Presentation on theme: "India’s First Empires. India 3000 b.c.- 500 a.d. 3000-1500 B.C. early civilization. ◦ Indus River Valley-modern Pakistan; served as the cradle of Indian."— Presentation transcript:
India 3000 b.c.- 500 a.d. 3000-1500 B.C. early civilization. ◦ Indus River Valley-modern Pakistan; served as the cradle of Indian civilization. ◦ Two Regions- The Northern Plain & Deccan Plateau. ◦ Three Rivers: Ganges River, Indus River and Brahmaputra -important to Indian culture. ◦ Himalaya –highest mountains in the world. Karakorum, Hindu Kush
India’s First Civilization Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro ◦ Two Indian civilizations Rulers Divine Right ◦ Religion and Political Power tied together. Economy based on farming. Extensive trade
Aryans Who were the Aryans? ◦ Indo-Europeans who came south across the Hindu Kush mountain range. Pastoral people with strong warrior tradition. ◦ Nomadic people who developed their own written language called SANSKRIT Rajas: princes who controlled small kingdoms in India.
India’s Social System Caste System ◦ Rigid social categories. ◦ Based on a person’s occupation and extended family network. Social Classes (varnas) Brahmans= in charge of religious ceremonies. Kshatriyas= warriors Vaisyas= commoners (merchants and farmers) Sudras= peasants/labor Untouchables= not considered human
Family in India Family basic unit of society. ◦ Extended family. Superiority of males. Guru: teacher (generally only males were educated. Divorce was not allowed. Arranged marriages (with dowry) Suttee: a ritual in which a wife threw herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.
Mauryan (MAH-oor-yuh) Dynasty 321 BCE – 185 BCE Chandragupa Maurya ◦ Centralized government Empire divided into provinces, ◦ Ruled by governors Large army and a secret police ◦ Political assassinations…
Asoka Chandragupta’s grandson. Greatest ruler in history of India. ◦ Converted to Buddhism(set up hospitals, and shelters for travelers). ◦ Trade expanded
Guptas (320 CE – 535) Dominant in northern India after the Mauryan Empire. Chandra Gupta- leader of Gupta, the second empire. Admired for their tolerance of Buddhism and prosperity of the country. Much wealth came from pilgrims. “Golden Age of India” ◦ Arts, mathematics, literature Indian families patriarchal. ◦ Southern India were matriarchal. Invaded by Huns from the northwest
After the Guptas Believers of Buddhism split. ◦ Theravada- “teachings of the elders” Way of life, not a religion, Understanding oneself is the chief way to gain virvana. ◦ Mahayana- stressed that nirvana could be achieved through devotion to the Buddha. Believed Theravada too strict, Buddhism is a religion, not a philosophy, Buddha divine Nirvana a true heaven Both declined.
Expansion of Islam in India In Northwest India. ◦ Division of the subcontinent into mostly Hindu India and two Islamic states, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Expansion of Islam Islam arrived when there was a lot of division in India. ◦ India had been divided into 70 states (and they fought each other constantly!) 10 th century Islamic expansion. ◦ New Islamic state known as Ghazni (in Afghanistan) is founded. ◦ By 1200, Muslim power had reached over the entire plain of northern India. A new Muslim state known as the Sultanate of Delhi was formed.
Timur Lenk Military force crossed the Indus River and raided the capital of Dellhi. ◦ 100,000 Hindu prisoners were massacred Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) ◦ Mongol ruler in Samarkand. ◦ 1380s placed the entire region east of the Caspian Sea under his authority and then occupied Mesopotamia. ◦ Died in 1405
Islam and Indian Society Strict separation b/w Muslim ruling class and Hindu population. Many Muslim rulers were intolerant of other faiths. ◦ Peaceful means to convert people to Islam, but some destroyed Hindu temples.
Economy and Daily Life Peasant farmers Landed elites and merchants lived in cities. Farming and trade were important.