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Melissa Ebling Michelle Rohrbach BULLYING IN SCHOOLS.

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1 Melissa Ebling Michelle Rohrbach BULLYING IN SCHOOLS

2 WHAT IS BULLYING?? School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in connection with education, either inside or outside of school. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional and is usually repeated over a period of time. g g A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself. “When you bully people you think you’re tough but you damage other people’s lives and your actions can scar them for life. You can destroy your own life by getting yourself involved in more serious events.” “Bullying is not just about hitting and punching. It also involved swearing, stealing, taking and putting pressure on other people. It is really bad!” _files/f/1319/June%20newsletter%20 2010.pdf _files/f/1319/June%20newsletter%20 2010.pdf Textbook definition:What students say:

3 Forms of Bullying Physical Punching Shoving Slapping, etc. Verbal Name calling Harassment Negative comments, etc. Emotional Spreading rumors Whispering in front of someone Whispering Campaign Ignoring someone on Purpose Silent treatment Sexual Providing sexual favors because of intimidation Groping Sexually insulting language Electronic (Cyber bullying) Sent through: Text messages Emails Instant messages Using someone’s account Posting inappropriate pictures or messages Sexting

4 IMPACT OF BULLYING Depression Anxiety Low Self Esteem Health Problems Poor Grades Suicidal Thoughts Attempted Suicide Completing Suicide Students who bully are more likely to: Get into frequent fights Steal Vandalize property Drink Smoke Have poor grades Have a negative climate at school Carry a weapon Boys who were identified as bullies in middle school were four times as likely as their nonbullying peers to have more than one criminal conviction by age 24. Students Who are BulliedStudents Who Bully

5 According to our School Law Book: The key issue involving bullying centers around the relationship between the bully and the victim and the intent of the person who exhibits bullying behavior. There is a power difference between the bully and the victim. It may be: Physical Size Popularity in School The ability to intimidate others Ostracize socially The intent of bullying is to create stress or a sense of helplessness among victims. Bullying is the most common form of violence in our society; between 15 and 30 percent of students are bullies or victims.

6 “The National School Safety Center reports that during each hour of the day, 2,000 students and three to four teachers are attacked at school.” (Essex, 2008) Between 1992 – 1993 and 2002 – 2003 Pennsylvania reported 14 deaths that were school related violence. PA was tied for 6 th in the nation. (Essex, 2008)

7 A 2003 report from the American Medical Association conducted a study of over 15,000 sixth through tenth graders estimates that approximately 3.7 million youths engage in, and more than 3.2 million are victims of, moderate or serious bullying each year. (Essex, 2008) Between 1994 and 1999, there were 253 violent deaths in schools; 51 casualties were the result of multiple death events. (Essex, 2008)

8 Phoebe Prince The picture of the girl on the previous slide was Phoebe. Phoebe committed suicide on January 14, 2010 after being bullied for approximately three months. The Prince family moved from Ireland to Western Massachusetts in the fall of 2009. She was a 15 year old freshman at South Hadley High. Phoebe had a relationship with a senior football player. Because of that relationship she was targeted by a group of girls called “The Mean Girls”. There was constant name calling, intimidation, and stalking. The day Phoebe took her life she was walking home from school when the group of girls hassling her, drove by her and threw an energy drink bottle at her while yelling insults. Phoebe ignored them, kept walking home, went into her house and hung herself. She was found by her 12 year old sister.

9 Did the bullying stop? Once word spread about Phoebe committing suicide, the Mean Girls proceeded to mock her in death on Facebook. The badmouthing did not stop on Facebook, it was also going on in school in the days proceeding the suicide. The girls, upon being approached by the police, said they did nothing wrong. At a dance one of the Mean Girls was heard to be saying “I played dumb with the Police.” A Springfield TV station sent a crew to the school to talk to some of the students. They interviewed a girl on camera who stated, “bullies were stalking the corridors of the school.” As soon as the TV crew was out of sight, one of the Mean Girls came up and slammed the girl into the lockers and punched her in the head

10 What happened? The District Attorney said the school administrators were aware of the bullying Phoebe did go to a school administrator on January 7 She told the person she was scared and wanted to go home because she was threatened to get beat up Her mother also went to two school administrators. Teachers and students knew of the bullying and no one tried to stop it. The day she killed herself, a teacher witnessed the bullying in the library, but failed to say anything until it was too late.

11 Charges thus far: Sean Mulveyhill, 17, of South Hadley. Charged with statutory rape, violation of civil rights resulting in bodily injury, criminal harassment and disturbance of a school assembly. Kayla Narey, 17, of South Hadley. Charged with violation of civil rights resulting in bodily injury, criminal harassment and disturbance of a school assembly. Austin Renaud, 18, of Springfield. Charged with statutory rape. Ashley Longe, 16, of South Hadley. Charged as a youthful offender with violation of civil rights resulting in bodily injury. Sharon Chanon Velazquez, 16, of South Hadley. Charged as a youthful offender with stalking and violation of civil rights resulting in bodily injury. Flannery Mullins, 16, of South Hadley. Charged as a youthful offender with stalking and violation of civil rights resulting in bodily injury. Three 16-year-old South Hadley girls, whose names were not released, face delinquency charges that include the civil rights offense, criminal harassment and disturbance of a school assembly.

12 What are schools doing??? Over two thirds of students believe that schools respond poorly to bullying A high percentage of students believe that adult help is infrequent and ineffective 25% of teachers see nothing wrong with bullying or putdowns and consequently intervene in only 4% of bullying incidents (Essex, 2008)

13 Massachusetts State Law Friday April 30, 2010 Massachusetts State Legislature unanimously passed a bill that will go to the Governor for signature “The bill requires school employees to report all instances of bullying and demands that principals investigate them.” Massachusetts--92492184.html Massachusetts--92492184.html Monday May 3, 2010 Governor Patrick Deval signed the bill This bill is in “memory” of Phoebe and an eleven year old boy who also committed suicide last year It is rumored the Law will be called the Phoebe Law

14 Anti-Bullying State Law No federal law against “bullying” though discrimination and harassment laws are in place Pennsylvania law enacted in 2008 “requires each school to adopt or amend an existing policy on bullying and incorporate it into the school code of conduct.” It continues to say that, “The policy must delineate disciplinary consequences for bullying and may provide prevention, intervention and education programs.” Additionally, “The policy must identify the appropriate school staff person to receive reports of incidents of alleged bullying and must be posted on the school's website and in every classroom, if possible.” ( vania)

15 District Policy – Lehighton Area S.D. “It shall be a violation of this policy for any student to bully another person on district property, at any school activity, or on the way to or from school. The school district will not tolerate any acts of bullying occurring on school district property, at school-sponsored activities scheduled on or off school property, or during the time a student necessarily spends traveling to or from school or school- sponsored activities.” Policy also states that it is the responsibility of every staff member to “maintain an educational environment free of bullying.” As for discipline, the consequences will vary depending upon the severity of the bullying but could include counseling, parent conference, detention, suspension, expulsion, a loss of school privileges, and/or exclusion from school-sponsored activities” (Lehighton Area School District Anti-Bullying Policy – adopted March 23, 2009)

16 Important Cases Involving Bullying Haugstad v. Stanwood School District (Washington, 2000): Taya Haugstad, a girl with cerebral palsy and using a wheelchair was bullied by a boy from fifth through eighth grade. The boy called her a “retard,” blocked her as she tried to move down the halls, and pushed her into walls. Her parents sued the boy’s family and sued the school as well for not doing enough to stop the bullying. Haugstad and her parents were awarded $310,000. Loomis v. Visalia Unified School District (California, 2002): George Loomis was spat upon by students and subjected to homophobic taunts by a teacher in front of his class. He consequently dropped out of school before graduating in 2000. Courts found in Loomis’ favor and in addition to a monetary settlement, the agreement included an anti-harassment program to be put in place in the school. This program has been used as a model for programs across the country.

17 Important Cases Continued…. Shaposhnikov v. Pacifica School District (California, 2005): Mark Shaposhnikov brought a suit against the Pacifica School District on behalf of his son who was bullied for 2 years in middle school because he was a competitive dancer. Judge dismissed federal and state charges against the district and found that the school had acted appropriately to address the situation. However, the Shaposhnikovs also sued 10 sets of parents of the alleged bullies and settled several of those cases for undisclosed amounts of money. Patton v. Floyd County School District (Kentucky, 2008): Stephen Patton was bullied because he was tall, gawky, and wore cowboy boots. The 13-year-old had a grocery bag full of snacks in his locker that he went to throughout the day so he could avoid eating in front of the bullies. Eventually, he tired of the bullying and shot and killed himself in his home. His parents were not aware of the bullying at the time. They only found out at his memorial service when several of his fellow students approached them saying that they wished they had done more to stop it. This case is still in court.

18 Important Cases Continued… DP v. Hudson Area Schools (Michigan, 2010): A student in Hudson County Middle School was verbally, physically, and sexually harassed by fellow students starting in 6 th grade. One instance of verbal abuse involved a teacher. Students called the boy names, wrote “faggot,” “gay,” and “queer” on his locker, and broke into his gym locker and urinated on his clothing and threw his tennis shoes in the toilet. In the sexual abuse incident, a fellow student rubbed his genitalia against the boy’s face in the locker room after a basketball practice. (The student involved in the sexual harassment was expelled.) Later, the baseball coach held a team meeting with DP present at which he told the students that they should “not joke around with guys who can’t take a man joke.” The jury found in favor of DP and awarded a settlement of $800,000 which was later overturned. The school settled for an undisclosed amount. (all information on cases from

19 Problems with Anti-Bullying Laws and Policy “Bullying is going up because so much time and effort is being spent fighting it” “Behaviors, like theft, rape, assault and battery, murder, and arson, are already illegal and we don’t need additional anti-bullying laws to protect our children from them” “The school, which does not have the option of choosing which students attend, but must accept children with all their mortal imperfections, must guarantee that no student does anything intentionally to any other student that causes him/her any emotional distress because emotional distress interferes with a student’s ability to learn.” “Teachers, who were trained to be educators, are now mandated to take on the role of security guard, detective and judge. Did they go to law school or the police academy? Are they qualified for these roles?” (reactions to anti-bullying legislation on perfect-anti-bully-law)

20 How should teachers and administrators react to bullying in their schools? Ensure that students know the meaning of “bullying” Recognize the signs of bullying in students Make sure clear policy is in place to deal with bullying including consequences/disciplinary action for students who are found to be bullying others Confront students engaged in bullying in a firm but fair manner Teach assertiveness to students that are often victims of bullying and help them to develop positive connections with others Enlist parents’ help to stop bullying Select a “safe-room” that is always staffed with adults Randomly pair students for fun activities to foster better relationships Train students that are bystanders to have an active role in intervening in bullying (

21 SAFE SCHOOL AMBASSADORS “The Safe School Ambassadors® program empowers leaders from the diverse groups and cliques on campus and equips them with nonviolent communication and intervention skills to stop bullying and violence among their peers.” ambassadors/

22 Impact of the Safe School Ambassadors program: Reduces bullying, including cyberbullying Increases student reporting to adults Reduces put-downs, harassment and fighting Improves school climate and student retention Reduces gang involvement and activity The Safe School Ambassadors program is: A research-based, field-tested, logic model A proven anti-bullying and violence-prevention program Student-centered Focused on social norms change Cost-effective The program identifies and selects student leaders from diverse groups across the campus and forms them into a team of Safe School Ambassadors. Ambassadors are trained in the skills of nonviolent communication to stop bullying and violence.

23 Why the Safe School Ambassadors program is student-centered: Students see, hear and know things that adults don’t Students can intervene in ways adults can’t Students are often the first to arrive on the scenes of most incidents before adults even know about the incidents Students determine the social norms–what’s OK and what’s not–while adults set the rules, policies and consequences Safe School Ambassadors have: High social status and influence in their peer groups Strong communication skills and an outgoing personality Empathy and compassion A history of standing up for their friends and peers Safe School Ambassadors is designed for 4 th to 12 th grade students This slide and the previous slide are from:

24 Why approach bullying this way? The Safe School Ambassadors (SSA) programs (elementary, middle and high school levels) are built on a solid foundation of research, including the work of three pioneers in the field of bullying prevention: Dr. Wendy Craig, Dr. Ron Slaby and Dr. Dan Olweus. A review of published literature on bullying, conducted in 2004 by Denver-based Omni Research & Training, found that the core principles of the SSA program are completely supported by precedents and research.

25 What the Experts Found Dr. Olweus found through his ground-breaking research with youth and bullying that: A school-wide approach is needed, especially to address the bullying that occurs outside the classroom (e.g., in hallways, PE, lunchroom, and schoolyards); If bullying behavior is ignored, it becomes the norm. When it is recognized and addressed, positive behavioral norms can be created and reinforced. Dr. Wendy Craig established through her extensive field research: Adults rarely see or hear the bullying and mistreatment students experience, and don’t intervene; The corresponding lack of intervention implies that bullying is acceptable. Dr. Ron Slaby in addition proved that: Bystanders play a key role in resolving conflicts and preventing cruelty and violence; and Adolescents can learn skills to solve problems in nonviolent ways.

26 Through Year-end Surveys spanning the years: 78% of adults reported that the SSA program improves school climate. All three years of data indicate that Ambassadors are able to change the prevailing student culture that says “it’s cool to be cruel.” Other research shows that improved school climate paves the way for increased attendance and academic performance. 73% of Ambassadors and 90% of adults report that students have fewer concerns about their own safety once Ambassadors are on campus. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and subsequent research shows that when students feel physically and emotionally safe, they are better able to learn. Ambassadors contribute to a reduction in the amount of bullying and fighting at their schools. This means that fewer students are distracted by their fear of being bullied or having to fight. It also means less staff time and fewer dollars spent on discipline procedures, resulting in more time on learning.

27 Reduced Suspension Rates Over the 2 years prior to implementation of the Safe School Ambassadors program, the schools studied showed an average monthly suspension rate of 3.73 per 100 students. After implementing the Safe School Ambassadors program, the average rate dropped 23% to 2.87. Fewer Discipline Problems Too often, when seemingly small incidents between students are left unchecked, they fester and erupt into larger ones that require formal disciplinary consequences like detentions, suspensions, and even expulsions. With their heightened awareness and knowledge of “what’s up” between fellow students, Ambassadors are able to go right to the source of the problem and use their communication and intervention skills to reduce tensions, resolve differences, and prevent escalation of problems.

28 Frequency of Intervention For any program to be effective, participants must actually use the skills they are taught through the program. Year-End Survey data shows a high percentage of Ambassadors actually using the Ambassador Actions they learn in the training: 79% intervene between 1-15 times per month; another 14% intervene between16-30 times per month. Preliminary analysis shows that intervention frequency rises in proportion to the length of time the student has been an Ambassador; in other words, the longer the students are Ambassadors, the more they intervene (likely due to increased skill and confidence). Past two slides and current slide from: Kenilworth Junior High (Petaluma, California) reported that, compared to the previous year’s figures, for the 5 months (January – June) after the program was launched: Harassment down 50% Outside Disruption down 32% Bus incidents down 25% Sexual Harassment down 55%

29 Cost of Program Average Daily Attendance Funds Lost $90 ADA @ $30/day x 3 days Administrative Costs $200 (fact gathering, witness interviews, calls, meetings, data entry, record keeping, filing) 4 hours @ $50/hour (average) Total $290 100 suspensions = $29,000 250 suspensions = $72,500 500 suspensions = $145,000 1000 suspensions = $290,000 $4,300 program costs $800 average travel/accommodations expenses $1,000 substitutes stipends & other implementation expenses Total: $6,100 Annual Cost for Suspensions:Program Cost for 40 Students

30 Does the program pay for itself? If just 25 of 40 Ambassadors each prevents one suspension per year, the cost of implementing the Safe School Ambassadors program would be more than recovered 25 prevented x $290 = $7,250 Previous slide and current slide from:

31 Wrap Up Bullying is obviously a major issue affecting our schools As teachers or future teachers we need to be aware of the symptoms of bullying and how to address them in our classrooms Check your district’s policy concerning bullying so you know the proper course of action when bullying arises Consider talking to your school district about implementing programs that involve students counteracting bullying

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