Presentation on theme: "Turbulent Centuries in Africa By Michaela Hoyt. European Outposts in Africa In the 1400’s, Portuguese ships explored the coast of west Africa. Looking."— Presentation transcript:
Turbulent Centuries in Africa By Michaela Hoyt
European Outposts in Africa In the 1400’s, Portuguese ships explored the coast of west Africa. Looking for a route to India Portuguese lacked power to push into the African interior. Instead they attacked the coastal cities Mombasa Malindi Drove East African cities into poverty while they gained a profit from them. Led the way for other Europeans Dutch, French, and English
The Atlantic Slave Trade Soon Europeans saw slaves as one of the most important trades. Slavery existed in Africa as well. The word “slave” comes from the large number of Slavs taken as unpaid laborers.
The Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) European and African Slave Traders The Atlantic slave trade began in the 1500’s To fill labor needs in Spain Tens of thousands were imported Worked on tobacco or sugar farms Could also be traded for other goods Textiles, rum, weapons etc.
The Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) Triangular Trade 1 st leg Merchants brought goods to Africa to be traded for slaves 2 nd leg (Middle Passage) Slaves were transported to the West Indies and exchanges for sugar, molasses and other products 3 rd leg The merchants took the goods back to Europe or the Americas 1 st Leg 2 nd leg 3 rd leg
The Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) Horrors of the Middle Passage Hundreds of slaves were packed below deck on a single ship. The ships became “floating coffins” because half of the slaves on board died from disease or mistreatment. Some slaves tried to take over the ship to return to Africa and others threw themselves overboard.
The Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) African Leaders Resist Affonso I became king in west-central Africa in 1505 Wanted to turn Kongo into a Christian state Tried to stop the slave trade Other officials kept the trade going because of how much they were offering Believed that trading humans was evil There were others too that also failed
The Atlantic Slave Trade (cont.) Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade In the 1500’s about 2,00 slaves a year were sent to America, by 1780 it was around 80,000 a year. By the 1800’s when the slave trade stopped there was about 11 million enslaved Africans About 2 million more died on the trip here The slave trade destroyed some small states in Africa but caused others to flourish.
Rise of New African States In the 1600’s and 1700’s large states rose in West Africa Oyo, Bornu, and Dahomey. The Asante kingdom emerged in present day Ghana
Rise of New African States (cont.) The Asante Kingdom Osei Tutu A military leader who took control of Kumasi. He later took control of surrounding states and formed the Asante Kingdom Claimed that his rule came from heaven Chiefs that formed his council bent to his will The Asante traded with Europeans Exchanged gold and slaves for firearms They shrewdly pitted the Europeans against each other for their best interests.
Rise of New African States (cont.) Islamic Crusades In the 1700’s and early 1800’s and Islamic revival spread across West Africa The Fulani people, who lived in Nigeria, started it Usman dan Fodio denounced the corruption of their rulers. He inspired Fulani herders and the Hausa people to rebel His successors set up a new rule Increased literacy, local wars quieted, and trade improved
Battles for Power in Southern Africa Bantu-speaking people migrated into southern Africa. In 1652 Dutch also arrived in the area. They built Cape Town Boers, Dutch farmers, settled around cape town and enslaved Khosian herders that lived there The Boers thought they were chosen by God and that Africans were inferior to them In the 1700’s Boers began to push North Had to battle many powerful African groups
Battles for Power in Southern Africa (cont.) Shaka and the Zulus They migrated into southern Africa in the 1500’s Emerged as a major force Their leader was Shaka Between 1818 and 1828 Shaka was constantly sending troops to war Conquered many people Took their young people and made them part of his troops The wars disrupted the lives of other people Some tribes moved north, took on the Zulu’s tactics and conquered other colonies Shaka’s half-brother took over the Zulu’s Soon the Boer troops arrived with weapons and horses.
Battles for Power in Southern Africa (cont.) Boers vs. Zulus In 1815 the British took control of Cape Town from the Dutch To avoid their rule, the Boers migrated north in the 1830’s. It became known as “The Great Trek” When the Boers ran into the Zulu’s fighting began. At first the Zulu’s had the upper hand but they were defeated by the Boers guns The war lasted until the end of the century.
Vocabulary/ Review Triangular Trade- Gold, Slaves, sugar from Europe to Africa to America back to Europe Repeal- to take back Monopoly- total control of a business Shaka- Zulu leader, lead conflicts with the Boer’s Great Trek- Boers movement north from Cape Colony after British took control
Triangular Trade- Gold, Slaves, sugar from Europe to Africa to America back to Europe Middle Passage- Slave ships from Africa to Americas—extremely HORIFING conditions Asante Kingdom- First Monopolies in gold and Silver in Africa Boer- Dutch Farmer in South Africa Shaka- Zulu leader, lead conflicts with the Boer’s Great Trek- Boers movement north from Cape Colony after British took control Vocabulary/ Review