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Workshop #4: Sentence Errors There are four basic types of sentence errors: 1.Sentence Fragments 2.Fused Sentences 3.Comma Splices 4.Comma Error problems.

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Presentation on theme: "Workshop #4: Sentence Errors There are four basic types of sentence errors: 1.Sentence Fragments 2.Fused Sentences 3.Comma Splices 4.Comma Error problems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Workshop #4: Sentence Errors There are four basic types of sentence errors: 1.Sentence Fragments 2.Fused Sentences 3.Comma Splices 4.Comma Error problems

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4 Notice that periods are crucial to this process. When you put down a period, you end a thought. You cannot just “tack on” more information after it like you might do when you are talking. Remember, talking is not the same as writing. People often speak using fragments in everyday conversation, so using fragments might “ SOUND ” normal, but it does not “ READ ” normal to your reader. Instead, it just reads as incomplete and choppy. BAD EXAMPLES OF FRAGMENTS:

5 PITFALL with fragments: When you write, you know what you meant to write. Because of this fact, your brain may “autocorrect” as you proofread your own writing, and it may read a sentence as correct when it is not. However, your reader does not or may not know what you meant to say, and his or her brain will not “autocorrect” as he or she reads. The reader will read the incomplete and choppy fragment and feel confused. Hence, when proofreading and editing, slow down and pay attention to the PERIODS.

6 The next type of error is a F USED SENTENCE. A fused sentence happens when you jam two independent clauses together with no punctuation or coordination. Billy went to the zoo he saw the tigers. Billy went to the zoo he saw the tigers. Simply putting a comma there does not work. It just replaces one error with another error—the C OMMA S PLICE. Billy went to the zoo, he saw the tigers. You make this error because you feel tempted to put a comma “wherever you take a breath” or when you feel there should be a pause. However, that is not a rule, and you are making a “writing like you talk” mistake. Both of these mistakes are easily fixed with one of a few rules. Remember……  FUSED  SPLICE

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8 You can make independent clauses each its own sentence. Billy went to the zoo. He saw the tigers. You can use a semicolon to join two independent clauses. However, the clauses must be closely related or strongly contrasted. Billy went to the zoo; he hates that place. NOT: Billy went to the zoo; cheeseburgers are yummy. BAD (unrelated) You can turn one of the clauses into a dependent clause. Billy saw the tigers when he went to the zoo. ORWhen Billy went to the zoo, he saw the tigers. (Be sure to follow proper comma rules when you do this.) Or you can join the independent clauses using a comma followed by a FANBOYS (coordinating conjunction). Billy went to the zoo, and he saw the tigers. Billy does not like snakes, so he avoided the reptile house. Billy neither likes spiders, nor does he like scorpions. Billy slipped by the seal exhibit, for the ground was wet there. He hit the ground hard, but he was not hurt. He had a coupon for his ticket, yet he still had to pay full price.

9 Let’s play NAME THAT ERROR!

10 Motorcycles are enjoyable but they are also very dangerous. Comma error run-on. One can be hurt badly in an accident cars hit bikes a lot. Fused. Bikes and cars need to share the road, and both riders and drivers need to pay attention. Correct. Spiders are not always a bad thing, they eat other insects when they are outside. Comma Splice. The schoolbus stopped at the railroad tracks. Because a train was crossing. Fragment. When you get to the store. Be sure to buy some milk. Fragment. I do not like to wake up early and when I do, I usually need coffee. Comma error run on….remember to spot the clauses. Mr. Johnson gives out the best Halloween candy lets trick-or-treat there first. Fused

11 Okay, for the next few sentences, describe how you would fix the error. I do not like sweets. Because all of my teeth fell out. Fragment—fix by removing the period and making all one sentence.. There is a hole in the bucket and we cannot get the water properly. Comma error run-on—put a comma between “bucket” and “we.”. The highway exit is next so you should move over to the right lane Comma error run-on—put a comma between “next” and “should.”. When Billy was six years old, he went to the zoo and fell down he hates that place now. Fused—use a semicolon, or make both separate sentences, or make one dependent.. Marty like to eat ice cream, he hates cake. Splice—add a FANBOYS (coordinating conjunction) after the comma.. When I grow up, I want to be Superman, I can do good deeds for people. Splice again!—put a FANBOYS (coordinating conjunction) after “Superman” and the comma.

12 One way to practice these skills everyday is to scan your friends’ social media posts (Twitter, Facebook) for errors to see if you can spot any. Text messaging is a great place to practice as well. Any Questions?


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