What do you already know about the American Revolution?
Why did Britain become a global power? Location, location, location - The Merchants of England setup outposts around the world from 1500-1600. It’s all about the Benjamins – England was a great place for businesses to grow and put fewer trade restrictions on merchants and traders.
All I do is win – England won the majority of conflicts it was involved in during the 1700s. By 1763 the British had claimed all of French Canada. It also had monopolized the slave trade to Spanish America bringing wealth and power to Britain. What’s mine is mine, what’s yours is mine – England expanded its territory close to home uniting with Wales and Scotland (1707) and controlling Ireland (1600s). Lots of local trade.
What did King George III do to recover the powers the crown had lost? “George, be a king!” Wanted to: choose his own ministers, dissolve the cabinet system, make Parliament follow his will. “The king’s friends” people King George III helped put into parliament who did as he wanted. Many of his policies were disastrous.
What were some of the British Colonial cites and where were they located? The East Coast; Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. How were merchants in the colonies treated differently in England? Mercantilist Policies: England wanted to export more than it imported. The Navigation Acts: Limited colonial trade and manufacturing. These policies were not enforced in the colonies and lead to smuggling.
What was colonial life like in the mid-1700s? Diverse religiously, not as many social distinctions, though the wealthy dominated gov. and society. Colonists felt they deserved the rights of English citizens. Colonial assemblies governed most local issues. This created an increasing sense of separateness from Britain.
Why were the Sugar and Stamp Acts passed and what were they? Passed to pay for The French and Indian and the Seven Years Wars. Sugar Act (1764) imposed import taxes. Colonists had to pay tax on goods brought in. Stamp Act (1765) imposed tax on newspapers, pamphlets and other printed materials on the colonists. How did the colonists react and what did Britain do? “No taxation without representation” colonists argued that since the had no representation in Parliament that they should not be taxed. Britain repealed the Stamp Act (1766) but declared that they had complete authority over the colonies.
What did the taxes and the declaration of authority lead to in the colonies? Violent Clashes: The Boston Massacre (1770) threw snowballs at British soldiers; soldiers opened fire. Boston Tea Party (1773) colonists threw a cargo of tea overboard in Boston. Parliament passed harsh laws to punish Mass. for the incident. Colonists infuriated. Action: Representatives from each colony meet at a Continental Congress to decide what to do. John Adams, George Washington.
After war exploded in Lexington and Concord, Mass. (1775) the Congress met again to set up an army. George Washington. What action did they decide to take at the Second Continental Congress (1776)? Voted for Independence. Signed and authored the D.O.I (Thomas Jefferson). The D.O.I. included Locke’s idea that people could abolish an unjust government. Popular Sovereignty: all gov. power comes from the people. Argued that the king had “trampled” the people’s rights. Revolt necessary. July 4 th, 1776 adopted the D.O.I.; Independence or Treason.
What advantages did Britain have in the war? More trained soldiers, a huge fleet, more resources, and 1/3of the colonists supported Britain. What advantages did colonists have? Familiar geography, strong leader (Washington), and a cause or ideals. What about the Native Americans and slaves? Native American tribes allied with both sides. Slaves we offered freedom if they would fight with Britain.
France helped us? After the first American victory (Saratoga, 1777), the French joined the Americans. Britain was a rival of France. France provided supplies, warships, and trained soldiers. The French example encouraged other rivals of Britain to help out as well.
What lead to the Treaty of Paris and what did it do? The French blockaded Chesapeake Bay which allowed Washington to force surrender. Yorktown, VA 1781 Britain had to recognize American independence.
What was the first Constitution why did it fail, and what was done about it? Articles of Confederation. Too weak. The nation’s leaders (Washington, Madison, Franklin) met in Philadelphia (1787). Created the Constitution.
What Enlightenment thinkers influenced the framers (creators) of the Constitution and why? Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu. Shared ideals of natural rights, government by the people, social contract, branches of government. Created a federal republic; power divided between the gov. and the states. Separation of powers; Executive, Legislative, Judicial; checks and balances. What is the Bill of Rights and what did it recognize? The first 10 amendments to the Constitution. Recognized people had basic rights that the gov. must protect.
When was the Constitution signed and why was/is it considered an important symbol of freedom? 1789. The most progressive social and political document of its day. Representation of Enlightenment ideas. Indirectly inspired other peoples to rise up for change.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlUi SBXQHCw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HlUi SBXQHCw Watch and answer the following: Was the Revolution really revolutionary?
Scientific Method Social Contract Laissez Fair Censorship Popular Sovereignty