Presentation on theme: "ROCK C HILENO AND “ PANK ”. T HE 1980 S With the passing of the Pinochet constitution in 1981, the dictatorship entered its “political phase” Pinochet."— Presentation transcript:
T HE 1980 S With the passing of the Pinochet constitution in 1981, the dictatorship entered its “political phase” Pinochet ruled as “president” rather than as part of a military junta. On the one hand, there were (tightly controlled) openings for official opposition. On the other, the constitution and the regime’s practices left authoritarian structures buried under a veneer of “democracy”.
The “free market” model was fully entrenched by the 1980s, which gave the illusion of social liberties, economic bubbles and crashes created instability in the regime. The regime still controlled major media outlets (TVN, El Mercurio Newspaper) however some oppositional media emerged during this time. (Hoy, Analisis) In 1982, Eduardo Frei died under mysterious circumstances after routine surgery. Tucapel Jimenez, was assassinated in his car. These spark initial protests against the regime which would begin growing in number and intensity.
Television and Film industries were under heavy (and sometimes arbitrary) censorship from the regime. Regime passed a decree which gave four ambiguous criteria for blocking exposition or promotion of film/TV: it propagated ideas contrary to “fundamental” patriotic ideas, it criticized countries with friendly ties to Chile, it went against “public order/morality/good customs” and it “encouraged socially delinquent acts” Also, the regime still maintained the “toque de queda” or curfew until 1987, which mandated people be indoors during the night.
Repressions were more surreptitious. The CNI and the DINA were formed and carried out covert assassinations, kidnappings and disappearances. Regime demonized all political activity in the media, tried to paint itself as “anti-political”. Social and creative life had practically ceased. The regime seemed to be there in perpetuity and it crippled vectors for expression or social change. Youth culture, in particular, swung between nihlism and hedonism. Younger gen. Rejected both the utopian ideals of the Allende years, and the regime’s version of events. It was the age of
L OS PRISIONEROS Group formed as High School students in Santiago’s “ comuna San Miguel ” core members included Miguel Tapia, Jorge González and Claudio Narea. Jorge and Miguel originally had a Beatles cover band called “Los vinkuches”. After Claudio joined they went through several name changes landing on “Los prisioneros” in reference to Chile’s political situation. Sound is generally defined as “punk” (with The Clash as a main musical influence) but also showcase influences of reggae, techno, synth-pop and ska.
First album “La voz de los ochenta” was named 3 rd best album of all time by Rolling Stone Chile. Group received limited airplay in Chile due to censorship and Chilean radio’s preference for Argentine musicians like Soda Stereo. Group’s performance at La sexta teleton was purposefully cut off by commercials. Album was eventually re-released under the EMI label in 1985 and sold 150,000 copies. Music is socially critical without recourse to oppositional political philosophy. Comments on apathy and hypocrisy of Chilean society of the eighties, the impotence of the left and the stupidity of “poseurs”
A PARATO R ARO Created in 1984 by Igor Rodriguez at the University of Chile (Classmate of Los Prisioneros Jorge Gonzalez) Started as a jazz fusion band but later moved more towards synth pop after being exposed to the music of Depeche Mode Played mostly in universities, recorded a self-titled debut in 1985 Single “Calibraciones” had tremendous success. Record label forced band to change lyrics referring to dictatorship.
L OS P INOCHET B OYS Formed in 1984 by Daniel Puente and the Conejero brothers at the Universidad Catolica in Santiago Unlike other punk/rock groups of the era, Los Pinochet Boys didn’t start off performing covers but wrote and performed their own songs from the beginning. Name refers to the way the dictatorship “infantilized” Chileans. Group had no musical experience and had mostly broken or second hand instruments
Started to get noticed after music included in the theatrical production of Medea by Vicente Ruiz. Played shows in cafes in the underground. Response by the regime to the group was immediate. During one of their first performances at a bar called La Luna, police threw a bag full of mud into their instruments. Police also infiltrated concerts and threw beer bottles at the band to shut them down. Travelled to Argentina and Brazil to try and perform, but was unable to attract an audience. Only four of the group’s songs were ever recorded. In 2008 the story of the group was recuperated by various authors who had been in the underground scene in the 80s in the book “Los Pinochet Boys”