9Buddhism Started in India in 500 BC First came into China in the Period of Disunion“State of Peace”Chinese introduced Buddhism to Japan and KoreaAge of Buddhism
10China Growing…During the Tang and Song Dynasties China made many advancements
11Song Dynasty Advancements Agriculture advancements:Irrigation techniquesUnderground wellsTool: Dragon backbone pumpAmount of land that was farmed increasedFast ripening riceMore food, means more people China’s Population grew from 60 million to 100 million people
13Tang Dynasty Advancements Capitol was Chang’anThis capitol had people from China, Korea, Persia, Arabia and EuropeThe population was 1 millionArtists and PoetsWu Daozi- MuralistLi Bo and Du Fu- Poets Li Qingzhao- female poet
14Tang and Song Dynasties Grew… This helped trade growThe Grand Cannel started by the Sui Dynasty helped move goodsChinese traded with India, South East Asia, Japan and KoreaChinese Exported and Imported many things for trading
27Confucianism Based on teaching by Confucius Confucius teachings focused on Ethics and Proper BehaviorLived should focus on two principalsRen – Concern for otherLi- Appropriate behavior
28Neo-ConfucianismThe Tang Dynasty wanted to improve there government and societyNeo Confucian scholars discussed issues such as what makes human beings do bad things even if their basic nature of goodNeo-Confucianism also incorporated spiritual matters
29BureaucracySong Dynasty-Major part of the stability of this governmentBureaucracy – a body of unelected government officialsTo become part of the government officials you had to pass a test on Confucianism and the test was long!When you passed the test you became part of the civil service of the government and a scholar official.This process was open to everyone as long as you could pass the test.
30Yuan Dynasty The Nomadic people from the North were called Mongols In 1206 AD the Mongols United under Genhis Khan “Universal Ruler”Genghis Khan lead the first armies into North China in 1211By 1227 He controlled most of China-But he DiedThen His son took overThen his Grandson Kublai Khan in 1260 AD and in 1279 declared himself the emperor of China1279 was the start of Yuan Dynasty
31Yuan DynastyChinese did not like being controlled by the Mongols, they were not ChineseKublai Khan tried to be nice and adopt ConfucianismBut then he also felt like taxing the peopleThe Yuan Dynasty extended the grand canal and built new roads and palacesThe capitol was DaduA famous trader traded with China from Marco Polo
32Yuan DynastyThe Mongols wanted more land and so they decided to expand to JapanBut Japan fought them off and their army weakenedSo Zhu Yuanzhang led his army against the Mongols and won. Now China would once again be ruled by the Chinese
33Ming DynastyZhu Yuanzhang defeated the Mongols and became emperor of chinaThe Ming dynasty improved ships and sailing: A famous sailor was Zheng HeZheng He brought back exotic animals from Africa and showed other countries how powerful the Chinese were
34Ming DynastyIn Beijing the Ming Dynasty built the Forbidden City and common people could not enter. This was a symbol of china's gloryThe Ming Dynasty also started to restore the Great Wall from the Mongol invasion. The Great Wall is 2000 miles long. That is from San Diego to New York. People started to feel safe now from the Mongols.
35Ming DynastyThe Ming wanted to eliminate all foreign influences in ChinaChina then entered a period of Isolationism. They avoided contact with other countries
38AnthemConfucius was born here and lived during the Zhou dynasty.
39Confucianism stressed the importance of education
40Scholar-OfficialsTypical responsibilities might include running government offices; maintaining roads, irrigation systems, and other public works; updating and maintaining official records; or collecting taxes.
41Filial piety basically describes the correct way to act towards one's parents. Filial piety consists of several factors; the main ideas include loving one's parents, being respectful, polite, considerate, loyal, helpful, dutiful, and obedient.
42Confucianism Respect for family, elders & ancestors. Logic and learning are very important.Become better by studying or by serving the government.
43Answer the following as if you are Confucius What are you known for you and what is your original name?I am the founder of Confucianism and I was first called Kong Fu Zi.How can one achieve harmony with in a family?By being loyal courteous, honest faithful and obedient to those who are in authority.
49The Tao of PoohWinnie the Pooh is an example of a Taoist. (seriously!)He goes through life without worrying too much or making things too hard.Because of that, he is almost always happy!
50"Pooh hasn't much Brain, but he never comes to any harm "Pooh hasn't much Brain, but he never comes to any harm. He does silly things and they turn out right." - Piglet
51Taoism All about making life simple and easy. Avoid conflict of all kinds.Desires are to be avoided as well.Teaches that simply viewing things properly will make you happier.
52Answer the following as if you are LaoziWhat is the only way for Modern America to live peacefully?By living simply, in harmony with nature, by “living green” in a self sustainable economy.What is the main cause of our economic crisis?America has strived for fame and power which will lead to the downfall of any economy.
58Buddhism Desire is the root of unhappiness. Suffering is a normal part of life.All life is to be respected.Respect the rights of other people.
59Questions for The Buddha Answer the following as if you were the Buddha:What is your original name,where are you from and how old were you when you died?My name was Siddhartha Gautama and I lived in India until I was eighty years oldWhat does the Buddha mean?Enlightened one
61“Like a spider caught in its own web is a person driven by fierce cravings. Break out of the web, and turn away from the world of sensory pleasure and sorrow.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
62“If a ruler himself is upright (honest), all will go well without orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders they will not be obeyed.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
63“Highest good is like water “Highest good is like water. Because water excels in benefiting the myriad creatures without contending with them and settles where none would like to be, it comes close to the Way.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
64“The mind is flighty, and hard to grasp; the mind pursues all it desires. To tame the mind is great goodness. Subdue the mind and know tranquility.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
65“The more laws and edicts (official rules) are imposed, the more thieves and bandits there will be.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
66“Be respectful at home, serious at work, faithful in human relations “Be respectful at home, serious at work, faithful in human relations. Even if you go to uncivilized areas, these virtues (good qualities) are not to be abandoned.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
67“Seeing that our body, with hair and skin, is derived from our parents, we should not allow it to be injured in any way. This is the beginning of filial respect. We develop our own character and practice the way so as to perpetuate our name for future generations, and to bring honor to our parents.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
68“Life is a journey, death is a return to the earth, the universe is like an inn, the passing years are like dust.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
69“The sage, because he does nothing, never ruins anything; and, because he does not lay hold of anything, loses nothing.”In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement?Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?
87The Silk Road, Trade Routes, and Famous Explorers
88China ReunitesAfter the Han Dynasty fell in 220, for the next 300 years, China fell into disorder. Wars between small kingdoms and poverty were rampant. Mongols attacked the Great Wall and tore parts of it down. Finally in 581, a general named Wendi, or Wen for short, was strong enough to reunite China by force. This would usher in the next three dynasties: Sui, Tang, and Song.
91Background on Dynasties During the Tang Dynasty, China reached a new height in wealth and power. This was mainly due to a trade boon that brought higher levels of trade then ever before. After centuries of attacks by Mongols and roaming bandits, the Silk Road was once again busy with travelers.
97Terms to KnowDynasty = A ruling family that controls a country for generationsSilk Road = ancient caravan route across Asia, which traders carried silk and other goods to Europe
98Growth under the Tang Dynasty Trade reached new height on Silk Road after years of disorderCommon items traded:Silk, tea, steel, Why??Coal = better at heating then woodStatue of Buddha from the Tang Dynasty
99Growth under Song Dynasty Paintings; landscapes on silk most commonHighly crafted Porcelain = high demand in EuropeNew forms of poetry spread; dealt with nature, joy of lifePaper money is used, 1st timeMongols end it (1279,) start their own dynastyLand in Red that China controlled during the Song Dynasty
101Explorer #1 Zheng He ( )The leader of overseas trade during the Ming DynastyTraded silk, paper, and porcelain with Europe, India, Arabia, Africa1st to spread European and Arabic culture since Marco PoloThis guy would even trade goods for giraffes, elephants and other animals for the Emperor’s zoo.
103Explorer #2 – Marco Polo Most famous to travel the Silk Road An Italian from Venice, ItalyImportance: Very few Europeans were allowed to travel as freely in China.Chinese thought most Europeans were barbarians; no trustWhy was this European allowed to travel in China when others couldn’t?
104Book Questions pgs1) What actions did the Sui Dynasty take in order to strengthen China’s economy?2) What caused the fall of the Sui Dynasty?3) What was the major problem during the Song Dynasty? (960 – 1279) How did they try to solve it?
106Terms to KnowMeritocracy = a system where you get a job based on your ability, not wealthCivil Service Exams = very hard test given to determine your ability for a government jobScholar officials = social class which grew from those who passed the exams
107Chinese Social Pyramid: Place the following social classes in order, top to bottom LandlordsCraftsmen/MerchantsEmperorPeasantsScholar Officials (new)
108Development of the Scholar Official Class Highly used during Tang and Song dynastiesOnce passed, you were rewarded with jobs in government (poets, teachers, police, led Confucian ceremonies, etc.)Those that passed would become part of the wealthy scholar-officials classImportance: Created a meritocracy; encouraged education in all classes.
109The Three Belief Systems of China BuddhismConfucianism
110Buddhism: BackgroundBuddhism is one of the major religions of the world today. It was founded in India around 500 B.C. by Siddartha Gautama, aka “The Buddha.” At various times, Buddhism has been a dominant religious, cultural, and social force in most of Asia. In each area, Buddhism has combined with elements of other religions, such as Hinduism and Shinto. Today, Buddhism has about 350 million followers. Most live in Sri Lanka, the mainland nations of Southeast Asia, and Japan.
111Buddhism Terms to KnowReincarnation = Idea that when a person dies, their soul is reborn in a new body. Importance: your soul never dies.Siddartha Gautama = Buddha’s real name, ( B.C.)Nirvana = a state of perfect peace, desiring nothing
112Buddhism - FoundingsQ: Buddhism was founded in India. How did it get from India to China?A: Monks brought his ideas to China around 200 AD using the Silk Road
113Goal of Buddhist Monks = Bring everyone to enlightenment
114Buddha’s Teachings: The Four Noble Truths How do they support each other?#1. Life is suffering and pain#2. Suffering and pain are caused by desire for wealth, pleasure, fame, and power.#3. End suffering by overcoming desire.#4. To overcome desire, one must follow the “8 Fold Path” (Middle Way)...
115…The Middle Way – How to be a good Buddhist: My pain and suffering will be over when I quit running!Morally excellent conduct2. Compassion for all living things3. Calmness and purity of mind.
116for life and government ConfucianismMain Focus =Practical philosophyfor life and government
117Confucianism: Background Confucianism is a philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. From the 100's B.C. to the A.D. 1900's, Confucianism was the most important single force in Chinese life. It influenced Chinese education, government, and personal behavior and the individual's duty to society.Many people consider Confucianism a religion. But Confucianism has no clergy and does not teach about God, or the existence of an afterlife. Confucianism can more accurately be considered a guide to morality and good government.
118Confucianism - Terms to know Confucius = Founder ( B.C.)“Golden Rule” = “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others”Main beliefs = respect for elders, education, commitment to government service
119Confucius’ 5 Most Important Relationships… 1. Ruler and subject2. Parent and child3. Husband and wife4. Sibling and sibling5. Friend and friendRelationships have to be: loyal, courteous, honest, faithful, and respectful to authority.How are these relationships important for maintaining a society?
120Four Noble Truths Middle Way BuddhismConfucianismChristianityMore like a philosophyIs it a religion?YesYesBelief in BuddhaBelief in God?Yes, one GodNot taughtNo, but his writ-ings are called Five ClassicsHoly book?Yes, the DharmaYes, BibleFour Noble Truths Middle WayCreating a moral societyGod; Teachings of Jesus ChristFocus?How many today?350 millionOver 5 millionOver 2 billionLife after death?Yes, reincarnationNoNot on Earth
121The Chinese Empire Review Chapter 7 The crane is the most popular bird in Chinese history and is a symbol of longevity
134Tang Geography (map p. 167) China grew under Tang Dynasty It included eastern Asia and central Asia.
135Tang (continued)It is called “The Golden Age of China”Why?
136Three Important Tang Rulers 1.Taizong p. 167Helped unified China through1. Programs2. Reformed military3. Created new laws codes4. Created land reform policy called equal field system,
137Tang Rulers (con’t)2. Xuan-zong P. 167 was another great ruler. During his reign1. culture flourished2. many fine poets wrote during his reign.
138Tang Rulers (con’t)3. Empress Wu p was another Tang ruler in 655.1. Only woman to rule China.2. She was vicious but intelligent and talented.3. She brought stability and prosperity to China.
139Tang Religion BUDDHISM Buddhism grew until a Tang emperor launched a campaign against the religion. He burned many Buddhist texts and destroyed many temples, but he did not destroy Buddhism completely.
140Tang Religion continued Buddhism changed when it blended with two other philosophies:1. Confucianism-to improve Chinese government and society.2. Daoism
141Tang Economy Economy was GREAT! Advances in agriculture. FOOD surpluses helped trade and population.Cities grew.China became very rich!
142Tang Culture/Arts & Inventions Porcelain -first made during Tang Dynasty.Woodblock printing was invented during Tang. Printers could copy drawings or texts quickly.Gunpowder was invented during late Tang for fireworks.Magnetic compass was improved by the Tang.
143Tang Culture/Art (con’t) The artists and writers of the Tang Dynasty were some of the greatest in China.Wu Daozi painted murals.Li Bo and Du Fu wrote poems.Tang artists made clay figures of horses.
144Tang Culture-Foot Binding In the Tang dynasty they practiced foot binding. Foot binding was first practiced among the elite and only in the wealthiest parts of China. Foot binding showed others that these well-born girls were free from manual labor and had husbands who could afford wives who did not need to work. This practice was banned in China in 1912.
147Song Dynasty p. 168(319 years!)China again reunified.
148SongThis was a period of great accomplishments!
149Song Economy Agriculture helped the economy During the Song farming reached new heights.Improvements in irrigation (called the dragon backbone pump) allowed one person to do the work of several.Fast-ripening rice allowed farmers to grow 2-3 crops in the time of one.
150Song Economy (continued) Crops were introduced:1. Cotton2. TeaEXTENSIVE TRADE BROUGHT WEALTH DURING THE SONG!
151Song BankingChinese financial institutions were conducting all major banking functions, including accepting deposits, making loans, and exchanging money by the Song Dynasty ( ).
153Song Economy (con’t) Food surpluses helped the government. Food was abundant.Population increased.Cities grew.During the Song, China was the largestCountry in the world.
154Song Religion NEO-CONFUCIANISM The ideas of Confucius had a dramatic effect on the Song system of government.Ideas:1. Ethics2. Proper behavior
155SONG NEO-CONFUCIANISM 1.Government workers worked in a bureaucracy or group of unelected officials.2. To join the bureaucracy, you had to pass a civil service test.Students spent years studying for the tests. Those who passed were Scholar-Officials or elite members of society.
156Song Culture/Inventions MOVABLE TYPEInventors of the Song created movable type which made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages.PAPER MONEY-The world’s first paper money was invented during th Song to manage their money wealth.
157Song Culture/Inventions MOVABLE TYPEInventors of the Song created movable type which made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages.PAPER MONEY-The world’s first paper money was invented during th Song to manage their money wealth.
158Song Culture/ArtThe Song period was noted for literature. Li Qingzhao was China’s greatest female poet.The Song artists also made porcelain items.
160YUAN-Mongol Rule Genghis Khan led bloody expeditions to conquer Asia. Kublai Khan, his grandson, declared himself the emperor of China in 1279.This was the first time China was ruled by foreigners
161Marco PoloMarco Polo, an Italian merchant, wrote a lot about the Yuan Dynasty and served in Kublai Khan’s court.
162Yuan Culture Mongols spoke a different language. Mongols wore different clothing.Mongols worshiped different gods.Mongols had different customs.Kublai didn’t force the Chinese to accept Mongol ways, but some Mongols adopted some Chinese ways such as Confucianism.
163Yuan EconomyMongols disrupted many of the great things from the Tang/Song.Mongols kept control of the Chinese and made them pay taxes.Tax money paid for extending the Grand Canal, new roads, and palaces.Sea trade was good between China, India, and Southeast Asia.
164Fall of the YuanThe Yuan Dynasty fell when they invaded Japan. Violent storms destroyed the forces and weakened their military.The expensive public works projects also weakened the economy and caused rebellion.
165Fall of the Yuan (con’t) The final fall came when a former monk, Zhu Yuanzhang, led an army to a final victory over the Mongols. China then got back into the rule of the Chinese.
170Ming Economy At first was stable and prosperous Trade and sea voyages made the economy prosperous.Trade increased until the end of the Dynasty when trade was stopped and isolation began.
171Ming Culture/Arts & Inventions Great ships some longer than a football field.Grand building projects:1. Forbidden City in Beijing with 9,000 rooms.2. Restored the Great Wall of China.
172Ming Great Wall of China Most of the Great Wall that we see today was built or rebuilt during the Ming DynastySoldiers and guards would send signals from the wall.Many people died building the wall (perhaps up to 8 million).