military arms.  Tried to develop larger armies and more powerful weapons than their rivals  Britain – Navy…Germany builds up their navy…so does France, Italy, Japan and the U.S. MILITARISM

9  An agreement two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes  Triple Entente (later known as the Allies)  France, Britain, and Russia  Triple Alliance (later known as the Central Powers)  Germany, Austria – Hungary, and Italy…also the Ottoman Empire (Turks and middle eastern nations) ALLIANCES


11  June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne) visits Sarajevo, Bosnian capitol. THE GREAT WAR BEGINS

12  As Ferdinand rode through the city streets, Serbian Nationalist Gavrilo Princip steps out of the crowd and fires two shots and kills he and his wife, Sophie  Animation  ASSASSINATION LEADS TO WAR

13  July 28, Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia…supposed to be short!  Alliance System pulls together  August 1, Germany declares war on Russia  August 3, Germany declares war on France  After Germany invades Belgium, Britain declares war on Germany and Austria Hungary THE GREAT WAR BEGINS!

14 Allied Powers  Britain  France  Russia  Italy (1915)  United States (1917) Central Powers  Germany  Austria-Hungary  Ottoman Empire  Bulgaria THE GREAT WAR…30 NATION STATES


16 SCHLIEFFEN PLAN  Germany faced France to the west and Russia to the east.  The plan called for the German Army to invade France, through Belgium. They would drive for Paris and take France out of the picture within six weeks.  Leaving British forces stranded on the other side of the English Channel  Germany would then focus on Russia to the east

17  Leaders thought that the war would end quickly  German Kaiser Wilhelm II told troops they would be home “before the leaves had fallen from the trees”  As 1914 drew to a close, leaders of both sides realized that there would be no quick victory WAR REACHES A STALEMATE


19  By 1915, both armies occupied trenches along a front running for hundreds of miles from the North Sea to the Border of Switzerland TRENCH WARFARE

20  Battles begin with massive artillery barrages  Soldiers went “over the top” of the trenches and charged across no-man’s land toward the enemy trenches  Thin strip of bombed out territory, strewn with barbed wire and land miles  As they ran, thousands of soldiers were cut down by a hail of machine-gun fire TRENCH WARFARE


22  For soldiers who avoided death, the trenches were a living nightmare…why?  Rats and Lice  Rain flooded, drenching soldiers in mud  Dead soldiers often lay unburied for days  Unsanitary conditions bred disease and sickness…claims nearly as many lives as the fighting did TRENCH WARFARE


24  Machine Guns  fired hundreds of rounds per minute NEW WEAPONS

25  Tanks  In response to machine guns, British introduce tanks  Scare soldiers “out of their wits” and made them “scuttle like rabbits” NEW WEAPONS

26  Poison Gas  Released as a cloud that drifted over trenches  launched inside an exploding shell  Soldiers have only seconds to slip on their gas mask or else suffer a slow, suffocating death NEW WEAPONS

27  Poison Gas  tear gas and the severe mustard gas  lethal agents like phosgene and chlorine  Effects  Death by gas was often slow and painful  Blindness  massive blisters, burn flesh to the bone NEW WEAPONS

28  Submarines  Terror at sea  Sink military and commercial ships with little or no warning NEW WEAPONS

29  Airplanes  Terror in the skies  Engaged in aerobatic dogfights  Make celebrities out of survivors  Aces – skilled pilots NEW WEAPONS

30  Manfred von Richthofen  80 kills or enemy aircraft shot down  Edward Rickenbacker  Top American  26 kills RED BARRON

31  Outbreak of war surprised most Americans  Strictly a European matter  Support for Wilson when he declares neutrality  Few citizens remained impartial in thought  28 million Americans…nearly 30% were immigrants or children of immigrants  Austrian, German, Hungarian, Turkish sympathize with the Central Powers  Irish Americans hope that Ireland would be free Great Britain rule  Greater number backed the Allies  Common language and culture  British propaganda campaign U.S. NEUTRALITY

32 Poking fun at the enemy Make the Germans look bad BRITISH PROPAGANDA

33 Socialists  Socialism vs. Capitalism  Capitalist and Imperialist struggle between Germany and England to controls markets in China, Africa and Middle East Pacifists  Believe that war is evil and that the U.S. should set an example of peace to the world U.S. NEUTRALITY Parents  Did not want their sons to experience the horrors of warfare

34  U.S. not untouched  British navy blockades the North Sea  Stops and searches U.S. cargo ships…even the mail!  Wilson protests this  Germany navy responds  Establishes a “war zone” around Britain  All ships subject to attack by German U-boats & submarines  German U-boat sinks a British passenger liner…100 dead, 1 American U.S. IS NEUTRAL BUT…

35  Lusitania  128 Americans dead  New York Times calls the Germans “savages drunk with blood”  Americans outraged  Germans claimed the warning and that the ship was carrying armaments for Britain  i/lusitania i/lusitania U.S. IS NEUTRAL BUT…

36  Diplomatic Relations Broken  Wilson orders the arming of American merchant ships  German torpedoes sank 5 American ships THE ROAD TO WAR

37  With support from banks and war industries, Congress passes in June 1916  Increased the number of soldiers in the army from 90,000 to 175,000…ultimate goal of 223,000  Established National Guard…450,000 troops  $313 million to build up the navy NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT

38  Wilson assures Americans that we are still neutral  Re-election slogan “He Kept Us Out of War”  Narrowly wins ELECTION ON 1916

39  From German foreign secretary George Zimmerman  To German minister in Mexico  Proposed an alliance with Mexico…German support to “reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Arizona, Texas”  Americans are infuriated! ZIMMERMAN NOTE

40 “We are glad…to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its people,…for the rights of nations – great and small – and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life…The world must be safe for democracy.” CONGRESS DECLARES WAR - Woodrow Wilson, “For the Declaration of War Against Germany,” April 2, 1917


42  Selective Service Act  Requires men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register with the local draft boards (later changed, 18 to 45)  By the end of the war 24 million men had registered, 2.8 million drafted  More than half of the 4.8 million men that served were drafted MOBILIZING U.S. MILITARY POWER

43  Discrimination and Segregation  American Indians  10,000 of those that serve aren’t U.S. citizens…1924 Congress grants citizenship to all American Indians  African Americans  370,000+ served  Cannot serve marines, kitchen duty in the navy  Most serve in all-black units with led by white officers  Harassed during training in the south  Pressure from the NAACP convinces army to open up more opportunities for African Americans in service  Foreign Born  Separate units, taught civics and English MOBILIZING U.S. MILITARY POWER

44 Some of the African American soldiers of the 369th (15th New York)who won the Croix de Guerre for gallantry in action during their World War I service overseas WORLD WAR I TROOPS

45  Massive training camps thrown together  Complete training in 60 days  “The burden of creating an army at short notice, falls most heavily upon the recruit. The rookie is expected to learn now in three weeks, what his fellow soldiers acquired a year ago in 3 months. We are drilled nearly 7 or 8 hours per day.”  Not enough uniforms and equipment for all troops, at least they had a place to live TRAINING THE TROOPS

46  Upon arrival at camp  Medical exam  Military rules, drills with equipment, exercising, prepare for inspections  “Every man is supposed to be slicked up, shows shined, clothes clean, and he must be shaved,”…”this is one thing they insist on in the army – everything must be clean.” TRAINING THE TROOPS

47 WORLD WAR I TROOPS American Doughboys “over there” in 1918


49  Women were not allowed to enlist, but reluctantly accepted in the Army Corps of Nurses  Denied army rank, pay and benefits  13,000 women accepted non combat positions in the navy and marines  Served as nurses, secretaries and telephone operators with full military rank WOMEN


51 “Billy, my nephew, is twelve years old…they call the suburb in which Billy lives one hundred percent patriotic. Everybody is in war work…One bit of voluntary work was carried on through the periods of the gasoline-less Sundays when the four boys took positions on Commonwealth Avenue in such a way as to-obstruct passing vehicles. If a car did not carry a doctor’s or military sign, they threw pebbles and yelled ‘O you Slacker!’ It was exciting work because guilty drivers put on full speed ahead and Billy admitted that he was almost run over, but he added that the cause was worth it.” THE WAR AT HOME

52  William McAdoo  Secretary of Treasury  “Every person who refuses to subscribe…is a friend of Germany,” and “is not entitled to be an American citizen.” WAR FINANCING

53  Raising money to pay for the war, which cost the U.S. $35.5 billion, including loans to the Allies  Liberty Bonds (during war)  Victory Bonds (after war)  Posters, parades and rallies to support the purchase of bonds  Huge success! WAR FINANCING

54  Increased Taxes  Progressive income tax…tax high incomes at a higher rate than lower incomes  Businesses and large personal incomes produced about $10 billion for the war (about 1/3)  More than just raise money  Federal war boards coordinated the actions of government, business and industry WAR FINANCING

55  Food Administration  Guaranteed high prices for farmers  Increased production of wheat 637 bushels in 1917 to 921 bushels in 1919  “Food Will Win the War”  Wheatless and Meatless Days  Plant “Victory Gardens”  Fuel Administration  Similar and forced  Heatless Mondays  Closed factories when coal was short CONSERVING RESOURCES

56  War Industries Board (WIB)  Allocates scarce materials  Establishes production priorities  Sets prices  At first, business leaders are critical of Wilson’s economic mobilization…but profits began to soar and business leaders stopped complaining ORGANIZING INDUSTRY

57  Men are off to war, immigration has slowed  Industry is short of labor  Unionized laborers go on strike  Demand higher wages and other benefits  4,500 strikes, 1 million workers in 1917 alone!  National War Labor Board (NWLB)  Representative from business and labor, they arbitrated disputes between workers and employers ORGANIZING LABOR

58  Number of women working outside the home grew by 6%  Took traditionally male jobs  Automobile mechanics, bricklayers, metal workers, railroad engineers, or truck drivers  Close to 1.5 million women worked in industry WOMEN WORKING

59  Women’s war efforts helped produce one very important political change  Wilson had previously wavered on women’s suffrage  supported after seeing the women’s wartime contributions  “The greatest thing that came out of the war, was the emancipation of women, for which no man fought.” 19 TH AMENDMENT

60  Intense patriotism sweeps the country  Young children to senior citizens  Girl Scouts of America  Juliette Gordon Low  Organization grows quickly during the war  Many work for the Food Administration  “A girl cannot die for her country, but she can live for it”  500 girls in 1915 to 50,000 girls in 1920  By 1927, when Low died…`168,000 VOLUNTEERISM

61  Immigration from Mexico  S ome flee Mexican Revolution, others lured by southwestern employers  150,000 men and women migrated from Mexico to the U.S. THE GREAT TREK NORTH

62  Great Migration  1915 and 1930…hundreds of thousands of African Americans move North  Chance of higher wages  Escape discrimination and difficult living/working conditions  East St. Louis…white rioters rampage neighborhood. 39 dead.  Why should we fight for freedom in Europe when we enjoy little of it at home THE GREAT TREK NORTH

63  Many Americans believed that the U.S. should have stayed out of the war.  Religious, Political, Personal  Committee on Public Relations (CPI)  Led a propaganda campaign to encourage the American people to support the war  Initially fact-based material that presents upbeat picture of the war…then pictured the Germans as evil monsters INFLUENCING ATTITUDES

64  Tough for German-Americans  Many lose their jobs  German books disappear from the library shelves, schools stop teaching German, no more German music  Renamed German sounding items  Sauerkraut – Liberty Cabbage  Dachshunds – Liberty Pups  Hamburger – Salisbury steak INFLUENCING ATTITUDES

65  Despite the atmosphere, some Americans continued to oppose the war  Espionage Act & Sedition Act  Measures outlawed acts of treason and made it a crime to “utter, print, write or publish and disloyal…or abusive language” criticizing the government, the flag or the military.  Opposition to the draft, to war-bond drives, or to the arms industry also became a crime  More than 1,000 people went to prison SUPPRESSING OPPOSITION


67  A program for world peace  Nine of the points dealt with the issue of self-determinations  right of people to govern themselves  Various territorial disputes created by the war  Other points focused on the causes of modern war  Secret diplomacy, the arms race, violations of freedom of the seas and trade barriers  Final point – the establishment of the League of Nations  An international body designed to prevent offensive wars WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS

68  Warmly received by Congress and the American public  Allies…not enthusiastic  German government rejects  Quit interfering in European affairs WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS

69  Big Four  Woodrow Wilson – United States  David Lloyd George – Britain  Georges Clemenceau – France  Vittorio Orlando – Italy  Reparations  Payments to the Allies for the cost of the war THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE

70  Delegates agree to a peace treaty…six months later  “the terms of peace appear immeasurably harsh and humiliating” (Secretary of State Robert Lansing, 1919)  Germany’s colonies and the Ottoman Empire were divided among the Allied nations  Germany disarmed, forced to admit full responsibility for the war, and charged billions of dollars in reparations  Wilson had strongly opposed some of the Allies’ more extreme demands…but made sure that the agreement called for a League of Nations  Remedy any injustices the treaty might contain  Nations resolve disputes peacefully and observe a waiting time before going to war TREATY OF VERSAILLES

71  Humiliated Germany (signed a guilt clause)  Set Germans against the Treaty  Reparations that German could not possibly pay ($33 billion)  Stripped Germany of colonies  Ignored sacrifices and desires of Russia  Ignored claims of colonized people WEAKNESSES OF THE TREATY

72  Article 10 of, the heart of the agreement, required each member nation to “respect and preserve” the independence and territorial integrity of all other member nations.  Some Senators objected to Article 10, which seemed to commit the United States to go to war in defense of and League member that came under attack. THE TREATY IN THE SENATE

73  After a speech in Pueblo, Colorado, Wilson complained of a splitting headache….doctor orders him back to D.C.  A few days later, collapses from a near-fatal stroke  Lives out the rest of his life in the seclusion in the white house  Out of touch with reality, refuses to compromise  By the time Wilson leaves office, the League of Nations had been established in Geneva, Switzerland, but without U.S. participation THE TREATY IN THE SENATE

74  The destruction and human suffering had been almost incomprehensible  More than 8.5 million died in battle  21 million wounded  Industry & Agriculture in Europe ruined  Northern France completely destroyed  Businesses still operating could not produce enough to meet demand…rapid inflation  Germany…food shortages so extreme that it proved almost impossible to keep track of prices THE GLOBAL IMPACT OF WAR

75  Once the U.S. entered the war, President Wilson quickly moved to mobilize the nation. What was established to direct the economy, conserve resources, organize the industry and organize labor? Give a specific example of each.  What did the U.S. government do to shape and control public opinion during World War I?  What changes did the war bring about for immigrants, women, and African Americans in the United States?  Why didn’t the Treaty of Versailles lay the foundations for lasting peace? SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS

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