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Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.1 Writing and Reading: Lesson 9 Grade 6
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.2 Warm up: Homonyms Remember: Homonyms are words that sound alike but have different meanings and different spellings. Choose the correct word for each sentence below. Can you explain what each boldfaced word means? The plaster cast will help the broken bone (heal, heel). The (cede, seed) is the specialized part of a plant that contains reproductive organs. Dasha's piano (lessen, lesson) is at 3:30 every week. Would you (grate, great) the cheese for the pizza? After Nell's surgery, she looked (pail, pale) and tired for several weeks.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.3 Multiple Meaning Words Read the first sentence below. Then choose the next sentence that uses the underlined word in the same way as in the original sentence. Can you use context to explain the meanings of the word? The professor showed us a picture of a hind, or a female red deer. We gazed at the beautiful hind in the forest. The puppy was unable to reach over the fence, even while standing on its hind legs. The creature walked on its hind legs.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.4 Review The conventions trait of writing is important because readers have definite expectations for written language; when a text does not meet our expectations, we are thrown. The Standard conventions of writing include spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar. An apostrophe is used to form contractions or to show possession (ownership). Do NOT use an apostrophe to form plurals (except the plural of a letter or a numeral— 4’s, A’s). If you use a singular subject, you must use a singular verb. If you use a plural subject, use a plural verb. All sentences must contain at least one independent clause. Sometimes the subject is understood, instead of stated.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.5 Tell me about your homework. Rate it yourself. Did you use powerful words? Did you vary your sentence structure. Is your edited draft mostly error-free? Is the presentation appealing How did your audience respond? Who were the four people that you chose to read your paper? What did they say about it?
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.6 Reading Comprehension: Making Inferences We’ve talked before about active reading and using your own knowledge and experience to help you draw conclusions and make predictions. Remember that reading and writing are two halves of one communication process. When you use your own experience to make inferences you participate in “creating meaning” from the text. The next slide is an example of using your own knowledge to infer the meaning of a passage.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.7 Inferring It was a great game. The score was so close. Rex's team was losing by one. The team needed to score in order to at least tie. Rex was next at bat. There were two outs already. Rex was the best on the team. The pitcher threw the ball. "Strike!" the umpire yelled. The pitcher threw the ball again. "Strike!" the umpire yelled again. The pitcher threw a third time. Rex swung. Rex walked away. He knew what it meant. What did Rex's action mean? His team lost. His team won. His team tied. How could the outcome have been different? Why did Rex walk away? He was injured. It started to rain. He struck out. He got a hit.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.8 Comprehension Strategies: Setting a purpose, Thinking Aloud, and Making inferences Now we’ll read a longer passage; this time, it’s a poem. First, I’m setting a purpose for the reading: let’s focus on using our own knowledge and experience, combined with the text, to make predictions and draw conclusions (make inferences). We’ll stop during the reading to think aloud. Thinking aloud while reading helps you to keep your focus on understanding the text instead of letting your mind wander while you simply decode words. Don’t forget to use the title and introductory information to help you understand the author’s message.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.9 “A Story of How a Wall Stands” by Simon Ortiz At Aacqu, there is a wall almost 400 years old which supports hundreds of tons of dirt and bones - it's a graveyard built on a steep incline - and it looks like it's about to fall down the incline but it will not for a long time. My father, who works with stone, says, "That's just the part you see, The stones which seem to be just packed in on the outside," and with his hands puts the stone and mud in place. "Underneath what looks like loose stone, there is stone woven together." He ties one hand over the other, fitting like the bones of his hands and fingers. "That's what is Holding it together."
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.10 Thinking aloud. What can you tell me about your thinking so far? For example… Can you retell what you’ve read? What questions do you have? What connections can you make? What can you infer? Why are the narrator and the father talking about hands? What other comparisons also show that there is often something not seen that makes what you see stronger?
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.11 “A Story of How a Wall Stands” (Continued) "It is built that carefully," he says, "the mud mixed to a certain texture," patiently "with the fingers," worked in the palm of his hand. "So that placed between the stones, they hold together for a long, long time." He tells me those things, the story of them worked with his fingers, in the palm of his hands, working the stone and the mud until they become the wall that stands a long, long time.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.12 What is your conclusion? This poem is about a lot more than just the building of a wall. What is a truth about life that you can infer from the story of how a wall stands? We’ve talked before about theme—the truth about life that is revealed through a story. Often, you must make inferences to figure out what message or truth the author is trying to express.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.13 Vocabulary: Context Clues We’re going to continue working on antonyms as context clues. Remember that antonyms have opposite meanings. Writers may include an antonym as a contrast for an unfamiliar word in the same sentence or sentences that surround it.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.14 Your turn The miasma of cigarette smoke caused me to step outside for a breath of fresh air. In this sentence, the word miasma means clarity thick smoky air clearness Becky had an innate ability to play the piano. She had never taken a lesson, yet she was able to play the most complicated songs. In this sentence, the word innate means trained unnatural natural learned
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.15 The sight of the ominous clouds told us that clear weather was far from our area. In this sentence, the word ominous means stormy or dark fluffy bright clear Mark was pretty diffident when he was younger, but he's one of the most outgoing kids in class now. In this sentence, the word diffident means painful terrible dumb shy
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.16 Break
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.17 More figurative language We’ve talked about similes and metaphors, one type of figurative language. Next, we’ll look at idioms. These are phrases that are part of a language but are not intended to be taken literally. For example, when we say it is raining cats and dogs, we do not mean that cats and dogs are falling from the sky!
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.18 Try one. The football team was having a really bad season. They had lost almost all of their games. However, Jason got his friends together to go to Friday's game. "We've got to rally around the flag, guys." Rally around the flag means __________. show support, especially in tough times say the Pledge of Allegiance give up
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.19 “Rally around the flag.” If there had been a fire on someone's home and the whole school came together for a special fundraiser, did you rally around the flag? No Yes If someone is very sick but no one goes to visit him, did the community rally around the flag? No Yes If you baked chocolate chip cookies because you like to eat them, did you rally around the flag? Yes No
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.20 Review: The traits of effective writing Sound Ideas Good Organization Individual Voice Powerful Words Smooth Fluency Correct Conventions Appealing presentation
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.21 Sound ideas We’ve worked already on using powerful words. Now let’s think about using strong ideas. Here’s one scoring guide for the ideas trait: It all makes sense. I know this topic well. I have included the most interesting details. My paper has a purpose. Once you start reading, you will not want to stop.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.22 Your next writing topic In the poem we read today, the father taught his son an important life lesson. We all learn something every day. Think about something you have learned recently and how it has affected you. For your prewriting brainstorming, you should start with a list of lessons you might write about. You can also list specific experiences that helped to teach you important lessons. Once you have chosen the lesson, don’t forget that you also need to narrow your topics so that you can write about them in detail.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.23 This week’s assignment 1) Choose and narrow your topic. 2) Brainstorm words and phrases that will help you identify experiences, examples, comparisons, and sensory details that you can use in your writing. 3) As you begin your draft, remember that your writing will be more interesting if you show, instead of telling. 4) Include both your prewriting and your draft when you submit your homework.
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.24 Submitting Your Homework Please your homework to the following addresses within the next four days:
Copyright © Ed2Net Learning, Inc.25 You did a wonderful job today!
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