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4/27/20151 Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 -- 2012 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and.

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Presentation on theme: "4/27/20151 Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 -- 2012 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/27/20151 Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

2 4/27/20152 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 There’s never been a surprise that a good astrobiologist hasn’t been able to spin into an evolutionary tale. For a recent example, see the post “How old are the first planets?” on NASA’s Astrobiology Magazine or the reprint on PhysOrg. In this article, every surprise or anomaly became fodder for Keith Cooper’s imagination. Here are a few of the unexpected observations in the article that Cooper worked into the grand scenario of cosmic evolution and the origin of life:NASA’s Astrobiology MagazinePhysOrg

3 4/27/20153 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 1. Rocky planets: The Kepler spacecraft has found rocky worlds around metal-poor stars that were previously thought to lack ingredients for planets. Solution: “one way of looking at terrestrial planets is to see them as failed gas giant cores.” Even more exciting, it means (contrary to earlier beliefs) that rocky planets – and maybe life – may abound around metal-poor stars! “If Earth-sized planets do not require stars with high abundances of heavy elements, then that has huge implications, expanding the possible abodes for life throughout both space and time.” Cooper even jumped from his imaginary solution to the conclusion that it implies the “Galactic Habitable Zone” might be wider than thought.

4 4/27/20154 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 2. Fermi Paradox: Point #1 raises the ghost of the Fermi Paradox: if there are so many rocky worlds with life, how come none have visited the earth by now? (Their inhabitants, presumably, have had billions of years to evolve advanced technology.) Solution: Dodge the question with a distracting discussion of how and when gas giants can evolve around low-metal stars.

5 4/27/20155 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 3. Heavy metal galaxies: The evolutionary scenario predicted heavy elements would gradually increase over time; early galaxies, therefore, should be depleted in heavy elements. “Twelve billion years ago the chemistry of galaxies should have been fairly primitive,” Cooper confessed, yet a distant galaxy matched the sun in heavy elements. Solution: “The best explanation so far is that a starburst – a ferociously rapid bout of star formation – within the inner regions of the galaxy has blown the heavy elements into the galactic outlands.” In philosophy of science, this is known as a post hoc rationalization.

6 4/27/20156 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 4. Planet billiards: Gas giants should wreak havoc with rocky planets, sending them careening out of a star’s planetary system as the gas giants migrate inward, but Kepler has found rocky planets interspersed between gas giants. Solution: claim that “what difficulties gas giants can cause for habitable planets, they don’t necessarily have to be a show- stopper”. But if they are, it only takes one to stop the show.

7 4/27/20157 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 5. Impoverished gas giants: Gas giants were thought to require an abundance of heavy elements to form cores for accretion of gas, but some have been found around metal-poor stars. Solution: “it must have formed very early in the history of the Universe,” or, “Why gas giants have been able to form around these heavy-metal deficient stars is unknown, perhaps hinting at an alternative process for gas planet formation.”

8 4/27/20158 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 These and other anomalies, failed expectations and surprises are dealt with accordingly by Cooper and his astronomer interviewees. Given a lively imagination, no problem is too damning to falsify biological evolution, planetary evolution, stellar evolution, galactic evolution and cosmic evolution. Here’s how Cooper roused his readers’ imaginations in a sweeping set of glittering generalities (after dodging the 4th point above about planet billiards, and while dodging example #2 about the Fermi Paradox):glittering generalities

9 4/27/20159 Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 Regardless, one thing is becoming clear: that sufficient raw materials for building terrestrial planets were available very soon after the Big Bang, raising the possibility that there could be life in the Universe far older than we. Perhaps they reside around long-lived red dwarf stars, or have moved on from their home system after their star expired. Or, perhaps, we really are the first, which means that if life has happened just once throughout the entire history of the Universe, our existence must be a fluke and our planet very, very special indeed. Such a conclusion would allow for any eventuality: even the uniqueness of life on earth would fit an evolutionary scenario.

10 4/27/ Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 In another article on PhysOrg, planetary theorist Alan Boss came up with a novel way to get refractory compounds into comets, where they were previously thought not to exist: cook them near the sun, then send them out to the fringes by special delivery. “Their meandering trips back and forth could help explain the different compositions of their rims.” This, along with a discussion of calcium- aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites, was touted as solving two solar system puzzles at one blow. “It’s nice to solve two problems at once,” said Boss. “But there are still many more puzzles about meteorites for us to work on.” Incidentally, his theory of disk instability for the formation of gas giants runs counter to the core accretion model Keith Cooper assumed in his article.PhysOrg

11 4/27/ Turning Astrobiology Surprises Into Evolutionary Fiction 天体生物学成为进化小说 Astronomer Stephen Weinberg once defined an expert as “a person who avoids the small errors while sweeping on to the grand fallacy.” In this case, Cooper and his Darwin Party experts don’t avoid any errors: they actually use the large errors to sweep on to the grand fallacy. We might also recall that an expert (ex-spurt) used to be a spurt, but is now just a drip. Oh, their empirical observations are doing fine: the Kepler spacecraft, the spectrometers, the equations – all built using intelligent design – are pulling the scientific load. But the scenario, the play, the imaginary story they repeat in spite of the observations – these are what illustrate the skill of evolutionist gumbies to twist any falsification into a celebration of their gnostic powers. Historical note: Johannes Kepler, for whom the planet-hunting spacecraft was named, was a creationist.Johannes Kepler

12 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

13 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

14 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? Can evolutionists exempt themselves from the uneducated masses who cling to supernatural beliefs? Most educated Americans and Europeans would look with pity on those who appeal to witchcraft to explain disease or misfortune. To varying degrees, evolutionists would include Christians, Jews and other religious people as sadly misinformed about the ability of naturalism to account for all phenomena of the biological world including human nature. Evolutionists commonly study their fellow humans for how natural selection shaped their responses to social stimuli, confident of the ability of Darwinian selection to explain human psychology.

15 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? A recent example can be found in a University of Texas press release that announced, “People Merge Supernatural and Scientific Beliefs When Reasoning With the Unknown, Study Shows.” In the study, UT psychologist Christine Legare and her team sought to identify predictable and universal ways that people handle “supernatural” and “scientific” explanations for things:University of Texas press release Legare and her colleagues reviewed more than 30 studies on how people (ages 5–75) from various countries reason with three major existential questions: the origin of life, illness and death. They also conducted a study with 366 respondents in South Africa, where biomedical and traditional healing practices are both widely available.

16 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? Unexpectedly, respondents’ supernatural beliefs did not decrease with age or education. Instead, they tended to accommodate the supernatural and scientific explanations with either-or or both-and concoctions: e.g., either witchcraft or a virus caused a person to get AIDS, or both were involved. The team concluded that belief in the supernatural is a universal human trait that children never fully grow out of: Legare said the findings contradict the common assumption that supernatural beliefs dissipate with age and knowledge.

17 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? “The findings show supernatural explanations for topics of core concern to humans are pervasive across cultures,” Legare said. “If anything, in both industrialized and developing countries, supernatural explanations are frequently endorsed more often among adults than younger children.” The results provide evidence that reasoning about supernatural phenomena is a fundamental and enduring aspect of human thinking, Legare said. “The standard assumption that scientific and religious explanations compete should be re-evaluated in light of substantial psychological evidence,” Legare said. “The data, which spans diverse cultural contexts across the lifespan, shows supernatural reasoning is not necessarily replaced with scientific explanations following gains in knowledge, education or technology.”

18 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? Legare dubs this “coexistence thinking” – “As children assimilate cultural concepts into their intuitive belief systems — from God to atoms to evolution — they engage in coexistence thinking,” said Cristine Legare, assistant professor of psychology and lead author of the study. “When they merge supernatural and scientific explanations, they integrate them in a variety of predictable and universal ways.” Since the press release tagged this story with “evolutionary psychology,” it can safely be assumed that the University of Texas at Austin was not paying her to think outside the explanatory toolkit of evolution: i.e., mutation and natural selection, studied within the standard academic approach called methodological naturalism. But the question remains: is belief in the supernatural universal? or have evolutionary psychologists managed to escape coexistence thinking, purifying their explanations of the supernatural, to attain purely natural, scientific insight?

19 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? Trick question. If it’s natural, it’s not insight; if it’s insight, it’s not natural. Let’s get something straight at the outset: everyone is a supernaturalist. To justify this assertion, we must first provide clarity by defining our terms. Robert Jastrow, the late astronomer, defined materialism (a rough synonym for naturalism and more useful, since “nature” is an equivocal word) as “particles and the forces by which they interact.” He said once you have identified these, you’ve done it all – there’s nothing else to insert into your explanation. What he failed to appreciate is that explanation itself falls outside that box. Explanation is not natural; it’s supernatural!

20 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? Lest a reader contend that we are quibbling about words, consider: “explanation” presupposes many things: among them truth and honesty. Nobody wants an explanation that is false or dishonest. Truth and honesty, however, if anything, must refer to concepts (again, immaterial things) that are universal, timeless, necessary, and certain. This is not to say that scientists are capable of attaining certainty; the quest itself, though, presupposes a belief that a good explanation is out there, and when found, will be true and honestly arrived at. Since all these concepts lie outside of particles and forces – the limits of natural things – it means that evolutionary psychologists and all the other metaphysical or methodological naturalists are supernaturalists in spite of themselves. Q.E.D.

21 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? One way out would be for the evolutionary psychologist to admit truth and honesty into their definition of nature. This move, however, is a slippery slope. Once they admit the ontological reality of concepts that are timeliness, universal, necessary and certain into their “natural box,” there is no way to keep out God without making an arbitrary distinction (for fuller explication, see “Naturalism Outline” PDF file at this site). So, enough of this nonsense that evolutionists can exempt themselves from belief in the supernatural. The question becomes, who has the most coherent supernatural explanation for human nature?Naturalism Outline

22 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? Most academics would like a way to exclude witchcraft from the explanation for AIDS; so would Christians and Jews, who believe in Satan and evil spirits. These are worthy discussions. However, to pretend that methodological naturalism is the best method is to make an arbitrary rule within the set of supernatural explanations, and risks missing the right explanation. It basically says, “we admit we believe in the supernatural, but we choose to pretend the supernatural does not exist.” Such a position is self- contradictory, self-refuting, and self-limiting. The method that has a solid foundation begins with the nature of God, the ultimate source of truth, the embodiment of all that is timeless, universal, necessary and certain. Honesty, wisdom and other desirable traits for a scientist come pre- justified with this approach.

23 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? To know the nature of God, we cannot reason to it from the bottom up with any certainty. It needs to be revealed. Taking the Creator’s self-revelation in the Bible gives us a reliable starting point. The attributes of God as revealed in the Bible give the scientist assurance that truth, honesty, justice, and wisdom matter; therefore, scientific explanations are good to the extent they measure up to those qualities. Knowing that humans are created in the image of God, yet are fallen into sin, provides the grounds for human psychology. From knowledge of man’s fallen mind, it will take a good deal of scholarly debate on the limits of human knowledge (subjects, incidentally, that have generated much lively debate from Augustine to C. S. Lewis).

24 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? All these considerations, however, just get us to the starting point for scientific investigation. The Bible is a condensed book; it does not provide exhaustive information on most questions of interest to modern scientists. Knowing that we share the image of God, however, we can utilize our God-given wisdom, creativity and conscience to strive for the best explanations, confident that the “truth” is out there in the mind of God. Other scientists, also working from that foundation, can judge our conclusions, measuring how well they comport with revealed truth and observation. This approach at least has the hope of success and is self-consistent. It’s the approach creation scientists have used for centuries and continue to use. But let us all disabuse ourselves of the notion that evolutionists avoid the supernatural: they just employ an inconsistent supernatural worldview, stealing the concepts of truth and honesty from the Christian worldview while pretending the supernatural doesn’t exist.

25 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? Application. Let’s look at the Legare study with a Christian approach. The data show that certain South African people continue to assimilate their belief in witchcraft with scientific explanations for HIV transmission. First of all, we might question Legare’s sample, and be reluctant to speak of all South Africans this way. Second, we would understand that the fallen mind is prey to demonic delusions, such as witchcraft. Third, we might ask different questions, like, how well- informed are the participants about Biblical theology?

26 4/27/ Is Belief in the Supernatural Universal? 信仰超自然是普遍? In our write-up, we might agree with Legare that education doesn’t rid some people of false notions, but would approach the conclusion, not from evolutionary psychology, but from Biblical anthropology, that men love darkness rather than light, because their deeds are evil. Applying our findings, we might encourage better Bible education for these people. For fun, we might turn the tables and analyze the “coexistence thinking” of Legare and her colleagues, investigating why they continue holding to naturalistic Darwinism when educated into the fact that scientific explanation implies that naturalism is impossible.

27 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

28 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

29 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 There’s more going on under your skin than you possibly realize. Lung brush: Working 24x7, microscopic cilia lining your bronchial passages sweep your lungs clean, allowing you to survive in an atmosphere filled with pollutants. Science Daily summarized a paper in Science that described “A Periciliary Brush Promotes the Lung Health by Separating the Mucus Layer from Airway Epithelia” (Button et al., Science, 24 August 2012: Vol. 337 no pp. 937–941, DOI: /science ). Science Daily said,Science DailyScience

30 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 “The cilia are constantly beating, even while we sleep,” he says. “In a coordinated fashion, they push mucus containing foreign objects out of the lungs, and we either swallow it or spit it out. These cilia even beat for a few hours after we die. If they stopped, we’d be flooded with mucus that provides a fertile breeding ground for bacteria.”.… The researchers used a combination of imaging techniques to observe a dense meshwork in the periciliary layer of human bronchial epithelial cell cultures. The brush-like layer consists of protective molecules that keep sticky mucus from reaching the cilia and epithelial cells, thus ensuring the normal flow of mucus.…

31 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 “This layer — this brush — seems to be very important for the healthy functioning of human airways,” according to Rubinstein. “It protects cells from sticky mucus, and it creates a second barrier of defense in case viruses or bacteria penetrate through the mucus. They would not penetrate through the brush layer because the brush is denser.”

32 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 Respiratory diseases such as COPD are apparently caused by the collapse of this brush layer. The new findings, which replace old notions that the mucus rested on a liquid layer, may help people suffering from a variety of lung problems. The BBC News write-up added this comment:BBC News Prof Stephen Spiro, vice-chairman of the British Lung Foundation, said: “Mucus has a complex biological make-up and forms a vital part of the lungs’ defence mechanism against potentially harmful or irritating substances, which are inhaled as small particles. “Research such as this helps our understanding [of] how this system works, and of the complex mechanisms deep within our lungs which protect us from the atmosphere we breathe in.”

33 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 The original paper did not mention evolution, except to say in passing, “Mucus clearance in the mammalian lung has evolved to trap and clear a wide variety of inhaled toxicants and infectious agents from airway surfaces,” passing the support for that claim to three other references. Neither Science Daily nor the BBC saw fit to include evolution.Science DailyBBC

34 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 Muscle builder: Early reports about irisin, a newly-discovered hormone that mimics the effects of exercise by converting white fat into brown fat (see Live Science Jan. 2012) may not pan out, according to Nature this week (Timmons et al., “Is irisin a human exercise gene?”, Nature 488, 30 August 2012, pp. E9– E10, doi: /nature11364). Timmons et al. found only modest benefit in humans, particularly highly-active elderly people. No need to despair, though: Science Daily just reported a “hulk protein” that may allow humans to grow stronger without working out. Researchers found that mice with the Grb10 gene disrupted grow more muscular. Don’t turn in your gym membership just yet, though, the researchers warned: “the classic prescription still applies: lift heavy things, eat and sleep right, and have your hormones checked.” They hope, though, that further understanding of these genetic processes may help people suffering from muscle-wasting diseases.Live Science Jan. 2012Nature Science Daily

35 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 Protein attraction: Your body’s proteins need to work together. Cornell scientists have found how proteins can feel attractive forces as far as 20 nanometers, a considerable distance at their scale. It involves fractal-like patterns in cell membranes that form near the “critical point of the liquid-liquid phase separation of the cell membrane, which is the subtle temperature and composition point at which the two phases separate.” PhysOrg included this quote by Ben Machta, grad student and co-author of the study: “We were intrigued that it seems like biology does want to tune itself closely to this critical point.”PhysOrg

36 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 Gift-wrapped neurons: Many neural cells come wrapped in myelin, a membranous, lipid-rich sheath that composes the “white matter” of the central nervous system. What does it do? “The myelin sheath around nerve fibres serves to speed up electrical nerve signals, Nature News explained. “But it turns out that it also supplies neurons with fuel to support their high metabolic activity.” In particular, “lactate provided by or through the myelin sheath is crucial for neuronal survival.” A diagram in the article reveals the complex interactions of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ATP and blood vessels in this feeding process. The finding “expands the roles of myelin sheaths,” the authors said. This is not necessarily the only known function of myelin, which “supports neurons in other, less-well-understood ways.” Source: Rinholm and Bergerson, “Neuroscience: The wrap that feeds neurons,” Nature 487, 26 July 2012, pp. 435–436, doi: /487435a.Nature NewsNature

37 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 Work in your sleep: Sleep learning is possible, reported Science Daily, because while you rest and dream, your brain is creating associations and memories of what you perceive through the senses, and these associations remain after you wake up. Experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science showed that sleeping participants given Pavlov-like associations of tones with odors retained the association when awake: when hearing the tone, they would breathe in deeply for memories of pleasant odors, but take short sniffs when the tone was associated with a foul odor – even when having no conscious memory of the association. Researchers believe this finding suggests that “we could probably learn more complex information while we sleep,” but they expect limits. Don’t place your homework under your pillow, for instance. More detail provided in the coverage on Nature News August 26.Science DailyNature News August 26

38 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 Support for circumcision: Parents worrying about the decision whether to circumcise their baby boy might elect to do so, now that medical doctors from the American Association of Pediatrics endorsed it August 27. The AAP feels it can reduce sexually-transmitted diseases and improve boys’ health, such as reducing risk of penile cancer and urinary tract infections. Some disagree strongly with tampering with nature on philosophical or religious grounds; some worry about complications for the baby. Although still controversial, the AAP believes ” the medical benefits outweigh the risks of the procedure” and advises insurance companies to pay for it. Source: Nature News, August 28; see also Live Science, which also reported August 20 that a drop in circumcisions would boost health care costs.Nature News, August 28Live ScienceAugust 20

39 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 Circumcision remains a parental choice; if undertaken, it should be for health reasons, not religious reasons. For Christians, the apostle Paul declared that “circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing” in terms of ceremonial significance, “but keeping the commandments of God” is what counts (I Cor. 7:19). In Romans he proved that circumcision is no longer a requirement for pleasing God, from whom salvation is by grace alone through faith. In Galatians, he strongly condemned the Judaizers who insisted that Christians must be circumcised, declaring them to be hypocrites: “As many as desire to make a good showing in the flesh, these would compel you to be circumcised, only that they may not suffer persecution for the cross of Christ. For not even those who are circumcised keep the law, but they desire to have you circumcised that they may boast in your flesh. I Cor. 7:19

40 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 But God forbid that I should boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but a new creation.” (Galatians 6:12–15). Nevertheless, he did have Timothy circumcised to avoid offense as the young disciple entered a ministry to a mixed church of Jews and Gentiles (Acts 16:1–3). Some people get really adamant about their positions for or against circumcision, but consider: God would not have required a seriously damaging procedure for his people the Jews in the Old Testament; they did, after all, do a pretty good job of being fruitful and multiplying. If you agree with the AAP that the benefits outweigh the risks, or if you have some pragmatic reason, like wanting your boy to fit the cultural norm, have at it. If you want your boy to remain all natural, you will not thereby displease God.Galatians 6:12–15Acts 16:1–3

41 4/27/ More Reasons to Appreciate Your Body 更多理由去欣赏你的身体 We hope all the stories in this entry will remind us all how “fearfully and wonderfully made” we are (Psalm 139), from the level of the whole body all the way down to the individual proteins in our cells. Browse through our “Human Body” category to read about many more wonders that make human life precious. Be grateful again today to your Maker, and promote the sanctity of human life in your voting and behavior.Psalm 139“Human Body” category

42 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

43 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

44 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 At least 80% of the human genome is functional, scientists now say, based on a genetic survey called ENCODE that may force reassessment of what a gene is. The big news in human genetics this week is the publication of results by the ENCODE(Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) consortium, “the most ambitious human genetics project to date,” and what it reveals about function in the human genome. When the human genome was first published, scientists were surprised that only about 3% of it coded for proteins. That was before they knew about all the coded information in the “epigenome,” which includes RNA transcripts that regulate the code. The new results show that at least 80% of the human genome is, in fact, functional, rendering the evolutionary notion of “junk DNA” (leftovers from our evolutionary past) incorrect. Evolutionists themselves are writing the “eulogy for junk DNA.”

45 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 There is so much buzz about this story that came out in Nature this week, all we can do is list some of the more prominent headlines. References to Nature are from the 26 September 2012 issue, volume 489, no. 54. Popular reports in the news media are too numerous to list. Nature’s news feature “ENCODE: The Human Encyclopaedia” by Brendan Maher begins, “First they sequenced it. Now they have surveyed its hinterlands. But no one knows how much more information the human genome holds, or when to stop looking for it.” Nature’s news feature

46 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Evolution is mentioned in some of the Nature papers, but after notions of “evolutionarily conserved” and “evolutionary constraints” are removed (which refer to lack of evolution), what is left is mostly assumption rather than discovery. In Nature’s summary article “Genomics: ENCODE Explained,” one mention of evolution was not particularly helpful to Darwinists: “Why evolution would maintain large amounts of ‘useless’ DNA had remained a mystery, and seemed wasteful,” Barroso wrote. “It turns out, however, that there are good reasons to keep this DNA.” Then Barroso listed some of the good things the non-coding DNA does. In the section “Evolution and the Code,” two of the authors stashed most of the understanding in the future: “many aspects of post- transcriptional regulation, which may also drive evolutionary changes, are yet to be fully explored.” The other three authors did not mention evolution.Nature’s summary article “Genomics: ENCODE Explained

47 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Nature looked back at a quote by Nobel laureate David Baltimore 11 years ago when the human genome was first published: “Unless the human genome contains a lot of genes that are opaque to our computers, it is clear that we do not gain our undoubted complexity over worms and plants by using many more genes. Understanding what does give us our complexity — our enormous behavioural repertoire, ability to produce conscious action, remarkable physical coordination (shared with other vertebrates), precisely tuned alterations in response to external variations of the environment, learning, memory … need I go on? — remains a challenge for the future.” Now, Peter Bork and Richard Copley state that the ENCODE data “may offer insight into function and regulation beyond the level of individual genes. The draft is also a starting point for studies of the three-dimensional packing of the genome into a cell’s nucleus. Such packing is likely to influence gene regulation … The human genome lies before us, ready for interpretation.” Nature

48 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Nature posted a video by members of the ENCODE team explaining what their published results mean to human genetics. ENCODE Lead Coordinator Ewan Birney describes the hundreds of terabytes of raw data generated in the 5-year project involving hundreds of people. “There are probably things that we have no idea what they’re doing and yet they’re going something important,” he says, hinting at potentially more than 80% function. “It’s very hard to get over the density of information,” he said. Genes can no longer be considered discreet sections of code. The data looks more like a jungle. There are “places in the genome we thought were silent and they’re teeming with life,” he said. Nature posted a video

49 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 A profile of Ewan Birney was written by Elisabeth Pennisi in the current view of Science(Sept 7, 337:6099, page 1167– 1169, doi: /science ). Birney is “a self- taught programmer turned bioinformatician” who brought hundreds of people together and worked very hard to bring knowledge of the human genome to this point.Science “Human Genome Is Much More than Just Genes,” Elizabeth Pennisi wrote for Science NOW. The project provided a kind of “Google Maps” for the genome, allowing studies of the epigenome (codes above the genetic code) and regulatory elements that might be implicated in disease.Science NOW “ENCODE Project Writes Eulogy for Junk DNA” is another article by Elizabeth Pennisi in Science Sept 7, pp. 1159– Sample quotes by scientists:Science Sept 7, pp. 1159– 1161

50 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话  “I don’t think anyone would have anticipated even close to the amount of sequence that ENCODE has uncovered that looks like it has functional importance,” says John A. Stamatoyannopoulos, an ENCODE researcher at the University of Washington, Seattle.  These results are going “to change the way a lot of [genomics] concepts are written about and presented in textbooks,” Stamatoyannopoulos predicts.  “It’s a treasure trove of information,” says Manolis Kellis, a computational biologist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge who analyzed data from the project.  “What we found is how beautifully complex the biology really is,” says Jason Lieb, an ENCODE researcher at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.  “Regulation is a 3D puzzle that has to be put together,” Gingeras says. “That’s what ENCODE is putting out on the table.”

51 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Alongside a beautiful artwork of the DNA double helix, New Scientist echoed the theme that “junk DNA” is obsolete. “The reams of ‘junk’ DNA that make up the majority of our genetic code appear to have a purpose after all, according to the results of a global research project.” Switches, for instance, have a purpose: “The switches also appear to be spread out over the genome, with some being located at a distance from the gene they are controlling,” reporter Jessica Hamzelou wrote. “Around 95 per cent of the genome appears to be very close to a switch, suggesting that almost all of our DNA may be doing something important.”New Scientist

52 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 On Science Daily: “Mapping a World Beyond Genes” commented on the epigenome so central to the ENCODE project: “The term ‘epigenome’ refers to a layer of chemical information on top of the genetic code, which helps determine when and where (and in what types of cells) genes will be active. This layer of information includes a suite of chemical changes that appear across the genetic landscape of every cell, and can differ dramatically between cell types.”Science Daily

53 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 “Yale Team Finds Order Amidst the Chaos Within the Human Genome,” announces another article on Science Daily. After describing the hierarchical information structure of the epigenome, likening it to management levels in a company (but with less “middle management” bottlenecks), this article looked for evidence for evolution in pseudogenes, calling them ” stretches of fossil DNA, evolutionary remnants of an active biological past.” These pseudogenes, though, are not dead: “However, the Yale team shows many of them are resurrected to produce non-coding RNAs, which scientists now know are crucial to the activation and silencing of protein-coding genes throughout the genome.” Remarkably, one of the Yale team members said this proves evolution is smartly economical: “This is another example of nature not wasting resources, a story we see repeated time and time again throughout the 3 billion letters of our genome.”Science Daily

54 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Another article on Science Daily seems to dilute the evolutionary claim, though, claiming that ENCODE is a forward-looking project casting off obsolete evolutionary notions: “Fast Forward for Biomedical Research: Massive DNA Encyclopedia Scraps the Junk.” It includes another quote by Birney: “Our genome is simply alive with switches: millions of places that determine whether a gene is switched on or off.”Science Daily Science Daily also printed a press release from the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology titled, “Major Advances in Understanding the Regulation and Organization of the Human Genome.” This article stressed how ENCODE is filling the “knowledge gap” that the notion of “junk DNA” explained away. Science Daily

55 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 “Biochemical Functions for Most of Human Genome Identified: New Map Finds Genetic Regulatory Elements Account for 80 Percent of Our DNA” is the title of another article on Science Daily. This one also mentioned evolution, but only briefly, referring to percentages of genes conserved across mammals. Some of these “newly evolved regulatory regions,” however, work to “encode regulators that activate other genes.”Science Daily In a similar vein, another Science Daily article announced, “Millions of DNA Switches That Power Human Genome’s Operating System Are Discovered.” This article discussed not only the computers the scientists used, but how DNA has its own computer-like operating system.Science Daily

56 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 “Human Genome Far More Active Than Thought: GENCODE Consortium Discovers Far More Genes Than Previously Thought” announced another article on Science Daily. What is GENCODE? The article explained, “The GENCODE Consortium is part of the ENCODE Project that, today, publishes 30 research papers describing findings from their nearly decade-long effort to describe comprehensively all the active regions of our human genome.” The GENCODE team is looking for more genes and finding them. In addition, they found 11,000 “pseudogenes” and found “There is some emerging evidence that many of these genes, too, might have some biological activity.” This hints that pseudogenes may be elevated from evolutionary junk as more is learned about them.

57 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Of interest to philosophers of science is whether the ENCODE results will leave the notion of a “gene” intact. Another article on Science Daily is headlined, “In Massive Genome Analysis ENCODE Data Suggests ‘Gene’ Redefinition.” For one thing, the “junk DNA” advocates were wrong: “Far from being padding, many of these RNA messages appeared to be functional.” Even more important: genes are sometimes not distinct loci: “The additional knowledge that parts of one gene or functional RNA can reside within another were surprising, and suggested a picture of the architecture of our genome that was much more complex than previously thought.” Science Daily

58 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Functions for the remaining 20% of DNA left undefined by ENCODE may be found in the differential gene expression within body tissues, because “a large percent of non-protein-coding RNAs are localized within cells in a manner consistent with their having functional roles.” And even though some RNAs are not associated with genes, they are increasingly viewed as something greater: a “giant, complex switchboard, controlling a network of many events in the cell by regulating the processes of replication, transcription and translation.” With these new realizations, one team member commented, “New definitions of a gene are needed.”

59 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 According to an article in Science Daily, “The full ENCODE Consortium data sets can be freely accessed through the ENCODE project portal as well as at the University of California at Santa Cruz genome browser, the National Center for Biotechnology Information, and the European Bioinformatics Institute. Topic threads that run through several different papers can be explored via the ENCODE microsite page at Nature.com/encode.”Science DailyNature.com/encode

60 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 The Wall Street Journal provides a sample of coverage from a media site not devoted to science per se: “‘Junk DNA’ debunked” is the headline. “The discovery ‘is like a huge set of floodlights being switched on’ to illuminate the darkest reaches of the genetic code, said Ewan Birney of the European Bioinformatics Institute in the U.K., lead analysis coordinator for the Encode results.” Stamatoyannopoulos commented, “We created a dictionary of the genome’s programming language.” Noting that humans have about 30 times as much ‘junk DNA’ (regulatory elements, actually) as other species, the WSJ said, “The unexpected level of activity seen in the genomic hinterlands may also help explain what makes us human.” With 30+ papers on the ENCODE project in print and more coming, “The flood of scientific data is likely to keep researchers busy for a long time.”Wall Street Journal

61 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 In contrast to all the above articles celebrating information and function in non-coding DNA, New Scientist posted a hold-out article advocating, “Don’t junk the ‘junk DNA’ just yet.” Is there still “function” in that vanishing term? “The ENCODE project has revealed that 80 per cent of our genome does something, but doing something is not the same as doing something useful,” the article points out: “there are still very good reasons for thinking that most of our DNA is far from essential.” The statement confuses “essential” with “adaptive” and begs the question whether something useful must be essential. A second hand is useful but not essential or else amputees would never have children. The short article was not specific and did not refer to evolution. New Scientist

62 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 “ENCODE is an epic project that will undoubtedly lead to many advances, but it is premature to leap to grand conclusions,” the article warned. “Just as the much anticipated human genome project revealed more than a decade ago, ENCODE tells us we still have an enormous amount to learn from the book of life.” Intelligent Design advocates are, meanwhile, gloating over the demise of “junk DNA” and pointing to the exceptional complexity ENCODE has revealed. Casey Luskin at Evolution News & Views whipped out “Junk No More: ENCODE Project Nature Paper Finds ‘Biochemical Functions for 80% of the Genome’” on the day of Nature’s announcement. Robert Crowther reminded readers of Evolution News & Views that “Jonathan Wells Got It Right In The Myth of Junk DNA,” published by the Discovery Institute. “In 2010 in The Myth of Junk DNA, biologist Jonathan Wells exposed the false claim that ‘junk DNA’ provides decisive evidence for Darwin’s theory,” he said. “Now he has been vindicated by the leading scientific publications in the world.”Evolution News & ViewsEvolution News & Views

63 4/27/ ENCODE Study Forces Evolutionists to Retract “Junk DNA” Myth ENCODE 的研究驱动进化论者要收回 “ 垃圾 DNA” 的神话 Evolutionists are desperately struggling to hang onto their theory in the floodlights revealing layers of complexity far beyond anything Darwin could have conceived. Blobs of protoplasm, ha! How about operating systems, switchboards, and hierarchical management structures? It’s over, Darwinists. You messed up on vestigial organs, the fossil record and now junk DNA. Please step aside and let the science of the information age take care of what the evidence demands.

64 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

65 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

66 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Everybody except liberals knows they are intolerant of conservatives, but now a new survey won’t let them deny they have a real bias problem. Conservatives in academia have long been aware that for their own protection they need to keep their views quiet. Liberals, however, walk around thinking of themselves as the most tolerant people in the world. An anonymous online survey of 800 social psychologists, about to be published by Yoel Inbar and Joris Lammers this month in Perspectives on Psychological Science (a journal of the Association for Psychological Science), caught social psychologists with their tolerant pants down, Science Daily just reported. Here are some of the most revealing excerpts:Science Daily

67 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Every ten years or so, someone will make the observation that there is a lack of political diversity among psychological scientists and a discussion about what ought to be done ensues. The notion that the field discriminates against and is skewed toward a liberal political perspective is worthy of concern; scholars, both within and outside the field, have offered various solutions to this diversity problem.

68 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Their findings confirm the field’s liberal bias, but they reveal some surprises as well.… Inbar and Lammers found an overwhelming liberal majority when it concerned social issues, but greater diversity on economic and foreign policy issues. It seems that conservative social psychologists hide their views because they perceive the field as hostile to their values. The more conservative respondents were, the more likely they were to report that they had experienced an intellectually unfriendly climate. Importantly, self-defined liberals did not seem to have the same perceptions of hostility.

69 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Furthermore, liberal respondents were more likely to say that they would discriminate against psychologists who displayed clear conservative views in the context of a paper or grant review, a symposium invitation, and in faculty hiring. Social tolerance and fairness are important values for many psychological scientists, so it’s surprising to find intolerance of a different kind in the field. And despite the fact that psychological scientists are well aware of the potentially harmful effects of cognitive biases, they are clearly not immune to such biases themselves.

70 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Several of the commentaries raise serious questions about how ideology might be shaping the issues and questions that social psychologists systematically choose — and do not choose — to explore. It may be the case that the field attracts a certain kind of inquiring and open mind that tends to embrace liberal values, and that conservatives self-select out of the field. But this, most of the commentators agree, does not change the fact that pervasive liberal bias is unhealthy for intellectual inquiry. The article ends with Inbar and Lammers declaring the “time is ripe for self-examination in the field.”

71 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 The time is ripe for housecleaning, not just navel-gazing. Nothing will change until parity is achieved. These people lack self-awareness of their intolerance because the only ones they hang out with are people like themselves. They have no idea about how they stifle true diversity and open debate by their cluelessness, engendered by self-fulfilling prophecies and group reinforcement. Watch the documentary Indoctrinate U – it’s about campus leftist idealogues so pathetically unself-aware, they are downright funny.Indoctrinate U

72 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Don’t fall for the baloney that conservatives self-select out of the field because they lack an “inquiring and open mind.” That’s leftist hot air. Notice, instead, that the leftist bias actually influences the very scientific questions they find worthy to explore! That’s why you so often find social psychologists analyzing religious people instead of conservative psychologists analyzing leftists. We need more studies on leftism as a mental disorder that produces delusions of tolerance.

73 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Notice that some of the social psychos in the survey even admitted they would discriminate against conservatives! They would prevent them from getting hired or getting grants or tenure. Well, duh! No wonder they’re all leftists.

74 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Since social psychologists are overwhelmingly Darwinians, this undoubtedly includes Darwin skeptics, who have felt their wrath and found themselves among the ranks of The Expelled. Ironically, you can bet on it that their universities or institutions have a written policy on “diversity and inclusion” – about as worthless as a UN committee on anti-terrorism run by jihadis. Your commentator had to take a campus- wide quiz on “diversity and inclusion” at a scientific institution, only to find himself expelled a few years later by the organization’s intolerance of intelligent design.The Expelled

75 4/27/ Survey Exposes Liberal Bias Among Psychologists 心理学家调查暴露自由主义偏见 Someone show this article to radio talk show host Dennis Prager, who has often beat the drum about the blindness of leftists in academia (he prefers calling them “leftists” instead of “liberal”–a good word misused). Prager recently stated wisely that leftists are incapable of love, because they are not intolerant of evil. It takes intolerance of evil to produce true love. Celebrate “tolerance” without a hatred for evil, and the hate gets directed at those who don’t buy into the groupthink. For an explanation of why tolerance is impossible as a universal standard of virtue, see the Baloney Detector on “Self-Refuting Fallacy.”Baloney Detector on “Self-Refuting Fallacy.

76 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

77 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

78 4/27/ Star Chemistry Constrains Habitable Zone 星化学约束可居住区 The chemistry of a parent star can have drastic effects on the habitability of an earth-like planet. Scientists at the University of Arizona have added another factor to consider when looking for habitable planets. PhysOrg reported,PhysOrg As a star evolves, it becomes brighter, causing the habitable zone to move outwards through its solar system. The team’s study indicates that a greater abundance of oxygen, carbon, sodium, magnesium and silicon should be a plus for an inner solar system’s long- term habitability because the abundance of these elements make the star cooler and cause it to evolve more slowly, thereby giving planets in its habitable zone more time to develop life as we know it.…

79 4/27/ Star Chemistry Constrains Habitable Zone 星化学约束可居住区 The stellar abundance of oxygen seems crucial in determining how long planets stay in the habitable zone around their host star. If there had been less oxygen in the Sun’s chemical makeup, for example, Earth likely would have been pushed out of the Sun’s habitable zone about a billion years ago, well before complex organisms evolved. Considering the first complex multicellular organisms only arose about 650 million years ago, such a move would have likely destroyed any chance of complex life taking hold on Earth.

80 4/27/ Star Chemistry Constrains Habitable Zone 星化学约束可居住区 There are probably other factors, too: “Habitability is very difficult to quantify because it depends on a huge number of variables, some of which we have yet to identify,” said the university’s assistant professor of School of Earth and Space Exploration, Patrick Young. Update 9/11/2012: The BBC News claims that habitable planets may be more abundant due to the fact that water can exist under the surface, even outside the habitable zone where liquid water can exist. There are, however, constraints on how long a body’s internal heat can last. Water is not alive; many other factors are required for life. Even if life were possible in a deep, dark, subsurface ocean, it would not be the kind humans would be able to learn about or would want to contact. That being so, it remains a theoretical possibility only, not conducive to observation.BBC News

81 4/27/ Star Chemistry Constrains Habitable Zone 星化学约束可居住区 Let’s tally up the factors we’ve reported so far that make the “Goldilocks Zone” more complicated than just allowing for liquid water: Galactic Habitable Zone, where a star must be located (09/29/2009);09/29/2009 Circumstellar Habitable Zone, the right radius from the star where liquid water can exist (10/08/2010);10/08/2010 Continuously Habitable Zone, because too much variety can be lethal (07/21/2007);07/21/2007 Temporal Habitable Zone, because habitable zones do not last forever (10/27/2008);10/27/2008 Chemical and Thermodynamic Habitable Zone, where water can be liquid (12/30/2003);12/30/2003 Ultraviolet Habitable Zone, free from deadly radiation (08/15/2006);08/15/2006 Tidal Habitable Zone, which rules out most stars that are small (02/26/2011).02/26/2011 Stable Obliquity Habitable Zone (1/12/2012)1/12/2012 Stellar Chemistry Habitable Zone (this entry)

82 4/27/ Star Chemistry Constrains Habitable Zone 星化学约束可居住区 The list will probably continue to grow. Although the current paper assumes billions of years of evolution, it’s a problem for evolutionists of all stripes: atheistic, deistic and theistic. Why? They all need billions of years. Theistic evolutionists, for instance, would need for God to intervene and move the earth as the habitable zone evolves. If the solar system were created much more recently, this is not a problem at all. The hopes of Carl Sagan and other astronomers of the 1980s for billions and billions of worlds filled with life are looking more simplistic with each new discovery. The earth is looking more Biblical all the while.

83 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

84 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

85 4/27/ Hopes for Wet Mars Diminished 湿火星希望减少了 The clays on Mars that were thought to be indicative of a wet past could, instead, be formed by volcanoes. Live Science said: “New Mars Theory Questions Red Planet’s Watery Past.” Live Science Astrobiology Magazine said, “Clay Not Evidence of Lakes on Mars.” Astrobiology Magazine New Scientist said, “Not so moist Mars: Clays may come from lava, not lakes.” The article quotes Brian Hynek saying, “Such a result would imply that early Mars may not have been as habitable as previously thought at the time when Earth’s life was taking hold.” Live Science, though, said Hynek is holding out hope that some of the Martian clays could have had a watery origin. New Scientist

86 4/27/ Hopes for Wet Mars Diminished 湿火星希望减少了 Live Science includes a 6-minute video update by John Grotzinger, project scientist for the Curiosity rover. He’s still hoping to find evidence of a watery past in Gale Crater. If history is a guide, scientists expected to find water-laid deposits in Gusev Crater where the earlier Spirit rover landed. Spirit, however, only found dry volcanic deposits (8/06/2004). Live Science8/06/2004

87 4/27/ Hopes for Wet Mars Diminished 湿火星希望减少了 Belief in Martians dies hard, though. In a PhysOrg article, Lawrence Krauss states in a video clip he would “not be surprised” if Curiosity finds evidence of life on Mars. He even thinks life evolved there first and polluted the Earth with life when Martian meteorites landed here, like the infamous ALH84001 that launched the new “science” of astrobiology (see 9/02/2012).PhysOrg article9/02/2012 Do astrobiologists have anything better than hope and imagination? How can anyone call their faith scientific?

88 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

89 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

90 4/27/ Geological Dates Collapse 地质日期崩溃 Two papers in Geology this month cast serious doubt on assumptions used to date rocks. Hundreds, Not Hundreds of Thousands A “giant ore deposit” in Hungary thought to require hundreds of thousands of years of slow, gradual deposition to form has been re-examined. Conclusion: it formed in just hundreds of years due to the action of microbes. The abstract posted today in the journal Geology says it all:Geology The Úrkút (Hungary) manganese (Mn) ore, hosted by Jurassic black shale, was studied using high-resolution mineralogical, microtextural, and chemical methods. Two independent superimposed biostructures were identified consisting of rhythmic laminations that provide important proxies for paleoenvironments and duration of ore formation. Millimeter- scale laminae reflect a depositional series of Fe-rich biomats, mineralized microbially produced sedimentary structures.

91 4/27/ Geological Dates Collapse 地质日期崩溃 These biomats formed at the sediment-water interface under dysoxic and neutral pH conditions by enzymatic Fe 2+ oxidizing processes that may have developed on a daily to weekly growth cycle. The early diagenetic sedimentary ore is composed of Ca rhodochrosite, celadonite, and smectite, and also shows a 100-μm-scale element oscillation that produces Mn(Ca)-rich and Si(Fe clay)-rich microlaminae. This microlamination may reflect a 10 h to daily rhythmicity produced by the growth of microbial communities. If true, then the giant Úrkút ore deposit may have formed over hundreds of years, rather than hundreds of thousands of years as previously thought. Source: Polgári et al., Microbial action formed Jurassic Mn- carbonate ore deposit in only a few hundred years (Úrkút, Hungary), Geology, /G v. 40 no. 10 p. 903–906.Geology

92 4/27/ Geological Dates Collapse 地质日期崩溃 Cosmogenic Clock Reset A dating method that relies on constant bombardment by cosmic rays has new troubles. Geologists had thought that cosmogenic radiation damage in the rocks accumulated at a steady rate. They overlooked the scrambling of data due to debris flows, reports a Swiss team. In Geology, the abstract of their paper, “Debris-flow–dependent variation of cosmogenically derived catchment-wide denudation rates” explains the problem: Geology Catchment-wide denudation rates (CWDRs) obtained from cosmogenic nuclides are an efficient way to determine geomorphic processes quantitatively in alpine mountain ranges over Holocene time scales. These rate estimations assume steady geomorphic processes. Here we use a time series (3 yr) in the Aare catchment (central Swiss Alps) to test the impact of spatially heterogeneous stochastic sediment supply on CWDRs. Our results show that low-frequency, high-magnitude debris-flow events significantly perturb cosmogenic nuclide ( 10 Be, 14 C) concentrations and thus CWDRs.

93 4/27/ Geological Dates Collapse 地质日期崩溃 The 10 Be concentrations decrease by a factor of two following debris-flow events, resulting in a doubling of inferred CWDRs. The variability indicates a clear time and source dependency on sediment supply, with restricted area-weighted mixing of sediment. Accordingly, in transient environments, it is critical to have an understanding of the history of geomorphic processes to derive meaningful CWDRs. We hypothesize that the size of debris flows, their connectivity with the trunk stream, and the ability of the system to sufficiently mix sediment from low– and high-order catchments control the magnitude of CWDR perturbations. We also determined in situ 14 C in a few samples. In conjunction with 10 Be, these data suggest partial storage for colluvium of a few thousand years within the catchment prior to debris-flow initiation. Source: Kober et al., Debris-flow–dependent variation of cosmogenically derived catchment-wide denudation rates, Geology, doi: /G v. 40 no. 10 p. 935–938.Geology

94 4/27/ Geological Dates Collapse 地质日期崩溃 Most of us learn the lesson, “never assume,” the hard way. Both dating methods assumed simple, uniform, slow-and-gradual processes produced these deposits. In one case, errors were found at least 3 orders of magnitude, leading to the conclusion that a giant ore deposit took only a few hundred years to form, not hundreds of thousands of years. In the second case, assumption of “steady geomorphic processes” was exaggerated by a factor of two or more.

95 4/27/ Geological Dates Collapse 地质日期崩溃 None of this is to allege that these geologists have changed their minds about the standard evolutionary billions-of-years timeline. The first authors, for instance, believe the quick deposition of the ore occurred in the Jurassic, over 100 million years ago. The second authors are only cautioning about calculating dates with steady-state assumptions. The lesson here concerns philosophy of science: measurements by fallible humans who weren’t there and don’t know all the factors can produce erroneous conclusions that become ensconced in textbooks as The Truth About the World. No; the second paper states: “it is critical to have an understanding of the history of geomorphic processes to derive meaningful” rates. But there’s the rub; is this possible?

96 4/27/ Geological Dates Collapse 地质日期崩溃 What human being is capable of gaining “an understanding of the history of geomorphic processes” for any location, when he or she was not there to watch? There could always be some other geomorphic (landscape- forming) process that was not considered, such as the debris flows discussed here. What else will be suggested in future studies? Can anybody except an Eyewitness ever claim that, yes, “now we know” ALL the processes that contributed to a given landscape? The question answers itself.

97 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

98 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

99 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 Similar-looking blind fish couldn’t have swum across the world, so did they evolve separately? Where would a fish want to go be? A goby fish wants to go be in dark caves. The BBC News announced that “Goby fish 6,000km apart share eyeless common ancestor.” Herein lies a puzzle: blind gobies in Madagascar and Australia are very similar. How will evolutionary theory explain this? Reporter Jonathan Ball said, “A study in PLoS One showed Madagascan and Australian cave fish inherited their blindness from a common ancestor” (Source: Chakrabarty P, Davis MP, Sparks JS (2012) The First Record of a Trans-Oceanic Sister-Group Relationship between Obligate Vertebrate Troglobites. PLoS ONE 7(8): e doi: /journal.pone ).BBC NewsPLoS OnePLoS ONE

100 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 Though living in different parts of the world the cave fish shared important features: they were small — under 10cm in length — eyeless, colourless and lived in freshwater, limestone caves. How such similar fishes came to be living on different sides of the world was the question the researchers wanted to answer.

101 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 They considered convergent evolution: “When separate species are exposed to the same selective pressures they often come up with the same solutions — a process known as convergent evolution.” An alternate possibility is that these species inherited their particular characteristics from a common ancestor: “In the case of the cave fish, an alternative possibility was that their odd features — or traits — were adaptations inherited from an ancestor common to both.”

102 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 A genetic comparison suggested the latter: Though separated by thousands of kilometres of ocean, the cave-dwelling fish of Madagascar and north-western Australia were genetically more similar to each other than to any other goby: they inherited their unusual suite of characteristics from a common ancestor. “That they’re 6,000 km apart in Madagascar and Australia is pretty remarkable,” observed Dr Chakrabarty.

103 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 The researchers believe that the ancestor lived on Gondwanaland, which joined Madagascar and Australia in the past. Their hypothesis is that those two lands split 60 million years ago, leaving the two species of cave-dwellers 4,000 miles apart, no longer able to share a common gene pool.

104 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 Nice hypothesis, Ball suggested, “But the study threw up some anomalies.” Why didn’t the blind gobies go be in India, which was also part of Gondwanaland? Maybe they went extinct there. Or, perhaps evolutionary ideas of Gondwanaland “might need updating.” A researcher found it “intriguing” that some of the blind gobies in Madagascar had pigment; “they show that caves are not evolutionary dead-ends,” he said.

105 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 The observation of similar blind cave fish separated by 4,000 miles is a worthy puzzle for scientific investigation by both creationists and evolutionists. How did they get there? Evolutionists typically take the microphone and start waving their hands. They reach into their story toolkit and pull out “convergent evolution”. They grab the magic wand of “millions of years.” They play their puzzle of slowly wandering continents, as they look into their genetic crystal balls for visions of long-lost common ancestors.

106 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 Unfortunately for them, these tactics flop. First of all, blindness is degeneration, not evolution. Even creationists allow for that kind of change from an initial created kind of goby that diversified without adding new genetic information. Second, “convergent evolution” is a distraction. It is not a “process”; it is merely a story used whenever needed to show similar things that should not have been related. And, the evolutionists admitted that their popular story of Gondwanaland’s separation “might need updating.”

107 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 The authors admitted in their paper that evolutionary theory is not sitting confidently in the seat of scientific explanation here: “A major issue plaguing our understanding regarding the evolution of cave animals has been a lack of basic information regarding the assembly of these biotas, including mechanisms of speciation and phylogenetic origin.” Ahem; why, then, are you holding the microphone?

108 4/27/ Evolutionary Fish Story 进化鱼的故事 The most useless part of their hypothesis is time. It doesn’t take 60 million years for eyes to degenerate; that can happen in one or two generations. Sixty million years is far more time than all the alleged major transitions in mammals are said to have occurred. Why would these fish just sit there in caves on opposite sides of the ocean, not changing at all, looking closer to one another genetically than to other gobies? Does that make sense?

109 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝

110 4/27/ Sermons From Science -- Oct 2012 科学布道 年 10 月 Sermons from Science is now published in both YouTube under the name “Pastor Chui” and also in PowerPoint slides in the website The contents of this presentation were taken from Dave Coppedge’s website May God have all the glory. Pastor Chui

111 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 A kimberlite crater in Canada, said to be 53 million years old, yielded exquisitely preserved unfossilized wood. Miners were digging for diamonds and found unfossilized wood encased in the rock. Diamonds are usually found in kimberlite dikes that erupt the gems rapidly from deep in the earth in “explosive phreatomagmatic events” (1/12/2012, 5/07/2007). The discovery was reported on PLoS ONE by Wolfe et al. (“Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada,” PLoS ONE 7(9): e doi: /journal.pone ):1/12/20125/07/2007PLoS ONE

112 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ 18 O and δ 2 H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

113 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 The genus Metasequoia includes the dawn redwood, a “living fossil” rediscovered in China. “Metasequoia was common in southern Alaska in the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, producing a rich record of foliage and cones,” they said. Fossils are rare in the discovery region due to extensive denudation and erosion by subsequent glaciers. Finding warm-climate conifer wood in a glaciated environment indicates huge climatic changes over time, and periods that supported extensive forestation in spite of much higher relative temperatures.

114 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 Fossil material can fall into a kimberlite crater as a result of the eruption, or can be washed in later. Both mechanisms occurred in the many kimberlite pipes in the region. Numerous pieces of fossil wood have been found by diamond miners over the years. The authors believe the “exceptional” sample they analyzed was entombed at the time of eruption:

115 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 We envisage that the source tree collapsed into the diatreme at the time of kimberlite emplacement. The great depth of burial suggests that it entered a narrow marginal boundary layer between the blast zone and the wall rock before becoming entombed. We consider the wood to be representative of the Early Eocene forest growing at the site at the time of magmetism. The lack of permineralization suggests that burial was rapid, and that little post-eruptive thermal or tectonic alteration has occurred at the locality.

116 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 Photographs of the wood tissues in the paper show clear cellular tissues at the microscopic level that retain their original material (“unpermineralized”), including tracheids and parenchyma cells. Most surprising was original cellulose, still intact: Cellulose preservation in fossil conifers varies tremendously given the labile nature of constituent polysaccharides, mandating the need for quality control prior to isotopic analysis.… To our knowledge, this is the oldest verified instance of α-cellulose preservation to date, testifying to the remarkable preservation potential of kimberlite-hosted wood. Amber fragments were also found within the wood. How could such delicate features survive a high-temperature eruption?

117 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 Despite the relatively subtle features attributed to thermal alteration noted above, we find little evidence that either the quality of cellulose preservation or the isotopic signatures of the various analyzed fractions have been overprinted. We thus envisage that cooling of the igneous body following emplacement in the diatreme was extremely rapid, potentially near-instantaneous, and surmise that any chemical changes to the entombed organic matter occurred in a closed system.

118 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 From oxygen isotope ratios, they inferred that the forest lived in a much warmer climate with rainfall four times higher than today. “The state of preservation of this wood is unequalled for material of this age, as exemplified by the exquisite quality of anatomical detail and the presence of α-cellulose,” they said, using the word “remarkable” three times in the paper. The crater was dated by the rubidium-strontium isochron method to be 53.3 million years old. Update 9/22/2012: Live Science reported on the discovery. The article includes a photo of the specimen; it looks like a good-size chunk of firewood. The tree lived in a “swampier past” it said, noteworthy for the high latitude today (Northwest Territories); the fragment was found 1,000 m down in the kimberlite pipe.Live Science

119 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 Well, this should raise some eyebrows. Original intact cellulose 53.3 million years old? Here’s another opportunity for skeptics of the Moyboy Club (millions-of-years, billions-of-years) to look critically at this evidence. How long can original cellulose survive intact? You can’t even keep it in your freezer for a century. The problem is not the data, but the story painted over it to make it look ancient, like an antiquing trick. (For reasons why isochron dating methods can produce fictitious results that are meaningless, see the1/12/2005 entry.)1/12/2005 entry

120 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 The millions-of-years riff adds nothing. It’s like waving a magic wand over the observations to hypnotize the reader into thinking the wood must be incredibly ancient. Why? Because Darwin needs the time. Well, Darwin skeptics don’t. Notice how everything else in the story was rapid: explosive eruption, tree falls in that same minute, cools “instantaneously,” — 53 million yearzzzzzzzzz — quick discovery of intact cellulose in 2012.

121 4/27/ Pristine Wood Found in Diamond Crater 原始的木在钻石火山口 The authors didn’t think to look for carbon 14 in the wood, undoubtedly, because they believe (based on their commitment to deep time) that it would be hopeless – all traces of carbon 14 should be long gone. Here’s an experiment someone should undertake. If these scientists got samples, there must be many others. Someone go look for carbon 14. Remember, the Moyboys were wrong before. They thought Metasequoia died out 20 million years ago, only to find them alive and well in China. Now you can buy dawn redwoods at the local nursery. Grow this “living fossil” in your yard as a living lesson in the fallibility of experts.

122 4/27/ Gloria Deo 愿荣耀归上帝


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