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COMPSCI 101 Principles of Programming Lecture 6 – Getting user input, converting between types, generating random numbers.

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1 COMPSCI 101 Principles of Programming Lecture 6 – Getting user input, converting between types, generating random numbers

2 Exercise  What is the output after executing the following code? CompSci 1012 greeting = "Hello World" greeting = greeting.strip() position1 = greeting.find("o") position2 = greeting.rfind("o") position3 = greeting.find("Z") position4 = greeting.rfind("o W") greeting_lower = greeting.lower() greeting_upper = greeting.upper() print(greeting) print(position1, position2, position3, position4) print(greeting_lower) print(greeting_upper) greeting = "Hello World" greeting = greeting.strip() position1 = greeting.find("o") position2 = greeting.rfind("o") position3 = greeting.find("Z") position4 = greeting.rfind("o W") greeting_lower = greeting.lower() greeting_upper = greeting.upper() print(greeting) print(position1, position2, position3, position4) print(greeting_lower) print(greeting_upper)

3 Exercise  What is the output after executing the following code? CompSci 1013 smallest = min(32.7, 56.4, 3, -1.1, 56.99, -1.2) largest = max(32.7, 56.4, 3, -1.1, 56.99, -1.2) print(smallest, largest) num1 = print(round(num1)) print(round(num1, 2)) smallest = min(32.7, 56.4, 3, -1.1, 56.99, -1.2) largest = max(32.7, 56.4, 3, -1.1, 56.99, -1.2) print(smallest, largest) num1 = print(round(num1)) print(round(num1, 2))

4 Learning outcomes  At the end of this lecture, students should be able to:  get user input from the keyboard  generate a random number  convert between types CompSci 1014

5 Getting input from the user  The input() function is used to get information from the user.  This function displays the prompt, waits for the user to type their information and, as soon as the user presses the 'Enter' key, the input() function returns the information typed by the user (to the variable on the left of the assignment operator). CompSci 1015 user_name = input("Enter name: ") colour = input("Enter colour: ") user_word = input("Enter word: ") print(user_name, "entered", colour, "and the word", user_word) user_name = input("Enter name: ") colour = input("Enter colour: ") user_word = input("Enter word: ") print(user_name, "entered", colour, "and the word", user_word) Enter name: Adriana Enter colour: magenta Enter word: parola Adriana entered magenta and the word parola The user input is shown in bold in a pink colour DEMO Example01.py

6 Getting input from the user  The input() function can be used with no argument (nothing inside the round brackets) in which case there is no prompt printed.  For example: CompSci 1016 user_number = input("Enter number: ") user_input = input() print("The user entered", user_number, "and then", user_input) user_number = input("Enter number: ") user_input = input() print("The user entered", user_number, "and then", user_input) Enter number: 98 ??? #user enters stuff here The user entered 98 and then ??? Not recommended! The user input is shown in bold in a pink colour

7 Getting input from the user  The input() function always returns a string. The end of line character is not returned as part of the returned string.  For example CompSci 1017 user_number = input("Enter number: ") value = "hello" print(value + user_number ) user_number = input("Enter number: ") value = "hello" print(value + user_number ) Enter number: 1 hello1 Concatenating two strings together DEMO Example03.py

8 Exercise 1  Complete the output if the user enters the number 54 when prompted: CompSci 1018 user_number = input("Enter number: ") print(user_number * 2, user_number * 3, user_number * 4) user_number = input("Enter number: ") print(user_number * 2, user_number * 3, user_number * 4) Enter number: 54

9 Random numbers  Quite often, in our programs, we need a random number, e.g., for games and simulations.  The random module contains a function, randrange(), which can be used to generate a random number.  In order to use this function we need to import the random module into our program (just as we did when we wanted to use the functions of the math class – math.sin(), math.cos(), …).  Whenever we need to get a random number in a program, the first line will be the following import statement: CompSci 1019 import random

10 Random numbers  The randrange() function returns a random integer between start (inclusive) and stop (exclusive) using the syntax:  For example:  randrange(5, 10) has an equal chance of generating 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9. CompSci import random number = random.randrange(5, 10) import random number = random.randrange(5, 10) randrange(start, stop) import random dice1 = random.randrange(1, 7) dice2 = random.randrange(1, 7) print("You threw", dice1, "and a", dice2) import random dice1 = random.randrange(1, 7) dice2 = random.randrange(1, 7) print("You threw", dice1, "and a", dice2) You threw 4 and a 1 DEMO Example04.py

11 Random numbers  The randrange() function has an optional step argument:  The step argument dictates which random numbers are generated within the range (the amount to add to the starting number), e.g., CompSci random.randrange(1, 7, 2) #generates either 1, 3 or 5 random.randrange(1, 7, 3) #generates either 1 or 4 random.randrange(1, 7, 2) #generates either 1, 3 or 5 random.randrange(1, 7, 3) #generates either 1 or 4 randrange(start, stop, step) The default step when the step argument is omitted is 1. random.randrange(-30, 100, 30) #generates either -30, 0, 30, 60, or 90.

12 Exercise 2  Give the smallest and the largest possible random number which can be generated by the following four statements: CompSci import random print(random.randrange(4, 17, 3)) print(random.randrange(-1, 7, 2)) print(random.randrange(100, 700, 2)) print(random.randrange(50, 100, 10)) import random print(random.randrange(4, 17, 3)) print(random.randrange(-1, 7, 2)) print(random.randrange(100, 700, 2)) print(random.randrange(50, 100, 10))

13 Exercise 3  Complete the following program so that it prompts the user for their full name (assumes a single space between the first name and the second name).  The program removes a random letter from the first name and a random letter from the surname and prints the resulting name. CompSci Enter name: Adriana Ferraro Adriaa Frraro import random full_name = input("Enter your full name: ") print(full_name) import random full_name = input("Enter your full name: ") print(full_name)

14 Algorithm Prompt the user for their full nameFind the blank space position Get the surname, first_name first_name: 0 to blank_pos surname: blank_pos + 1 to the end Generate two random numbers A random number within 0 to len(first_name) A random number within 0 to len(surname) CompSci blank_pos

15 Ooops!  The following code causes an error:  What does this error message mean?  The subtraction operator (-) has no meaning if one of the operands is a string. We want to find a way of converting a string containing digits into a number. CompSci age = input("Enter age: ") years_to_go = age print("Big birthday coming up in ", years_to_go, "years!") age = input("Enter age: ") years_to_go = age print("Big birthday coming up in ", years_to_go, "years!") Enter age: 54 … years_to_go = age TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for -: 'int' and 'str' “54” It is a 'TypeError', where you tried to subtract incompatible variables. DEMO Example05.py

16 Converting between types  The int() function converts a string containing characters which are digits into the corresponding integer value.  The float(x) function returns a floating point number constructed from a number or string x CompSci age = int(input("Enter age: ")) years_to_go = age print("Big birthday coming up in ", years_to_go, "years!") age = int(input("Enter age: ")) years_to_go = age print("Big birthday coming up in ", years_to_go, "years!") Enter age: 54 Big birthday coming up in 46 years! Enter cost $ Final price $ cost = input("Enter cost $") cost = float(cost) final_price = cost * 0.92 print("Final price $", final_price, sep="") cost = input("Enter cost $") cost = float(cost) final_price = cost * 0.92 print("Final price $", final_price, sep="")

17 Converting between types  The str() function returns a string version of object  Note: String concatenation requires the two operands to be strings:  For examples: CompSci You threw 3 and a 5 print("You threw", dice1, "and a", dice2) print("You threw" + dice1 + "and a" + dice2) TypeError: Can't convert 'int' object to str implicitly print("You threw " + str(dice1) + " and a " + str(dice2)) You threw 3 and a 5 convert it to a string object need to add a space

18 Converting between types  The conversion has to be legal. Below are two illegal attempts to convert:  Note that converting a string which has no decimal point into a float is fine: CompSci number = int("12 34") ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: '12 34' number = int("12.34") ValueError: invalid literal for int() with base 10: '12.34' should not have a space in between It is not an integer! number = float("12") print(number) number = float("12") print(number) 12.0

19 The backslash character  The backslash character at the end of a line of code in the program indicates that the statement continues onto the next line, e.g., CompSci user_dice = input("Enter dice throw: ") comp_dice = random.randrange(1, 7) message = "Your dice: " + user_dice + ", computer dice: " \ + str(comp_dice) print(message) user_dice = input("Enter dice throw: ") comp_dice = random.randrange(1, 7) message = "Your dice: " + user_dice + ", computer dice: " \ + str(comp_dice) print(message) Note that the backslash is the last character in the line of code and is not inside a string (i.e., outside the quotes).

20 Exercise 4  MCQ:  The expression "Good " evaluates to ________.  A. Good123  B. Good6  C. Good 123  D. TypeError: Can't convert 'int' object to str implicitly CompSci 10120

21 Exercise 5  Complete the following program which prompts the user for a total of 4 dice throws, the programs calculates the sum of four random dice throws, and outputs the difference between the user guess and the sum of the dice throwing simulation: CompSci dice_sum = 0 print("Your total:", ) print("You are out by:", ) dice_sum = 0 print("Your total:", ) print("You are out by:", ) Enter sum (4 dice): 12 Your total: 12 Dice total: 20 You are out by: 8 Enter sum (4 dice): 15 Your total: 15 Dice total: 11 You are out by: 4 Enter sum (4 dice): 12 Your total: 12 Dice total: 12 You are out by: 0

22 Algorithm CompSci Prompt the user for the totalCreate a variable dice_sum Repeat the following steps x 4 times Generate a new random number Add the value to the dice_sum Calculate the difference between the dice_sum and the total Print the result

23 Summary  In a Python program:  the input() function is used to get user input from the keyboard  a random number can be generated using random.randrange(…)  we can convert between types using str(), int(), float() CompSci 10123


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