Presentation on theme: "Another School Year--- What For? Part I.Warming-up Questions 1.Did you have a good holiday? What did you do during the holiday? 2.Have you had any reflections."— Presentation transcript:
Part I.Warming-up Questions 1.Did you have a good holiday? What did you do during the holiday? 2.Have you had any reflections on your first term college life? What do you think is your most impressive experience in the last semester?
Part II.Background Information William Shakespeare
English playwright and poet whose body of works is considered the greatest in English literature. His plays, many of which were performed at the Globe Theatre in London, include historical works, Shakespeare
such as Richard II, comedies, including Much Ado About Nothing ( 庸人自扰 ), The Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night, and As You Like It, and tragedies, such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear. He also composed 154 sonnets.
The greatest of the ancient Roman poets. His works: “Eclogues” ( 牧歌 )—pastoral poems the “Georgics” ( 田园诗 )—a more serious work on the art of farming and the charms of country life (This established his fame as the foremost poet of his age.) Virgil To be continued on the next page.
his great epic, the “Aeneid” ( 叙事诗 ), which exercised a tremendous influence upon Latin and later Christian literature.
To be continued on the next page. One of the greatest poets in the of world literature, Italian writer history Alighieri Dante composed poetry influenced by classical and Christian tradition. The illustration shows Dante standing in front of the mountain of Purgatory, with hell on his right and heaven on his left. Dante
Dante’s greatest work—epic poem: The Divine Comedy, 1802. It includes three sections: the “Inferno” (Hell), in which the great classical poet Virgil leads Dante on a trip through hell; the “Purgatorio” (Purgatory), in which Virgil leads Dante up the mountain of purification; and the “Paradiso” (Paradise), in which Dante travels through heaven.
Homer, name traditionally assigned to the author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, the two major epics of Greek antiquity. The IliadThe Odyssey Homer
The literary reputation of La Rochefoucauld rests on one book: Maxims, published in 1665. These moral reflections and maxims are a collection of cynical epigrams,or short sayings, about human nature—a nature that the author felt is dominated by self-interest. La Rochefoucauld To be continued on the next page.
“Virtues are lost in self-interest as rivers are lost in the sea.” “The surest way to be deceived is to think oneself cleverer than the others.” We always like those who admire us; we do not always like those whom we admire.”
One of the greatest thinkers of all time, an ancient Greek philosopher. His work in the natural and social sciences greatly influenced virtually every area of modern thinking. To be continued on the next page. Aristotle
Aristotle threw himself wholeheartedly into Plato’s pursuit of truth and goodness. Plato was soon calling him the “mind of the school”. In later years he renounced some of Plato’s theories and went far beyond him in breadth of knowledge.
Bach is considered by many to have been the greatest composer in the history of western music. Bach
Bach's main achievement lies in his synthesis and advanced development of the primary contrapuntal idiom of the late Baroque, and in the basic tunefullness of his thematic material.
Bach is also known for the numerical symbolism and mathematical exactitude which many people have found in his music—for this, he is often regarded as one of the pinnacle geniuses of western civilization.
The Father of the English Language as well as the Morning Star of Song, one of the three or four greatest English poets. Playfulness of mood and simplicity of expression. Most famous work was the Canterbury Tales. Chaucer
Neanderthal Neanderthal The Neanderthal was a species of genus Homo that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (the Middle Paleolithic and Lower Paleolithic, in the Pleistocene epoch).
Neanderthals were adapted to cold, as shown by their larger brains, short but robust builds and large nose. These traits are promoted by natural selection in cold climates, and are also observed in modern sub-arctic populations. Their brains were roughly 10 percent larger than those of modern humans. On average, Neanderthals stood about 1.65m tall and were very muscular, comparable to modern weight- lifters. The end of Neanderthal.
John Ciardi American poet, editor, critic, author of books for children, nonfiction writer, and translator (of Dante’s The Divine Comedy: “The Inferno”, “The Purgatorio”, and “The Paradiso”). Author Author To be continued on the next page.
I. Word Study Word Study II. Phrases and ExpressionsPhrases and Expressions III. Word BuildingWord Building IV. GrammarGrammar Part III.Vocabulary Study
I. Word Study Word list: 1.accomplishmentaccomplishment 2.assumeassume 3.certifycertify 4.exposeexpose 5.facultyfaculty 6. generategenerate 7. neverthelessnevertheless 8. rearrear 9. speciesspecies 10. sufficesuffice
1. accomplishment n. sth. completed successfully; an achievement To be continued on the next page. Examples: a girl of many accomplishments 多才多艺的姑娘 Among her accomplishments were sewing, cooking, playing the piano and dancing. I. Word Study
v. to succeed in doing; to reach the end of Examples: accomplish one’s object 达到目的 accomplish one’s mission 完成使命 He can accomplish more in a day than any other boy in his class. I. Word Study accomplish
2. assume v. a. to take for granted; to suppose b. to take upon oneself n. assumption a. assumptive Examples: They had assumed that prices would rise these days, but in fact they were wrong. assume responsibilities assume another’s debts Word formation I. Word Study
3. certify v. to confirm formally as true, accurate, or genuine Examples: The accounts were certified (as) correct. The accounts were certified (as) correct. He was certified (as) insane. He was certified (as) insane. certified accountant 注册会计师 certified accountant 注册会计师 n. certification a. certified 有书 面证明的，已证 面证明的，已证 实的 实的 Word formation I. Word Study
4. expose v. a. to subject or allow to be subjected to an action or an influence 使受影响 b. to subject (a photographic film, for example) to the action of light 使曝光 c. to make known (sth. discreditable); to reveal (the guilt or wrongdoing of) 揭发（有损信誉的事）；揭露（罪恶或错误的行为） To be continued on the next page. I. Word Study
Examples: The parents exposed their children to classical music at home. This film has been exposed. The crime of the corrupt officials must be exposed without any reserve. I. Word Study
5. faculty To be continued on the next page. n. a. any of the powers of the body or mind b. department or group of related departments in a university c. the whole teaching staff in one of the departments or in the whole university Examples: the faculty of the sight; mental faculties the Faculty of Law The entire faculty of the university will attend the meeting. I. Word Study
cf. staff n. a. group of assistants working together in a business, etc. responsible to a manager or a person in authority b. those people doing administrative work I. Word Study Examples: the hotel staff, the shop staff We need more staff in the office. I have a staff of ten. a head teacher and her staff 校长及全体教工 The school staff are expected to supervise school meals.
n. generation n. generator a. generative Word formation v. to produce as a result of a chemical or physical process 6. generate Examples: a generating station 发电厂，发电站 When coal burns, it generates heat. generative reproduction 有性繁殖 I. Word Study
7. nevertheless adv. in spite of that, however Examples: She was very tired, nevertheless she kept on working. We are going nevertheless we shall return. I. Word Study
8. rear v. a. to care for (children or a child) during the early stages of life; to bring up b. to tend (growing plants or animals) c. to rise high in the air; to tower n. a hind part 后面，后边；后边的部分 Examples: to rear a child to rear poultry to rear a monument to a person’s memory 为 纪念 某人而建立纪念碑 the rear of the hall I. Word Study
9. species n. a fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding Examples: Some species of animals have become extinct because they could not adapt to a changing environment. The Origin of Species 《物种起源》 I. Word Study
v. to meet present needs or requirements 10. suffice Word formation a. sufficient n. sufficiency I. Word Study
List: 1. enroll inenroll in 2. specialize inspecialize in 3. put it…put it… 4. go throughgo through 5. see to it thatsee to it that 6. preside overpreside over 7. be out to do sth.be out to do sth. 8. be on one’s/the way tobe on one’s/the way to 9. The chances are that…The chances are that… 10. in essencein essence 11. make… availablemake… available II. Phrases and Expressions
to place one’s name on a roll or register; to sign up 注册登记，注册、记录某人名字在花名册上；登 记 1. enroll in II. Phrases and Expressions Word formation n. enrollment Example: We enrolled in the army.
to concentrate on a particular activity or product 从事专门活动或销售专业产品 2. specialize in II. Phrases and Expressions Example: The shop specializes in mountain- climbing gear.
to express; to state 表达；陈述 3. put it… II. Phrases and Expressions Examples: to put it another way 换句话说 to put it mildly 说得婉转些 to put it strong 说得刻薄
II. Phrases and Expressions 4. go through a. to examine carefully 仔细检查 b. to experience Examples: John went through the students’ papers. We went through hell while working on this project.
to try to make sure that 5. see to it that II. Phrases and Expressions Example: The parents asked the girl to see to it that her younger brothers behave well at the table.
to be in charge of 6. preside over II. Phrases and Expressions Examples: preside over a meeting 主持会议 preside at tea 招待客人吃茶点 The manager presides over the business of this store. 主持管理业务
to try to do sth. 7. be out to do sth. II. Phrases and Expressions Example: You professor raise your kids your way; I’ll take care of my own. Me, I’m out to make money.
to be in the process of coming, going, or traveling 8. be on one’s/the way to II. Phrases and Expressions Examples: She is on her way out the door. Winter is on the way. You are on your way to being that new species of mechanized savage, the push- button Neanderthal.
It is possible that… 9. The chances are that… II. Phrases and Expressions To be continued on the next page. cf. Examples: The chances are ten to one that the guest team will win. If you have some one on your mind, let her know. Chances are you are on hers as well. There is a chance that I will see him these days. Is there any chance of rain?
II. Phrases and Expressions Examples: It chanced that the train was late that day. Although there is still hope, he is not not willing to chance it. vi. to come about by chance; occur 偶然发生， 出现 vt. to take the risk or hazard of 冒 ······ 的危险 chance
II. Phrases and Expressions by nature; essentially 本质上；实质的 10. in essence Example: In essence, leadership involves accomplishing goals with and through people.
II. Phrases and Expressions 11. make… available to do sth. so that one thing can be used or can easily be bought or found Examples: Dental clinics shall be made available within ten miles of each community. Parking facilities were made available for the disabled. The end of Phrases and Expressions.
III. Word Building List: 1. Suffix –izeSuffix –ize 2. Suffix –fySuffix –fy
III. Word Building a.to cause to be or to become 使成为 b. to cause to conform to or resemble 使 ······ 一致， 使 ······ 相像 c. to treat as 当作 ······ 对待 d. to treat or affect with 对待或影响 dramatize 戏剧化 Hellenize 使希腊化 idolize 偶像崇拜 anesthetize 施以麻醉 e.g. capitalize suffix To be continued on the next page.
III. Word Building e. to subject to 使服从 f. to treat according to or practice the method of 根据 ······ 对待或实施办法 g. to become; become like 成为；变得像 h. to perform, engage in, or produce 完成，从事于， 生产 tyrannize 压制 pasteurize 施行巴氏消毒 materialize 具体化 botanize 采集植物 e.g. e.g. capitalize suffix To be continued on the next page.
III. Word Building capitalize centralize finalize hospitalize idealize naturalize socialize capital (a.) central (a.) final (a.) hospital (n.) ideal (a.) natural (a.) social (a.) suffix— -ize To be continued on the next page.
suffix— -ize III. Word Building apologize civilize fertilize industrialize realize specialize westernize apologetic (a.) civil (a.) fertile (a.) industrial (a.) real (a.) special (a.) western (a.) The end of Suffix -ize.
III. Word Building clarify suffix -fy—to cause to become; to make base (n.) clear (a.) class (n.) intense (a.) just (a.) note (n.) basify 碱化 clarify 澄清 classify 分类 intensify 加强 justify 使正当 notify 通知 To be continued on the next page.
III. Word Building clarify suffix -fy—to cause to become; to make pure (a.) quality (n.) simple (a.) unity (n.) terror (n.) purify 净化 qualify 使具有资 格 simplify 简化 unify 统一 terrify 使恐惧 The end of Word Building.
Text Appreciation I. Text AnalysisText Analysis 1. ThemeTheme 2. StructureStructure 3. DiscussionDiscussion II. Writing DevicesWriting Devices 1. Language Style & ToneLanguage Style & Tone 2. MetaphorMetaphor III. Sentence ParaphraseSentence Paraphrase
I. Text Analysis The author tries to clarify the purpose of a university: to put the students in touch with the best civilization that human race has created. Theme The end of Theme.
Part 1 (Paras. 1— ): Part 2 (Paras. ): I. Text Analysis Structure 8 9—14 The writer describes his encounter with one of his students. The author restates what he still believes to be the purpose of a university: putting its students in touch with the best civilizations the human race has created. The end of Structure.
I. Text Analysis Discussion As a college student, what do you think of the question put forward by the author? Give your own answer to the question, and compare it with the author’s. After finishing reading the whole text, how do you evaluate the author’s answer? To be continued on the next page.
I. Text Analysis To be continued on the next page. Introduction He introduces the topic with his encounter with a student and with two questions: Why should we go to university? Why should we learn literature, arts, philosophy, politics, etc.?. How does the writer present his argument?
Then he proceeds to give evidence to support his view: Evidence A: distinction between technical training and university Evidence B: How to spend the 8 hours of leisure time will decide whether you are capable of penetrating insight, whether you can be democratic, tasteful and above all, whether you can raise a civilized family. To be continued on the next page.
I. Text Analysis Answer/topic sentence: … the business of the college is to put you in touch with what the best human minds have thought. Evidence C: Nobody gets to be a human being unaided, and books can aid us in becoming a civilized human, both in terms of techniques of mankind, and in terms of spiritual resources.
Conclusion Reiteration and summary: the function of university and its faculty. The end of Discussion.
II. Writing Devices Language Style & Tone The end of Language Style & Tone. Style: Colloquial, familiar style Tone: Humorous and mildly sarcastic By way of using direct speech By way of using metaphors
II. Writing Devices Metaphor Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison. Part of the student body was a beanpole with hair on top who came into my class, sat down… (Para. 1) New as I was to the faculty, I could have told this specimen a number of things. (Para. 2) That is about what I said, but this particular pest was not interested. (Para. 7) The end of Metaphor.
III. Sentence Paraphrase 1 … I was fresh out of graduate school starting my first semester at the University of Kansas City. (Para. 1) … I had just completed my graduate studies and began teaching at the University of Kansas City. go to 2 to have just come from a particular place, to have just had a particular experience, e.g. students fresh from college
III. Sentence Paraphrase 2 I could have pointed out that he had enrolled, not in a drugstore-mechanics school, but in a college and that at the end of his course meant to reach for a scroll that read Bachelor of Science. (Para. 2) Subjunctive mood: I didn’t point it out in fact. go to 3 I could have told him that he was now not getting training for a job in a technical school but doing a B.Sc. at a university. to intend to do sth. to indicate, register, or show
III. Sentence Paraphrase 3 Here the word education is used in a broad sense, which involves not only the process of acquiring knowledge and developing skills, but also that of improving the mind. go to 4 That is to say, he had not entered a technical training school but a university and in universities students enroll for both training and education. (Para. 2) What is the difference between training and education, according to the writer? Training is preparation for a job, or a career, such as the training in a certain skill. Education, on the other hand, is learning to develop one’s mental and moral powers.
III. Sentence Paraphrase 4 “For the rest of your life,” I said, “your days are going to average out to about twenty-four hours.” (Para. 4) to come to an average or ordinary level or standard, esp. after being higher or lower More examples: Meals at the university average out to about 10 yuan per day. The restaurant’s monthly profits averaged out at 30% last year. go to 5
III. Sentence Paraphrase 5 You will see to it that the cyanide stays out of the aspirin, that the bull doesn’t jump the fence, or that your client doesn’t go to the electric chair as a result of your incompetence. (Para. 5) go to 6 You have to take responsibility for the work you do. If you’re a pharmacist, you should make sure that aspirin is not mixed with poisonous chemicals. As an engineer, you shouldn’t get things out of control. If you become a lawyer, you should make sure an innocent person is not sentenced to death because you lack adequate legal knowledge and skill to defend your client.
III. Sentence Paraphrase 6 In addition to all other things these professions offer, they provide you with a living so that you can support a family—wife and children. Noun clause, used as predicative go to 7 Along with everything else, they will probably be what puts food on your table, supports your wife, and rears your children. (Para. 5)
III. Sentence Paraphrase 7 I hope that your income will always be enough. go to 8 They will be your income, and may it always suffice. (Para. 5) Inverted sentence, used in a blessing. e.g. May they live long!
III. Sentence Paraphrase 8 go to 9 “I hope you make a lot of it, ” I told him, “because you’re going to be badly stuck for something to do when you’re not signing checks.” (Para. 8) Notice the sarcastic tone of the writer. If you don’t have any goal in life apart from making money to satisfy your desire for material riches, go ahead and make a lot of it. not to know what to do in a particular situation
III. Sentence Paraphrase 9 More examples: You’ve no business telling me what to do. She has no business reading your mail. go to 10 If you have no time for Shakespeare, for a basic look at philosophy, for the continuity of the fine arts, for that lesson of man’s development we call history—then you have no business being in college. (Para. 9) to have no right to do sth., shouldn’t have been/be doing sth.
III. Sentence Paraphrase 10 If you are too anxious to make money, too ignorant to see your limitations, then you couldn’t regard those great people’s minds as a gift to your humanity, and thus you can’t be a developed human. go to 11 If you are too much in a hurry, or too arrogantly proud of your own limitations, to accept as a gift to your humanity some pieces of the minds of Aristotle, or Chaucer, or Einstein, you are neither a developed human nor a useful citizen of a democracy. (Para. 12) “too… to…” structure object of the verb “accept”
III. Sentence Paraphrase 11 … when I say that a university has no real existence and no real purpose except as it succeeds in putting you in touch, both as specialists and as humans, with those human minds your human mind needs to include. (Para. 14) “except” used as a conjunctive, introducing an adverbial clause The end of Sentence Paraphrase. both as specialists and as humans: as persons who have specialized and are trained in a certain subject or skill and as civilized creatures and thinking animals
Exercise I.Oral Work Oral Work II. Quiz Quiz III. Writing
I. Oral Work Group discussion What is your opinion of the author’s point of view in the text? Do you agree? How do you view the fact that some people can also succeed without much higher education? Do you think there is a big difference between an educated success and an uneducated success? The end of Oral Work.
II. Quiz List 1. Quiz 1Quiz 1 2. Quiz 2Quiz 2 3. Quiz 3Quiz 3
be exposed to sth.to be in charge see to it thatapproximately go throughto make sure that more or lessto be quickly excreted preside over to be given experience of it average outto come to an average or ordinary level or standard The end of Quiz 1. Match the phrases with their corresponding explanations. II. Quiz 1
II. Quiz 2 1. She _____ useful knowledge of the English by careful study. A. acquired B. gained C. sacrificed D. earned 2. Their ____ that their project under way was something entirely new proved to be untrue. A. belief B. assumption C. faith D. suggestion A B To be continued on the next page.
A D To be continued on the next page. 3. The class has a/an ____ of 27 students. A. enrollment B. register C. staff D. record 4. Fifty dollars will ____ for my needs. A. fill B. satisfy C. content D. suffice II. Quiz 2
C A To be continued on the next page. 5. They had a/an ____ agreement not to raise the touchy subject. A. obvious B. complacent C. implicit D. explicit 6. The lecture provided ____ insight into foreign affairs. A. penetrating B. pendular C. pensive D. penal II. Quiz 2
A D To be continued on the next page. 7. The popularity of the film shows that the reviewers’ fears were completely _____. A. unjustified B. unjust C. misguided D. unaccepted 8. The head of the museum was _____and let us actually examine the ancient manuscripts. A. promising B. agreeing C. pleasing D. obliging II. Quiz 2
9. North American fur trade ___ in the early 1800’s mainly due to the diminishing number of fur-bearing animals. A. ceased B. staggered C. waned D. collapsed 10. The place did not seem to be popular, for it was completely deserted, and in any case _____ to traffic. A. inaccessibleB. inadequate C. insignificantD. incompatible C A To be continued on the next page. II. Quiz 2
11. Mary hopes to be ___ from hospital next week. A. dismissedB. discharged C. expelledD. resigned 12. Once a picture is proved to be a forgery, it becomes quite ___. A. invaluableB. priceless C. unworthyD. worthless B D To be continued on the next page. II. Quiz 2
13. We have been hearing ______ accounts of your work. A. favoured B. favourable C. favoriteD. favouring 14. Drive straight ahead, and then you will see a ___ to the Shanghai-Nanjing Expressway. A. sign B. mark C. signal D. board B A To be continued on the next page. II. Quiz 2
15. A well-written composition ____ good choice of words and clear organization among other things. A. calls forB. calls on C. calls upD. calls off 16. It’s a mistake to think of Florida only __ its tourist attractions. A. by means ofB. in terms of C. in connection withD. by way of A B To be continued on the next page. II. Quiz 2
17. As it turned out to be a small house party, we ___ so formally. A. need not have dressed up B. must not have dressed up C. did not need to dress up D. must not dress up 18. I’d just as soon ___ to me. A. that you won’t listen B. you didn’t listen C. your not listening D. you not listening A B To be continued on the next page. II. Quiz 2
19.Windstorms have recently established a record which meteorologists hope will not be equaled for many years ___. A. that will come B. that are coming C. to comeD. coming 20. He said it was impossible for ___ a mistake in a computer’s calculation, so we can rely on that. A. there beingB. there would be C. there to beD. there was C C The end of Quiz 2. II. Quiz 2
1. A degree in English does not ______ you to teach English. (quality) 2. You must realize that it is _________ that has cramped your progress. (arrogant) 3. The hostess bustled about with an __________ of authority. (assume) 4. After the election, the coalition __________. (fragment) II. Quiz 3 qualify arrogance assumption fragmented Fill in the blanks with the proper form of the given words. To be continued on the next page.
5. The man has ________ income for a comfortable retirement. (suffice) 6. He __________ when he saw the dead animal. (shudder) 7. I am ________ that a good deal more is still to be done. (sense) 8. He nearly died of ________ on the cold mountain. (expose) II. Quiz 3 sufficient shuddered Fill in the blanks with the proper form of the given words. The end of Quiz 3. sensible exposure
III. Writing What enlightenment have you got from this text? (In about 130 words) The end of Writing.
Extensive reading Excerpt from John Henry Newman's The Idea of a University (1852):
If then a practical end must be assigned to a University course, I say it is that of training good members of society. Its art is the art of social life, and its end is fitness for the world. It neither confines its views to particular professions on one hand, nor creates heroes or inspires genius on the other
Works indeed of genius fall under no art; heroic minds come under no rule; a University is not a birthplace of poets or of immortal authors, of founders of schools, leaders of colonies, or conquerors of nations. It does not promise a generation of Aristotles or Newtons, of Napoleons or Washingtons, of Raphaels or Shakespeares
though such miracles it has before now contained within its precincts. Nor is it content on the other hand with forming the critic or the experimentalist, the economist or the engineer, although such too it includes within its scope.
But a university training is the great ordinary means to a great but ordinary end; it aims at raising the intellectual tone of society, at cultivating the public mind, at purifying the national taste, at supplying true principles to popular enthusiasm and fixed aims to popular aspiration, at giving enlargement and sobriety to the ideas of the age, at facilitating the exercise of political power, and refining the intercourse of private life.
It is the education which gives a [person] a clear, conscious view of their own opinions and judgements, a truth in developing them, an eloquence in expressing them, and a force in urging them. Taken from John Henry Newman's The Idea of a University (1852).