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FranceFrance VJ Servera, Nathaniel Dwarika, and Zach Gunnz A Brief History (Political Change):

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1 FranceFrance VJ Servera, Nathaniel Dwarika, and Zach Gunnz A Brief History (Political Change):

2 Analysis of the Causes: 1848: Monarchy to Republic (After Napoleon’s Exile) Causes of the French Revolution: Causes of the French Revolution: - Louis Phillipe’s Favoritism - Republican Anger The French Revolution (1848) can be attributed to a number of causes. - Louis Phillipe’s Favoritism During his reign, several political parties came into existence in France. These parties included the Constitutionalists, Royalists, Republican and Bonapartists. Louis Phillipe’s role in all of this was to act as a moderate between these parties. However, Phillipe instead began to favor the Constitutionalists and became under their influence. As a result, this angered the other political parties. Phillipe also aided in the cause for the revolution because of his attempt to create industries. In his attempts, he gave patronage to the upper- middle class as well as the Constitutionalists. As a result, his favoritism angered everyone else. - Republican Anger The goal for the Republicans of the previous revolution of 1830 was to establish a Republic and remove the monarch. The presence of Phillipe angered the Republicans, and they thought it necessary to have another revolution to expel the monarch.

3 - Reform Party As a means to lower Royal power, the reform party demanded the extension of the suffrage and limitation of Royal control. But Guizot, the King’s minister, refused to accept any demands. Guizot was Louis Phillipe’s minister, and he had made the French Government conservative and ran the government by means of political corruption. The many people felt disgusted with the affairs of the state and raised their voice for reforms. - Growth of Trade Union and Working Class Birth of Socialist Party: The promotion of industries brought about the growth of working class and trade union organization. Louis Phillipe failed to bring effective welfare measures to the working class and also tried to suppress the growing working class consciousness. His foreign policy was poor, and this brought the national pride of France to a very low level. - Birth of Socialist Party: The Socialist Party came to birth as result of being dissatisfied with the government policies. The members of the new party were called socialists and their leader was Louis Blanc. Their demands included providing work to every person, elimination of private capitalists, and free competition for economic growth.

4 Mind Map of the Causes The 5 Main Causes of the French Revolution (1848) Louis Phillipe’s Favoritism Republican Anger The Rise of the Reform Party Growth of the Trade Union and Working Class The Birth of the Socialist Party

5 Analysis of the Causes: 1871: 2 nd French Empire to 3 rd Republic Napoleon had suffered a great humiliation by having to bow before the threat of the United States. The French economy was also weakening as a result of the Mexican campaign, and this also kept France outside of European affairs for five years, during which time Prussia rose to power. Napoleon tried to regain diminishing support by making liberal concessions, but the openness of the opposition increased. In 1869, the opposition obtained majority in Napoleon's party in the Legislative Assembly, and as a result, Napoleon brought an entirely new liberal government. French foreign policy was still diminishing and was suffering further humiliation from Germany. They misjudged the Prussian strength in the Austro-Prussian War, were humiliated over the Biarritz Agreement, and the Prussians even refused to compensate France for neutrality. In hopes to restore his diminishing prestige, Napoleon declared war in August 1870,; however, his armies were no match against the Germans. The Revolution broke out in Paris, the Empire was then overthrown and a 3 rd Republic was established. France during the Third Republic was politically very unstable. This instability was caused by rivalry between monarchists and republicans. Also, peace was not forthcoming since territorial loss was unacceptable to the French. Elections were held in February 1871, and France was weary of war and wanted peace.

6 Mind Map of the Causes The Developing Causes Leading to the 3 rd Republic (1871) Military Humiliation Weakening French economy Increasing Internal Opposition Diminishing French Foreign Policy Increasing Prussian Power German Military Superiority

7 French Revolution 1848: Monarch to Republic Political: Bourbon dynasty was restored in France after the French revolutionary and Napoleonic wars (1789-1815). France was a monarchy under Louis Phillipe. Louis Phillipe’s "Liberal" monarchy had few real supporters. Elections were held on the basis of limited suffrage. Many felt excluded from any possibility of gaining wealth, and others felt that his "Bourgeois and Liberal" monarchy compared unfavorably with earlier, "Glorious", eras of French Monarchy or Empire. Political: Sufferings from those poor, affected by unemployment, decline in agriculture production led to radicals in politics. When the revolution began, Louis Phillipe dismissed Guizot, his reactionary Prime Minister, who had been a particular focus of the protestors anger, on the 23rd and himself, reluctantly, abdicated on the 24th. Society: People were upset and felt that they had no chance of becoming wealthy. They were tired of being poor while the rich upper-class stayed rich. Economy: Weather across much of Europe in 1845-1846 affected agricultural production which led to increasing food prices. Depressed economic conditions of widespread unemployment occurred as a result of the decline in agricultural production. Facts: Christianity was the main religion during the revolution of France. Government became suspicious of any revolts and banned any meeting or “banquets” containing 6 or more people unless given permission. After a banquet was closed last minute, on February 22 nd 1848 there were some serious disturbances on the Paris streets, which featured the building of some formidable barricades by groups of protesting citizens. Facts: Protestors subsequently threw up a large number of barricades in several areas of the city chopping down thousands of trees and tearing up hundreds of thousands of paving stones in the process. The revolution had begun.

8 Political: During the revolution the Chamber of Deputies (gov’t. before revolution) were invaded and replaced with the establishment of Provisional Government of a French Republic. This government was formed in a climate where power needed to be exercised by a central authority but where there was also a divergence of opinion as to the desirable political and social outlook of that government.. Political: With the new French Government monarchy was pronounced to be abolished in France "without possibility of return". Important figures in the Provisional Government administration included established moderate, liberal, and middle class. Lamartine, who was something of a poet and orator later self-flatteringly recorded his own refusal, as a notably prominent member of the new government. Political: Lamartine held considerable power in the new government as the newly appointed Foreign Minister. Lamartine later developed “the Republican motto of Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité” (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity). Facts: The red flag during the revolution in 1848 was, symbol of martial law and of order. The “people” wanted this. Lamartine who wanted to keep the tricolor flag conceded the Republican motto of Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, written on the flag, on which a red rosette was also to be added. Society: With the old government overthrown, many lower class citizens were now finally content. Society wanted change and finally achieved it. As a result monarchy style of government was replaced with a republic. French Revolution 1848: Monarch to Republic

9 Art/Architecture: A style of art developed during the 18 th Century in France, known as Romanticism. Romanticism involved violent colors and curves as found in Eugene. During this period Romanticism stressed the importance of feelings, imagination, self-expression and individual creativity. It was partly a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature. Intellectual: Due to the Enlightenment period, people began viewing the government in a new way. Teaching from Enlightenment thinkers brought up awareness that the ruler is not divine and is just as human as everyone else. Enlightenment period was a factor that led to a revolution. Religion Before the revolution society lived among government and religion intertwined. When society noticed the corruption of government they want it to become increasingly more secular. French Revolution 1848: Monarch to Republic

10 Political: France leader Napoleon III led the French government. Napoleon III full of confidence, decided to attack Germany even though his military did not match up to the strength. Attacked Prussia and ended up being embarrassingly defeated and siege was laid to the city of Paris. Political: With Prussians outside of Paris, the ineffectual national government was in disarray. With the government being weak and making poor decisions, people became enraged and began a revolution. The government eventually lost to the people and a new government was formed to be The Third Republic. Political: After months of attempts to break out, the French Government signed an armistice on February 28 th 1871 (The Treaty of Frankfurt) which ended the French-Prussia war. Prussia came into Paris with a “symbolic” appearance and remained there. Prussia briefly occupied Paris and left. Economy: After Prussia defeated France and marched toward Paris, Cattle and grain were sent into the city in immense Quantities. Economy was hurt during Prussia’s siege because they Prussia prevented products from going into Paris or out. The French were to pay a war indemnity of 5 Billion Francs. Society: Citizens were mad that Napoleon attacked Prussia. They did not even want him to attack. Large numbers of hungry and/or poor people wandering around in the streets of Paris Middle and lower class citizens began a new revolution in France. Society wanted true freedom and equality. Facts: On 18 March 1871, the Commune of Paris was declared. Until 28 May 1871, the Commune reigned in Paris, a worker's insurrection whose red banners hinted at worker's revolutions to come in the early 20th century. French Revolution 1871: 2 nd French Empire to 3 rd Republic

11 Political: The President was the head of state and had little political power. He had the right to dissolve the Chamber of Deputies with the support of the Senate. He had the right to nominate the new head of government He played an important role in foreign affairs. The Senate was elected by mayors and councilors in departments (counties) throughout France. It was nicknamed the “Chamber of Agriculture” because the countryside was over represented. Senators were elected every nine years. Conservative, rural interests dominated in the senate and were thereby able to block progressive legislation in the areas of women’s rights and worker’s rights. The Chamber of Deputies was chosen every four years. It contained 600 members elected by universal male suffrage. It chose the government or ministry. There was no organized party system although there were four main political groupings in the Chamber: French Revolution 1871: 2nd French Empire to 3rd Republic

12 Art/Architecture: A style of art developed during the 18 th Century in France, known as Romanticism. During this period Romanticism stressed the importance of feelings, imagination, self-expression and individual creativity. It was partly a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature. Intellectual: Due to the Enlightenment period, people began viewing government in a new way. Teaching from Enlightenment thinkers brought up awareness that the ruler is not divine and is just as human as everyone else. Enlightenment period was a factor that led to French revolution. People increasingly realize their power in government and how they can influence it. Religion Before the revolution society lived among government and religion intertwined. When society noticed the corruption of government they want it to become increasingly more secular. French Revolution 1871: 2nd French Empire to 3rd Republic

13 Chronology of the Changes 1804-1815: 1815: 1830-1848: 1848: 1852-1870: 1870-1871: 1804-1815: Napoleon is named Emperor; he reorganizes the French administration and legal system, establishing the Napoleonic Code. 1815: The Monarchy is restored. 1830-1848: The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution which saw the overthrow of King Charles X of France, takes place. Also, during this time period, industrialization begins to develop. 1848: Development of problems lead to the spark of The French Revolution (1848), and the Monarchy becomes the Second Republic. Also, slavery becomes abolished. In addition, Louis Napoleon wins presidential election in France. 1852-1870: The Second Empire under Napoleon III is established. Prosperity and growth reigns during this time period. Colonial conquests begin to take place. 1870-1871: The Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 resulted in the defeat of France, and the overthrow of Emperor Napoleon III and his Second French Empire. The second French Empire becomes the 3 rd Republic.

14 Comparison: Revolution of 1848 BeforeAfter  Constitutional Monarchy  Council of Deputies  Moderately liberal state.  Controlled mainly by educated elites  Established a Provisional Government of a French Republic.  Creation of the Second Republic.  Was opposed to liberal viewpoints.  Formed the Executive Commission which was a body of state acting as Head of State with five co-presidents. The goal of the Revolution of 1848 was to expel the need of a monarch and form the creation of a Republic. The state of France before this revolution was a constitutional monarchy with a Council of Deputies. Overall the rule was moderately liberal which changed after the Revolution of 1848, in which the Conservatives took over.

15 Comparison: Revolution of 1871 BeforeAfter  Provisional Government of a French Republic  Conservative  Second Republic  Executive Commission  President was Head of State and had little political powers but played an important role in foreign affairs.  Creation of the Third French Republic  Had a Senate with overly represented farmers.  Conservative  French National Assembly with monarchist majority The Revolution of 1871 was a direct result of the embarrassing attack on Prussia which ended in defeat. The changes that took place were mainly to please and cause peace with Prussia, as France adopted a Parliamentary Monarchy. Though intended for fairness and equality, the Senate became known for their over representation of farmers.

16 The emphasis of this chart is to show the contrast in representation due to the composition of the National Assembly in 1871. Charts/Images

17 Credits VJ Servera: VJ Servera: - Analysis of the Causes that Led to Each Revolution (slides 2-6). - Chronology of the Changes (slide 13). Nathaniel Dwarika: - Comparison and Images (slides 14-16). Zach Gunnz: Zach Gunnz: - PIRATES and pictures that reviews the effects of the revolutions and government changes on the assigned country (slides 7-12).


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