Presentation on theme: "Warriner’s English Composition and Grammar"— Presentation transcript:
1Warriner’s English Composition and Grammar Glossary Of UsageWarriner’s English Composition and Grammar
2a, anThese short words are called indefinite articles. They refer to one general group.Rule:Use a before words beginning with a consonant sound; use an before words beginning with a vowel sound.An is used before hour because hour begins with a vowel sound.Examples:A woman bought Larry’s car.Maria was in an accident in her father’s car.
3accept, except Rule: Examples: Accept is a verb; it means “to receive.”Except as a verb means “to leave out”; as a preposition it means “excluding.”Examples:I accepted the gift gratefully.Debbie has a perfect attendance record, if you except the day she stayed home with the flu.We were busy every evening this week except Tuesday.
4adapt, adopt Rule: Examples: Adapt means “to change in order to fit or be more suitable; to adjust.”Adopt means “to take something and make it one’s own.”Examples:When it rained on the day of the senior class picnic, we adapted our plans.The Broadway play was adapted from a popular television miniseries.The couple who adopted the baby read many books and adopted some suggestions for infant care.
5affect, effect Rule: Examples: Affect is usually a verb; it means “to impress” or “to influence (frequently the mind or feelings.)”Effect as a verb means “to accomplish, to bring about.”Effect as a noun means “the result of some action.”Examples:Try not to let careless remarks affect you.The school board effected (brought about) drastic changes in the budget.The effects (results) of the hurricane were shown on the evening news.Video:Practice for affect/effect Activity: Complete on your own. Compare with a partner. Vote as a class. Check responses.Examine the example sentences closely: notice where the word is in the first and last examples. Verb vs. Noun.
6all the farther, all the faster Rule:Used informally in some parts of the country to mean “as far as, as fast as.”Examples:Dialect:Thirty miles per hour was all the faster the first airplane could travel.Standard:Thirty miles per hour was as fast as the first airplane could travel.
7allusion, illusion Rule: Examples: An allusion is a reference to something.An illusion is a mistaken idea.Examples:In her essay she made many allusions to the American pioneers.The behind-the-scenes report destroyed her illusions of Hollywood.
8alumni, alumnae Rule: Examples: Alumni is the plural of alumnus (male graduate).Alumnae is the plural of alumna (female graduate).The graduates of a co-educational school are referred to (as a group) as alumni.Examples:All of my sisters are alumnae of Adam’s High School.Both men are alumni of Harvard.My parents went to their college alumni reunion.
9amount, number Rule: Examples: Use amount to refer to a singular word. Use number to refer to a plural word.Examples:The amount of research (singular) on stress is overwhelming.A number of reports (plural) on stress are available.
10and etc. Rule: Examples: Since etc. is an abbreviation of the Latin et cetera, which means “and other things,” you are using and twice when you write “and etc.”Examples:The new store in the mall sells DVDs, cameras, radios, video games, etc.
11and which, but which Rule: Examples: The expressions and which, but which (and who, but who) should be used only when a which (or who) clause precedes them in the sentence.Examples:Nonstandard: Our jazz band was pleased with the audience’s enthusiastic response and which we had not expected before the concert.Standard: Our jazz band was please with the audience’s response, which was enthusiastic and which we had not expected before the concert.Standard: Our jazz band was please with the audience’s enthusiastic response, which we had not expected before the concert.
12anywheres, everywheres, nowheres Rule:Use these words and others like them without the final s.Examples:I could not find my keys anywhere; I looked everywhere, but they were nowhere in the house.
13at Rule: Examples: Do not use at after where. Nonstandard: Where are they living at now?Standard: Where are they living now?
14Formative Assessment: Complete Exercise 1 on your own without using your notes.Once you have finished, partner up and discuss your answers. You may use your notes as reference at this point.Each group member must have the right answer AND understand the justification of that answer.I will be calling on students to tell me the correct answer AND explain why it is the correct answer.You will need to grade your paper accurately: I will be taking it up to enter as a Formative Assessment for this unit.
15because Rule: Examples: The use of because after reason is common in informal English, but it is generally avoided in formal writing.Examples:Not Standard: The reason is because….Not Standard: The reason she arrived late was because her car had a flat tire.Standard: The reason she arrived late was that her car had a flat tire.Standard: She arrived late because her car had a flat tire.
16being as, being that Rule: Examples: Nonstandard English when used for since or becauseExamples:Nonstandard: Being as Emily had lived in Montreal for five years, she could speak both French and English.Standard: Because Emily had lived in Montreal for five years, she could speak both French and English.
17beside, besides Rule: Examples: Beside means “by the side of” someone or something.Besides means “in addition to.”Examples:Who sits beside you in English class?Besides my homework, I have an errand to run.
18between, among Rule: Examples: Use between when you are thinking of two items at a time, whether or not they are part of a larger group.Use among when you are thinking of a group rather than of separate individuals.Examples:We have to choose between Anne and Lisa.She is respected among her peers.I cannot remember the difference between the polka and the two-step.I hated to decide among so many qualified applicants.
19bring, take Rule: Examples: Use bring when the meaning is to convey something to the person speaking.Use take when the meaning is to convey something away from the person speaking.Bring is related to come; take is related to go.Examples:Remember to bring your new albums when you come to my house.Take your warm jacket when you go to the game this afternoon.
20could of Rule: Examples: This phrase is sometimes carelessly written for could have.Examples:Nonstandard: Wanda could of told us it wasn’t a costume party before we rented these chicken suits.Standard: Wanda could have told us it wasn’t a costume party before we rented these chicken suits.
21credible, creditable, credulous Rule:Credible means “believable.”Creditable means “praiseworthy.”Credulous means “inclined to believe just about anything.”Examples:The child gave a credible excuse for breaking the window in the kitchen.Her quick thinking and competent action were creditable.The credulous woman and her neighbors signed up for the trip to Mars.
22data Rule: Examples: Data is the plural form of the Latin datum. According to the book, “You will be safer if, in your writing, you use the word as a plural.”Examples:The census data were finally published.
23discover, invent Rule: Examples: Invent means “to make something not known before, to bring something into existence.”Discover means “to find something that has been in existence but was unknown.”Examples:Elias Howe invented the sewing machine.The engineers discovered new oil deposits in Michigan.
24doneRule:Done is not the past form of do. The past form of do is did.Done always needs a helping verb: has done, was done, will be done, etc.Examples:Nonstandard: We done all our chores in an hour.Standard: We did all our chores in an hour.Standard: We had done all our chores in an hour.Nonstandard: I done that.Standard: I did that.Standard: I have done that.
25don’tRule:A contraction of do not, don’t should not be used with a singular noun or the third person of singular pronouns (it, he, she).Use doesn’t.Examples:Nonstandard: It don’t worry us. (It do not worry us.)Standard: It doesn’t worry us. (It does not worry us.)
26emigrate, immigrate Rule: Examples: Emigrate means “to go from a county” to settle elsewhere.Immigrate means “to come into a country” to settle.Examples:The war has forced thousands of people to emigrate from their homeland to other, more peaceful countries.Marie’s grandparents immigrated here in 1950.
27famous, notorious Rule: Examples: Famous means “well and widely known.”Notorious means “widely known” but in an unfavorable sense.Examples:Oprah is famous.Al Capone was a notorious gangster in the 1920’s.
28fewer, less Rule: Examples: Fewer is used before a plural noun. Less is used before a singular noun.Examples:We printed fewer prom tickets this year.I spent less time in the library this morning.
29good, well Rule: Examples: Good is always an adjective. It should never be used to modify a verb.Well may be used as an adjective or adverb.Examples:Nonstandard: The choir sang good at the concert.Standard: The choir sang well at the concert.Nonstandard: We bowled very good as a team.Standard: We bowled very well as a team.
30Formative Assessment: Complete Exercise 2 on your own without using your notes.Once you have finished, partner up and discuss your answers. You may use your notes as reference at this point.Each group member must have the right answer AND understand the justification of that answer.I will be calling on students to tell me the correct answer AND explain why it is the correct answer.You will need to grade your paper accurately: I will be taking it up to enter as a Formative Assessment for this unit.
32Had of Rule: Examples: The of is superfluous. Nonstandard: IF we had of asked permission, we could have used the auditorium for our meeting.Standard: If we had asked permission, we could have used the auditorium for our meeting.
33Had ought, Hadn’t ought Rule: Examples: Do not use had with ought. Nonstandard: They had ought to be more patient.Standard: They ought to be more patient.Nonstandard: I hadn’t ought to go to the movies again.Standard: I ought not to go to the movies again.
34He, she, they, etc. Rule: Examples: Do not use unnecessary pronouns after a noun.This error is sometimes called the double subject.Examples:Nonstandard: My cousin she designs her own clothes.Standard: My cousin designs her own clothes.
35Hisself, theirselves Rule: Examples: These words are sometimes incorrectly used for himself, themselves.Examples:Nonstandard: Lou built the shed hisself.Standard: Lou built the shed himself.
36Imply, infer Rule: Examples: Imply means “to suggest something.” Infer means “to interpret, to get a certain meaning from a remark or action.”The speaker or writer implies. The listener or reader infers.Examples:Mrs. Hanson implied during her lecture that we needed more practice.We inferred from her comments that we need to practice more.
37In, into Rule: Examples: In standard formal usage, observe the difference in meaning between these words.In means “within.”Into suggests movement from the outside to the inside.Examples:Standard: Feeling nervous, I walked into [not in] the personnel office.Nonstandard: We threw some pennies in the well and made a wish.Standard: We threw some pennies into the well and made a wish.
38Kind of, sort of Rule: Examples: In standard formal usage the adjectives this, these, that, those are made to agree in number with the words kind, sort, type; this kind, these kinds; that sort, these sorts.Examples:We prefer this kind of magazines.We prefer these kinds of magazines.
39Kind of, sort of Rule: Examples: In standard formal usage, avoid using these expressions to mean “rather” or “somewhat.”Examples:Informal: I feel kind of depressed today.Formal: I feel rather [somewhat] depressed today.
40Kind of a, sort of a Rule: Examples: The “a” is superfluous. Informal: What kind of a sports car is this?Formal: What kind of sports car is this?
41Lay, lie Rule: Examples: Present Tense:You lay something down.People lie themselves down.Rule:The verb lie means “to assume a lying position” or “to be in a lying position.” This verb is intransitive; that is, it never has an object.The verb lay means “to put” or “to place something.” It may have an object.Examples:The pattern lies on top of the fabric. (no object)You lay the fabric on a flat surface. (object: fabric)
42Present TensePast TensePast ParticipleLieLayLainLay * (requires direct object)LaidHow to Conjugate Lay and LieThe past tense of lie is lay:Last week, Steve lay down on the floor.The cat lay in the mud after it rained yesterday.The past tense of lay is laid:Last week, I laid the TPS report on your desk.Mary forcefully laid her ring on the table.The past participle of lie is lain:Steve has lain on the floor for days.The cat has lain in the mud for hours.The past participle of lay is laid:I have laid the TPS report on your desk.Mary has forcefully laid her ring on the table.
43Learn, teach Rule: Examples: Learn means “to acquire knowledge.” Teach means “to dispense knowledge.”Examples:If Mrs. Green teaches [not learns] us, we will learn more.
44Leave, let Rule: Examples: Leave (left) means “to go away.” Let means “to allow, to permit.”Examples:Nonstandard: Leave us finish our dinner.Standard: Let us finish our dinner.Nonstandard: He shouldn’t have left us borrow his car.Standard: He shouldn’t have let us borrow his car.
45Like, as Rule: Examples: Like is a preposition and introduces a prepositional phrase.As is usually a conjunction and introduces a subordinate clause.Examples:Jo sings like her sister. [prepositional phrase]Jo sings as her sister does. [subordinate clause]
46Like, as if Rule: Examples: Like should not be used for as if or as though, which are conjunctions used to introduce clauses.Examples:Informal: She looks like she studied all night.Formal: She looks as if [as though] she studied all night. (clause)
47Likely, liable Rule: Examples: These words are often used interchangeably, but some writers of standard formal English prefer to observe the following distinctions.Likely is used to express simple probability.Liable is used to express probability with a suggestion of harm or misfortune; it is also used to mean “responsible” or “answerable.”Examples:Ginny is likely to arrive at any minute.The children playing near the gravel pit are liable to get hurt.Mrs. Lee is liable for the damages her daughter caused.
48Myself, ourselves Rule: Examples: Most careful writers of English avoid using pronouns ending in –self, -selves to replace personal pronouns as subjects or objects.Examples:Amy and I [not myself] are in charge of decorations.Could you do a favor for Wanda and me? [not myself]
50Nauseated, nauseous Rule: Examples: These words do not mean the same thing.Nauseated means “sick.”Nauseous means “disgusting, sickening.”Examples:After riding on the roller coaster, the child became nauseated.The chemical reaction gave off a nauseous odor.
51None Rule: Examples: None may be either singular or plural. None of the story makes sense.None of the movies were exciting.
52Number Rule: Examples: The expression “the number of” takes a singular verb.The expression “a number of” takes a plural verb.Examples:The number of volunteers is surprising.A number of volunteers are signing up right now.
53Off of Rule: Examples: (Another Rule): The of is unnecessary. Nonstandard: They pushed us off of the raft as a joke.Standard: The pushed us off the raft as a joke.(Another Rule):Do not use off or off of for from.Nonstandard: I got some free advice off of the mechanic.Standard: I got some free advice from the mechanic.
54Or, nor Rule: Examples: Use or with either (either, or) Use nor with neither (neither, nor)Examples:Either Gwen or Lily will lead the discussion.Neither Gwen nor Lily will lead the discussion.
55Persecute, prosecute Rule: Examples: Distinguish between these words, which have quite different meanings.Persecute means “to attack or annoy someone,” often for a person’s beliefs.Prosecute means “to bring legal action against someone for unlawful behavior.”Examples:The old regime persecuted the political prisoners.The district attorney will prosecute anyone caught looting.
56Phenomena Rule: Examples: Phenomena is the plural form of the word phenomenon.Do not use it as a singular noun.Examples:We studied these [not this] phenomena of nature, which are [not is] rare indeed.We studied this phenomenon of nature, which is rare indeed.
57Politics, mathematics, athletics Rule:Athletics: more often plural than singular.Politics: may be either singular or plural.Mathematics: although plural in form, it takes a singular verb.
58Respectfully, respectively Rule:Respectfully means “with respect” or “full of respect.”Respectively means “each in the order given.”Examples:Even though I disagreed, I listened respectfully to their side.Jane Eyre, Emma, and Adam Bede were written by Charlotte Bronte, Jane Austen, and George Eliot, respectively.
59Reverend, Honorable Rule: Examples: These titles should never be used with a person’s last name alone. In addition, the word the commonly precedes the titles.Examples:Nonstandard: Reverend Becker, the Reverend Becker, Honorable LugarStandard: the Reverend Mark Becker, the Reverend M.L. Becker, the Reverend Mr. Becker, the Reverend Dr. Becker, the Honorable Richard Lugar
60Rise, RaiseRule:The verb rise means “to go up.” Its principal pars are rise, (is) rising, rose, (have) risen. In other words, when the subject of the verb is itself moving upward, use rise. Rise is intransitive; it never takes an object.The verb raise means “to force something to move upward.” Its principal parts are raise, (is) raising, raised, (have) raised. When the subject of the verb is acting on something, forcing it upward, use raise. Raise is transitive; it usually takes an object.
61Complete Exercise 11Using Rise and Raise CorrectlyPage 562
62Same, said, suchRule:Avoid such artificial uses of these words as the following:We worked hard on the props and had same guarded against pranksters.Josie complains about taking care of her young cousin, but she is really fond of said cousin.Steve suggested we skip classes, but I don’t approve of such.
63Says Rule: Examples: Commonly used incorrectly for said. Nonstandard: Doris argues and says, “We should have come earlier.”Standard: Doris argued and said, “We should have come earlier.”
64Shall, will Rule: Examples: The old distinction between these words is no longer observed by most people. Shall, which was once considered the only correct form for the simple future in the first person, has been replaced by will in most speech and writing.Examples:Standard: I shall be glad to mail your package.Standard: I will be glad to mail your package.In a few expressions shall is the only for ever used and so presents no usage problem: Shall we go? Shall I help you? To use will in these expressions would change the meaning. With the exception of these special uses, will is as correct as shall.
65Sit and SetRule:Sit usually means “to assume or to be in an upright, sitting position.” The principal parts of sit are sit, (is) sitting, sat, (have) sat. Sit is almost always an intransitive verb; it rarely takes an object.Set usually means “to put, to place something.” The principal parts of set are set, (is) setting, set, (have) set. Set is a transitive verb; it may take an object.When you mean “to put something down,” use set or setting. For all other meanings use sit, or sat, or sitting.
66Complete Exercise 10Using Sit and Set correctlyPage 561
67Slow, slowly Rule: Practice: Slow is an adjective except in the expressions “Drive slow,” and “Go slow,” which have become acceptable because of their wide use on highway road signs.Slowly is an adverb.Practice:Please speak (slow, slowly) when you give your election speech.
68So Rule: Examples: Avoid using this overworked word too frequently. Poor: The car ran out of gas, so we walked two miles to the nearest service station.Better: When the car ran out of gas, we walked two miles to the nearest service station.Better: Because the car had run our of gas, we walked two miles to the nearest service station.
69Some, somewhat Rule: Examples: Use somewhat rather than some as an adverb.Examples:Formal: The rate of inflation in Europe has slowed somewhat [not some].
70This here, that there Rule: Examples: The here and there are unnecessary.Examples:Nonstandard: This here shop has the best bargains.Standard: This shop has the best bargains.
71waysRule:Sometimes used informally for way in referring to distance.Examples:Informal: At dusk they were still a long ways from the campsite.Formal: At dusk they were still a long way from the campsite.
72When, where Rule: Examples: Do not use when or where in writing a definitionExamples:Nonstandard: A hurricane is when a tropical cyclone has winds faster than 75 miles per hour.Standard: A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that has winds faster than 75 miles per hour.Nonstandard: An implosion is where something bursts inward.Standard: An implosion is a bursting that is focused inward.
73Which, that, who Rule: Examples: Which should be used to refer to things only.That may be used to refer to either things or people.Who should be used to refer to people only.Examples:I like movies which have happy endings.Debra is an actress that inspires admiration.Debra is an actress who inspires admiration.
74The Double NegativeA double negative is a construction in which two negative words are used where one is sufficient.
75Can’t hardly, can’t scarcely Rule:The words hardly and scarcely are negatives.They should never be used with not.Examples:Nonstandard: It is so dark in here I can’t hardly see where I’m going.Standard: It is so dark in here I can hardly see where I’m going.Nonstandard: There isn’t scarcely enough time to eat lunch.Standard: There is scarcely enough time to eat lunch.
76Can’t help but Rule: Examples: In standard formal English, avoid this double negative.Examples:Nonstandard: We can’t help but applaud Ron’s positive attitude.Standard: We can’t help applauding Ron’s positive attitude.
77Haven’t but, haven’t only Rule:In certain uses but and only are negatives.Avoid using them with not.Examples:Informal: They hadn’t but two tickets left.Formal: They had but two tickets left.Informal: They hadn’t only two tickets left.Formal: They had only two tickets left.
78No, nothing, none Rule: Examples: Not to be used with another negative word.Examples:Nonstandard: Haven’t you no money?Standard: Haven’t you any money?Standard: Have you no money?Formative Assessment: Write this sentence so it is in formal, standard, English:Nonstandard: Carol hasn’t said nothing about the picnic.