Presentation on theme: "BACKGROUND TO AMERICAN HISTORY"— Presentation transcript:
1BACKGROUND TO AMERICAN HISTORY FOUNDATIONS:BACKGROUND TO AMERICAN HISTORY
2The Big Questions:What do the Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights say?What has been the importance of these three documents to American history?What qualities led to America’s exceptional success as a democratic republic?How did the characteristics of American culture found by John de Crevecoeur compare to those later identified by Alexis de Tocqueville?
3The American Revolution (in a nutshell) After the French and Indian War ( ) the British Gov’t. had a huge debtTo help pay this, they imposed a series of new taxes on the colonists (Stamp, Tea, Townshend)Colonists had no representation and saw this as a violation of their rights (Taxation without Representation)
4Early events of the Revolution Boston Tea Party (1773) – protesters (disguised as Indians) threw tea off British ships in Boston harborBritish soldiers and colonists fired on one another at Lexington and Concord (1775)The Second Continental Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army
5Supporters of the Revolution Jonathan Trumbull, Sr. – Governor of Connecticut who supported the colonists and spoke against English abusesJohn Peter Muhlenberg – Protestant minister who enlisted over 100 men into the Continental Army. Part of the “Black Regiment”. Rose to the rank of General
6The Declaration of Independence A “Committee of Five” was appointed by the 2nd Continental Congress to draft a Declaration of Independence, but the committee decided Thomas Jefferson should write most of it.Final was issued on July 4, 1776It freed the colonists from Britain, but also put forward a theory of governmentMany ideas were borrowed from John Locke, such as the idea of protection of unalienable, or natural, rights.Argued that ordinary citizens had the right to overthrow an oppressive gov’t. if it failed to protect their rightsListed grievances against King George III and tyrannical rule.
7Signers of the Declaration of Independence Signers of the Declaration were representatives from all 13 colonies (there were 56 in all). Signing was an act of treason and was punishable by hangingJohn Hancock – most recognizable signature. A prosperous merchant from Boston (president of the Continental Congress)Benjamin Rush – a physician, educator, and humanitarian. Sometimes known as the “Father of American Medicine”, a pioneer of physiology and psychiatry, proposed a national public university to train public servants, favored female education, and established and financed the oldest African-American church in the country.
8Signers continued…Charles Carroll of Carrollton – one of the wealthiest men in the colonies, he helped finance the Revolution with his own money. Argued for armed resistance. Helped get recognition for the acceptance of the Roman Catholic religion in America.John Witherspoon – Scottish immigrant who became a leading member of the Continental Congress and believed the colonies were ready for independence. A Presbyterian clergyman, he eventually became president of what is now Princeton University.
9THE U.S. CONSTITUTIONReplaced the weak first constitution, The Articles of ConfederationThe Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia in 1787, decided to abandon the Articles, and wrote a new constitutionEstablished the basic structure of our national governmentSought to defend the nation’s interests and promote its general welfareMade federal law supreme over state law
10The Federalist PapersA series of essays arguing strongly for ratification of the ConstitutionJohn JayAbsent during the signing of the Declaration, but helped negotiate the peace treaty with EnglandWrote three of the essays in the Federalist PapersAppointed first Chief Justice of the Supreme CourtBecame governor of New York (introduced penal reform, abolition of slavery, and extensive road and canal projects)
11The Bill of Rights First 10 amendments to the Constitution Approved by members of the first congress in order to get the Constitution ratifiedCame into effect in 1791Individual rights for all:1st Amendment – Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly2nd Amendment – Right to bear arms and maintain a militia3rd Amendment – Prohibits quartering of troops
12Continued… Rights of the accused: 4th Amendment – protects against “unreasonable” search and seizures5th Amendment – “due process of law”, ensures indictment, grand jury, protection from double jeopardy and self-incrimination6th Amendment – fair and impartial trial for criminal charges, trial by jury, and representation by lawyer7th Amendment – same as 6th for civil cases8th Amendment – protects against excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment
13Continued…9th Amendment – Rights not specifically mentioned are held by the people10th Amendment – All powers not mentioned in the Constitution as belonging to the federal government are reserved for the states or the people
14Assignment Create an illustrated story book of the Bill of Rights Make sure you include all 10 amendmentsDefine the amendment (tell what rights it provides for or protects)Include a picture that describes the amendment
15Five Values of America’s Success as a Constitutional Republic Egalitarianism – social equality (regardless of wealth , power, intelligence)Populism (popular sovereignty) – participation of the common people in politics with a goal of peace and prosperityLiberty – protection from tyrannical government (rule of law)Individualism – freedom to flourish without hereditary distinctions (the “American dream”)Laissez-Faire – a hands off approach to the economy (no government interference in business)
16THE EVOLUTION OF MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY AMERICA, 1830-1865 In the early 19th century, the three main sections of the U.S. were affected very differently by industry (North, South, West)These differences eventually led to the Civil War ( )After 4 years the North was able to defeat the South due to its greater population and resourcesFollowing the Civil War, a group of important amendments were passedNorthern armies occupied the South during Reconstruction
17“Civil War Amendments” 13th Amendment – abolished slavery14th Amendment – guaranteed ALL citizens “due process rights” and “equal protection” of the laws from state governments15th Amendment – prohibited denying individuals their voting rights based on race
18GROWTH OF THE NATION Federal gov’t. secured its supremacy over states The Great Plains were opened to settlementNew railroad lines criss-crossed the nationThe Northeast accelerated its industrial growthThe notion that Americans stand together is expressed in the motto of the Great Seal of the U.S. “E Pluribus Unum” (out of many comes one)Our national motto “In God We Trust” has been used on coins since 1864.
19Assignment: Don’t forget to write a summary for your Cornell notes Create a storyboard of the Foundations: Background to American History notes/power pointChoose any four topicsEach section will have a subtitle, summary, picture, and questionThis will go on the left side of your interactive notebook, and will be for a grade.