The examples, documents, and many of the images used to illustrate this presentation come from CICERO: History Beyond the Textbook. You can sign up for a free trial of this incredible supplement by visiting and sign up for the free trial.
The Goal To help students begin to systematically gain knowledge about the past, critically think about the past, and construct a personal interpretation of the past. In essence the goal is to impart the ability of students to become lifelong learners in history.
Knowing Too Much Teachers love to continually learn That is why we are HERE today There is a disconnect between teacher learning and student learning We learn differently than the students We cannot transfer our knowledge to students in the same way that we gained it Trying to do so ends in frustration for everyone Is it about teaching or student learning?
Personal Experience My own TAH grant and the Civil War Teaching the Civil War afterwards Lack of transfer from my knowledge-base to the students
Going Over to the Enemy Math - monkey see, monkey do Teach a skill, practice it, drill it, master it Teach another skill that builds on the previous Creates a spiraling effect The question: Could history be served with a series of skills that build upon each other?
Historical Thinking is Unnatural Goes against the grain of the way that we ordinarily think We are taught to see a harmony between past and present The next slides are an example of how we are taught to see the harmony between the past and the present. Yerxa, Donald (Ed.). (2008). Historical Thinking: Historians in Conversation. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Historical Thinking is Foreign Too many students see the study of history as amassing information and not as a way of thinking or being. Many teachers continue to treat History as a compilation of facts, dates, events, and people Because that is the way they were trained Yerxa, Donald (Ed.). (2008). Historical Thinking: Historians in Conversation. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Historical Thinking is Hard Historical reasoning should create a kind of caution where the mind does not automatically leap to conclusions or emotional reactions Have to get rid of the notion of a fundamental, timeless past Must focus on context, change, continuity, and meaning Yerxa, Donald (Ed.). (2008). Historical Thinking: Historians in Conversation. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
The Big Picture: Underpinnings of Revolution Tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right... Wherever the power, that is put in... hands for government of the people, and the preservation of their properties, is applied to other ends, and made use of to impoverish, harass, or subdue them to the arbitrary and irregular commands of those that have it; there it presently becomes tyranny..." John Lock- Natural Rights Philosopher "The use of force alone is but temporary. It may subdue for a moment; but it does not remove the necessity of subduing again: and a nation is not governed, which is perpetually to be conquered." Edmund Burke in his speech to Parliament on American Taxation, April 1774 "Why stand we here idle? Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God. I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!" Patrick Henry - Speech in Virginia Convention March 1775 From CICERO Unit 4 Birth of Liberty, At a Glance, Birth of Liberty Quotes
From CICERO Unit 4 Birth of Liberty, Primary Sources, and Heroes How do present values hinder our study of this statement? Judging from a 18 th - century perspective, how should we view this statement?
How do we see colonial bias and point-of-view in these four declarations from the Stamp Act Congress? From CICERO Unit 4 Birth of Liberty, Primary Sources
The soldiers are all being ordered to fire by their commander. From the testimony at the trial, we know that the firing was not ordered. How reliable is this source? From CICERO Unit 4 Birth of Liberty, Powerpoints
The soldiers were positioned outside the Custom’s House. The sign in the picture refers to the building as “Butcher’s Hall”.
The crowd is shown unarmed and defenseless. In fact, the crowd threw snowballs and many carried clubs.