Presentation on theme: "Research Skills. Purpose To inform readers through synthesizing information Synthesizing information means you collect it from various places and combine."— Presentation transcript:
Purpose To inform readers through synthesizing information Synthesizing information means you collect it from various places and combine it with what you already know
Primary and Secondary Sources You should try to use primary sources whenever possible Primary sources are firsthand accounts of events / facts Examples of primary sources include diaries, journals, letters, and autobiographies Secondary sources are secondhand accounts of facts. Examples of secondary sources include biographies and encyclopedias
Who Should Evaluate Sources? ALL sources, whether primary or secondary, need to be evaluated by the researcher. It is your job to determine whether the source is good or not.
Evaluating a Source – the 4 R’s Check to see if a source meets the following four criteria: 1. Relevant – does it relate to the topic? Check the index / table of contents / skim the information to see. 2. Reliable – Is the author an authority or an expert? Is the source a real news or information source vs. an individual? 3. Recent – is the information up-to-date? 4. Representative – are both sides represented, or is the source neutral? Avoid sources that show a bias in one direction or the other.
You need to find out about the Apollo 13 disaster for a project in your science class. You find a.gov site that lists all of the United States space missions and lists the astronauts who served. The copyright date is Evaluate the source Relevant? Recent? Reliable? Representative?
You’re researching the use of steroids in professional sports. You find a.com website that discusses both sides of the steroid problem in professional sports – both why steroids are wrong and why some people feel compelled to use them. The website is anonymous and does not have a copyright date. Evaluate the source Relevant? Recent? Reliable? Representative?
You’re trying to find out who your state representatives are and how to write to them about some concerns you have about public safety in your neighborhood. You find a.org website that lists the representatives of your state and how they feel about certain issues. The website places a red “x” next to representatives who feel a certain way about political issues and urges you not to vote for them. The website is authored by someone with a PhD, and it was updated last week. Evaluate the source Relevant? Recent? Reliable? Representative?
You’re looking for information on how to train two dogs to live in the same house. You find a.com site that advertises the services of a “pet whisperer” who can come to your house and train your dogs for you. The website is authored by the pet whisperer, and it was updated two weeks ago. Evaluate the source Relevant? Recent? Reliable? Representative?
You’re writing a report on why we should not ban smoking. You find a.org website that supports your views and lists multiple reasons why smoking is not harmful and how it helps the economy. It includes charts and statistics. The website is authored by a group called “Tobacco Executives United” and it was updated in Evaluate the source Relevant? Recent? Reliable? Representative?
You’re looking up information on the causes leading up to The American Revolution. You look up The American Revolution in the encyclopedia and find lots of information about specific battles. The authors of the encyclopedia are history professors and consultants. The copyright date is Evaluate the source Relevant? Recent? Reliable? Representative?
Now that you’ve practiced… Complete the following group activity. Be ready to share your answers! Divide into your 3 person groups.
Directions for Source Evaluations Assign roles: reader / charter / leader Read the articles aloud one at a time to the group With the leader’s help, evaluate each article (three total) Evaluate each article and identify problems (if any) with each of the 4 R’s Have the leader share the answers if called upon
Article One SUBJECT: Rihanna and Chris Brown Break-Up Article 1: Are Chris Brown and Rihanna Broken Up? By Courtney Hazlett, msnbc.com Are Chris Brown and Rihanna broken up, or aren't they? At issue are a flurry of text messages that reportedly were exchanged between the two after Brown was photographed in a West Hollywood tattoo parlor with Girlicious singer Natalie Meji on April 13. “When Ri saw the pictures, she sent Chris a text message, and Chris said, ‘It’s none of your business,’ ” reported Us Weekly. Brown and Rihanna have yet to confirm that they’ve parted ways. Rihanna recently announced she will give her first live performance since the alleged assault with a May 28 concert in Dubai.text messagestext message
Article 2 Article 2: Rihanna Dumps Chris Brown. by Dan Wooton, DEVASTATED RIHANNA has finally seen sense and DUMPED her Good Boy Turned Bad, CHRIS BROWN. The faithful Umbrella singer initially wanted to stand by the disgraced R&B star after he allegedly attacked her before the Grammys in LA last Sunday. The chart-topper went into hiding after suffering a bloody nose, swollen lip and facial bruising, as Chris was arrested. My source explained: "Rihanna really did think that Chris was the love of her life. But when everyone started to question their relationship, she burst into tears and reluctantly agreed that they were right. She just can't believe it's ended this way."
Article 3 Article 3: Why Did Rihanna Break Up With Chris Brown? From WikiAnswers Theories as to why Rihanna and Chris broke up No one knows if they really broke up. All i know is that they got into a fight causing Chris to get arrested and Rihanna, beat up. Apparently it was because rihanna thought chris browns car keys outside the window-Rihanna cheated on Chris Brown, to make a long story short. They got into a fight over it, she threw his keys out the window and they started to throw punches. They broke up because they got in a fight because chris was flirting with leona lewis They broke up because CHRIS BROWN got a text message from PARIS HILTON and he didn't want to show RHIANNA the txt message They break up because Rihanna caught him with Jordan Sparks and that is what her new song "take a bow" is about! The guy in the music video even looks like chris1 check it out on yahoo music videos!
Part 1, continued Since anyone can publish a web page, it’s extra important to evaluate websites. In addition to checking for the 4 R’s, check the domain of the website URL. This doesn’t always work, but it can help in many cases.
Common Domains and What They Mean DOMAINMEANINGRELIABLE???.eduEducational institution Usually..govGovernment bodyYes..orgNonprofit organization Sometimes. Some organizations will be trying to promote a cause.comCommerical enterprise (business) Sometimes, but often not. Evaluate very carefully!!!.netOrganization offering Internet services Usually.
Research Skills, Part 2 – How to Focus a Topic Depending on the type of project or paper you are expected to research, your topic may be broad, limited, or narrow. Broad: refers to an entire category of information without being specific (example: Research authors) Limited: limits the broad category by being a little more specific (example: Research a specific author) Narrow: Completely narrows the category even further by being very specific (example: Research how Nightjohn was influenced by Gary Paulsen’s own upbringing) Sometimes you will be asked to create your own research project – to make an inquiry. In most cases, you will need to either limit or broaden your topic in order to be able to do the research. For example, if you were told to research a topic that interests you, what would you choose?
Questions to Discuss Answer the following questions at your table, then be ready to share your answers. Which type of topic would be the easiest to research, and why? Which type of topic would be the most difficult to research, and why? Which type of topic would require the highest amount of synthesis (combining the research with your own ideas), and why? What would some examples of each type of topic be? Why is it important for you to be able to tell what type of research topic you have chosen and been assigned?
Common Topic Problems Most people run into problems when doing research because their topics are too broad or too narrow. The easiest topic to research would be limited, but not so narrow that you can’t find any information. If you are given a broad topic, what are things you could do to make the topic more manageable? If you choose a limited topic, what could you do to make the topic more manageable?
Identify Topic Types On your own sheet of paper, write whether each topic is broad, limited, or narrow, then give a suggestion for either broadening or narrowing the topic as needed. 1. Issues American Indians faced after the Civil War 2. American Indians 3. Raindances and other ceremonies of the Iroquois 4. Risk factors for cancer in young adults 5. Health 6. Cancer 7. Causes of the American Revolution 8. War 9. The effects of the Boston Tea Party on the colonists
Practice Choose one of the broad topics from the previous slide. Without using the examples I gave you, turn the broad topic into two different limited topics. Finally, turn each of the limited topics into a narrow topic. Illustrate the process on a small poster that is neat enough to be displayed.
Citing Sources Citing sources means that you show where you got your information. Citing shows evidence of your research, which makes you more reliable. It lets your readers know where they can go to check on the information. It gives credit where credit is due.
What Should Be Cited? Any words, ideas or images that you do not create yourself must be properly credited if you use them in your work. Why? Because you are using someone else's intellectual property.intellectual property
IMPORTANT LEGAL INFO!!! When it isn't yours, you need to cite your source.cite
Direct Quotations vs. Paraphrasing You can use a source by directly quoting it If you put the information in your own words, but you didn’t know it before, you are paraphrasing – not directly copying. You are still supposed to cite sources that you paraphrase!
Two types of plagiarism: Intentional – Copying a friend’s work – Buying or borrowing papers other people wrote – Cutting and pasting blocks of text from electronic sources without documenting – Media “borrowing”without documentation – Web publishing without permissions of creators Unintentional – Careless paraphrasing – Poor documentation – Quoting excessively – Failure to use your own “voice”
What about pictures? Yes! Anything you did not create yourself should be cited.
Plagiarism Presenting someone else's words, ideas, etc., as your own, whether intentional or not, is plagiarism. Lack of knowledge is not a defense against plagiarism. Plagiarism is theft - stealing someone's intellectual property without crediting the source. intellectual property It is unethical, dishonest, and illegal. Intellectual property is protected under US law. It’s also prosecuted by educational institutions.
Real life consequences: Damaged the reputation of two prominent historians, Stephen Ambrose and Doris Kearns Goodwin, – Kearns left television position and stepped down as Pulitzer Prize judge for “lifting” 50 passages for her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (Lewis) Senator Joseph Biden dropped his 1987 campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination. (Sabato) – Copied in law school and borrowed from campaign speeches of Robert Kennedy Boston Globe journalist Mike Barnicle forced to resign for plagiarism in his columns (“Boston Columnist...”) Probe of plagiarism at UVA--45 students dismissed, 3 graduate degrees revoked – CNN Article AP. 26 Nov CNN Article – Channel One Article AP. 27 Nov Channel One Article
What to Include in a Citation In general, include the following information in a citation: Author Title Publisher Place of Publication Date of Publication For websites, you’ll also need to know when you accessed the site and the web address (url)
Credits Elements of Literature, 5 th Course Holt High School Handbook 2 Glencoe Speech agiarism.ppt