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CHINA Disunion Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty

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1 CHINA Disunion 220-589 Sui Dynasty 589-618 Tang Dynasty 618-918
5 Dynasties 10 Kingdoms Song Dynasty

2 DISUNION What does disunion mean?

3 Period of Disunion 220-589 AD Han Empire Collapsed
Nomadic people settled in the North Nomadic and Chinese culture mixed Nomadic people started to rule to North

4 Sui Dynasty In 589 the Nomadic North Ruler conquered the South and built the Sui Dynasty Famous for the Grand Cannel that linked the North and South

5 Tang Dynasty The people of the Sui Dynasty over threw the government and built the Tang Dynasty “Golden Age of Chinese civilization”

6 Tang Dynasty Rulers: Empress Wu Xuanzong Taizong:
Intelligent and talented Xuanzong Poets Taizong: Equal field system Military Law codes

7 5 dynasties and 10 Kingdoms

8 Song Dynasty

9 Buddhism Started in India in 500 BC
First came into China in the Period of Disunion “State of Peace” Chinese introduced Buddhism to Japan and Korea Age of Buddhism

10 China Growing… During the Tang and Song Dynasties China made many advancements

11 Song Dynasty Advancements
Agriculture advancements: Irrigation techniques Underground wells Tool: Dragon backbone pump Amount of land that was farmed increased Fast ripening rice More food, means more people China’s Population grew from 60 million to 100 million people

12 Song Dynasty Capitol was Kaifeng

13 Tang Dynasty Advancements
Capitol was Chang’an This capitol had people from China, Korea, Persia, Arabia and Europe The population was 1 million Artists and Poets Wu Daozi- Muralist Li Bo and Du Fu- Poets Li Qingzhao- female poet

14 Tang and Song Dynasties Grew…
This helped trade grow The Grand Cannel started by the Sui Dynasty helped move goods Chinese traded with India, South East Asia, Japan and Korea Chinese Exported and Imported many things for trading

15 Chinese Exported Tea Rice Silk Spices Jade Porcelain***

16 Chinese imported Wool Plants Glass Gold Silver

17 Chinese Inventions Paper Porcelain Woodblock printing Gunpowder
Movable type Paper money Magnetic compass

18 Inventions Paper 105 AD –Han Dynasty
Paper was one of the greatest of all Chinese inventions. It gave Chinese a cheap and easy way of keeping records and made printing possible.

19 Inventions Porcelain Tang Dynasty
Chinese artists were famous for their work with the fragile material

20 Inventions Woodblock printing Tang Dynasty
The Chinese had this printing before Europe. Printers could copy drawings or text quickly, much faster than it could be copied by hand

21 Inventions Gunpowder Tang or early Song dynasty
Gunpowder was used to make fireworks and signals. The Chinese did not generally use it as a weapon

22 Inventions Movable type Song Dynasty
Made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages

23 Inventions Magnetic Compass Han Period
The compass was a greatly improved by the Tang Dynasty. The new compass allowed sailors and merchants to travel vast distances

24 Inventions Paper Money Song Dynasty
Lighter and easier to handle than coins, paper money helped the Chinese manage their growing wealth

25 Buddhism vs. Confucianism
Confucianism –stressed ethical behavior Buddhism- stressed spiritual outlook that promised escape from suffering

26 Chinese Government Confucianism Neo- Confucianism Bureaucracy

27 Confucianism Based on teaching by Confucius
Confucius teachings focused on Ethics and Proper Behavior Lived should focus on two principals Ren – Concern for other Li- Appropriate behavior

28 Neo-Confucianism The Tang Dynasty wanted to improve there government and society Neo Confucian scholars discussed issues such as what makes human beings do bad things even if their basic nature of good Neo-Confucianism also incorporated spiritual matters

29 Bureaucracy Song Dynasty-Major part of the stability of this government Bureaucracy – a body of unelected government officials To become part of the government officials you had to pass a test on Confucianism and the test was long! When you passed the test you became part of the civil service of the government and a scholar official. This process was open to everyone as long as you could pass the test.

30 Yuan Dynasty The Nomadic people from the North were called Mongols
In 1206 AD the Mongols United under Genhis Khan “Universal Ruler” Genghis Khan lead the first armies into North China in 1211 By 1227 He controlled most of China-But he Died Then His son took over Then his Grandson Kublai Khan in 1260 AD and in 1279 declared himself the emperor of China 1279 was the start of Yuan Dynasty

31 Yuan Dynasty Chinese did not like being controlled by the Mongols, they were not Chinese Kublai Khan tried to be nice and adopt Confucianism But then he also felt like taxing the people The Yuan Dynasty extended the grand canal and built new roads and palaces The capitol was Dadu A famous trader traded with China from Marco Polo

32 Yuan Dynasty The Mongols wanted more land and so they decided to expand to Japan But Japan fought them off and their army weakened So Zhu Yuanzhang led his army against the Mongols and won. Now China would once again be ruled by the Chinese

33 Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang defeated the Mongols and became emperor of china The Ming dynasty improved ships and sailing: A famous sailor was Zheng He Zheng He brought back exotic animals from Africa and showed other countries how powerful the Chinese were

34 Ming Dynasty In Beijing the Ming Dynasty built the Forbidden City and common people could not enter. This was a symbol of china's glory The Ming Dynasty also started to restore the Great Wall from the Mongol invasion. The Great Wall is 2000 miles long. That is from San Diego to New York. People started to feel safe now from the Mongols.

35 Ming Dynasty The Ming wanted to eliminate all foreign influences in China China then entered a period of Isolationism. They avoided contact with other countries

36 3 Ways of Thought Confucianism Taoism Buddhism

37 Confucius

38 Anthem Confucius was born here and lived during the Zhou dynasty.

39 Confucianism stressed the importance of education

40 Scholar-Officials Typical responsibilities might include running government offices; maintaining roads, irrigation systems, and other public works; updating and maintaining official records; or collecting taxes.

41 Filial piety basically describes the correct way to act towards one's parents. Filial piety consists of several factors; the main ideas include loving one's parents, being respectful, polite, considerate, loyal, helpful, dutiful, and obedient.

42 Confucianism Respect for family, elders & ancestors.
Logic and learning are very important. Become better by studying or by serving the government.

43 Answer the following as if you are Confucius
What are you known for you and what is your original name? I am the founder of Confucianism and I was first called Kong Fu Zi. How can one achieve harmony with in a family? By being loyal courteous, honest faithful and obedient to those who are in authority.

44 Laozi





49 The Tao of Pooh Winnie the Pooh is an example of a Taoist. (seriously!) He goes through life without worrying too much or making things too hard. Because of that, he is almost always happy!

50 "Pooh hasn't much Brain, but he never comes to any harm
"Pooh hasn't much Brain, but he never comes to any harm. He does silly things and they turn out right." - Piglet

51 Taoism All about making life simple and easy.
Avoid conflict of all kinds. Desires are to be avoided as well. Teaches that simply viewing things properly will make you happier.

52 Answer the following as if you
are Laozi What is the only way for Modern America to live peacefully? By living simply, in harmony with nature, by “living green” in a self sustainable economy. What is the main cause of our economic crisis? America has strived for fame and power which will lead to the downfall of any economy.

53 Buddha





58 Buddhism Desire is the root of unhappiness.
Suffering is a normal part of life. All life is to be respected. Respect the rights of other people.

59 Questions for The Buddha
Answer the following as if you were the Buddha: What is your original name,where are you from and how old were you when you died? My name was Siddhartha Gautama and I lived in India until I was eighty years old What does the Buddha mean? Enlightened one

60 Who said it?

61 “Like a spider caught in its own web is a person driven by fierce cravings. Break out of the web, and turn away from the world of sensory pleasure and sorrow.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

62 “If a ruler himself is upright (honest), all will go well without orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders they will not be obeyed.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

63 “Highest good is like water
“Highest good is like water. Because water excels in benefiting the myriad creatures without contending with them and settles where none would like to be, it comes close to the Way.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

64 “The mind is flighty, and hard to grasp; the mind pursues all it desires. To tame the mind is great goodness. Subdue the mind and know tranquility.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

65 “The more laws and edicts (official rules) are imposed, the more thieves and bandits there will be.”
In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

66 “Be respectful at home, serious at work, faithful in human relations
“Be respectful at home, serious at work, faithful in human relations. Even if you go to uncivilized areas, these virtues (good qualities) are not to be abandoned.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

67 “Seeing that our body, with hair and skin, is derived from our parents, we should not allow it to be injured in any way. This is the beginning of filial respect. We develop our own character and practice the way so as to perpetuate our name for future generations, and to bring honor to our parents.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

68 “Life is a journey, death is a return to the earth, the universe is like an inn, the passing years are like dust.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

69 “The sage, because he does nothing, never ruins anything; and, because he does not lay hold of anything, loses nothing.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

70 Geography of China

71 Russia

72 India

73 Yellow River

74 Yangtze River

75 Hong Kong

76 Himalayan Mountains and Mt. Everest

77 Gobi Desert

78 Yellow Sea

79 Plateau of Tibet

80 Beijing

81 East and South China Sea
2 answers East and South China Sea

82 Taklimakan Desert

83 Mongolia

84 Shanghai

85 Great Wall of China


87 The Silk Road, Trade Routes,
and Famous Explorers

88 China Reunites After the Han Dynasty fell in 220, for the next 300 years, China fell into disorder. Wars between small kingdoms and poverty were rampant. Mongols attacked the Great Wall and tore parts of it down. Finally in 581, a general named Wendi, or Wen for short, was strong enough to reunite China by force. This would usher in the next three dynasties: Sui, Tang, and Song.

89 Dynasties to Focus On...

90 Our area of focus

91 Background on Dynasties
During the Tang Dynasty, China reached a new height in wealth and power. This was mainly due to a trade boon that brought higher levels of trade then ever before. After centuries of attacks by Mongols and roaming bandits, the Silk Road was once again busy with travelers.


93 Silk was only one of several items to be traded on the Silk Road during these dynasties.

94 Most of the Silk Road travels through rough climates…
Travel companies today offer vacations traveling the Silk Road on camelback.

95 Many clothes are made out of silk today, most still come from China

96 Tang and Song Dynasties:
Chinese Society Blooms

97 Terms to Know Dynasty = A ruling family that controls a country for generations Silk Road = ancient caravan route across Asia, which traders carried silk and other goods to Europe

98 Growth under the Tang Dynasty
Trade reached new height on Silk Road after years of disorder Common items traded: Silk, tea, steel, Why?? Coal = better at heating then wood Statue of Buddha from the Tang Dynasty

99 Growth under Song Dynasty
Paintings; landscapes on silk most common Highly crafted Porcelain = high demand in Europe New forms of poetry spread; dealt with nature, joy of life Paper money is used, 1st time Mongols end it (1279,) start their own dynasty Land in Red that China controlled during the Song Dynasty

100 Famous Chinese Explorers

101 Explorer #1 Zheng He ( ) The leader of overseas trade during the Ming Dynasty Traded silk, paper, and porcelain with Europe, India, Arabia, Africa 1st to spread European and Arabic culture since Marco Polo This guy would even trade goods for giraffes, elephants and other animals for the Emperor’s zoo.

102 Voyages of Zheng He ( )

103 Explorer #2 – Marco Polo Most famous to travel the Silk Road
An Italian from Venice, Italy Importance: Very few Europeans were allowed to travel as freely in China. Chinese thought most Europeans were barbarians; no trust Why was this European allowed to travel in China when others couldn’t?

104 Book Questions pgs 1) What actions did the Sui Dynasty take in order to strengthen China’s economy? 2) What caused the fall of the Sui Dynasty? 3) What was the major problem during the Song Dynasty? (960 – 1279) How did they try to solve it?

105 Class Structure in China

106 Terms to Know Meritocracy = a system where you get a job based on your ability, not wealth Civil Service Exams = very hard test given to determine your ability for a government job Scholar officials = social class which grew from those who passed the exams

107 Chinese Social Pyramid: Place the following social classes in order, top to bottom
Landlords Craftsmen/ Merchants Emperor Peasants Scholar Officials (new)

108 Development of the Scholar Official Class
Highly used during Tang and Song dynasties Once passed, you were rewarded with jobs in government (poets, teachers, police, led Confucian ceremonies, etc.) Those that passed would become part of the wealthy scholar-officials class Importance: Created a meritocracy; encouraged education in all classes.

109 The Three Belief Systems of China
Buddhism Confucianism

110 Buddhism: Background Buddhism is one of the major religions of the world today. It was founded in India around 500 B.C. by Siddartha Gautama, aka “The Buddha.” At various times, Buddhism has been a dominant religious, cultural, and social force in most of Asia. In each area, Buddhism has combined with elements of other religions, such as Hinduism and Shinto. Today, Buddhism has about 350 million followers. Most live in Sri Lanka, the mainland nations of Southeast Asia, and Japan.

111 Buddhism Terms to Know Reincarnation = Idea that when a person dies, their soul is reborn in a new body. Importance: your soul never dies. Siddartha Gautama = Buddha’s real name, ( B.C.) Nirvana = a state of perfect peace, desiring nothing

112 Buddhism - Foundings Q: Buddhism was founded in India. How did it get from India to China? A: Monks brought his ideas to China around 200 AD using the Silk Road

113 Goal of Buddhist Monks = Bring everyone to enlightenment

114 Buddha’s Teachings: The Four Noble Truths
How do they support each other? #1. Life is suffering and pain #2. Suffering and pain are caused by desire for wealth, pleasure, fame, and power. #3. End suffering by overcoming desire. #4. To overcome desire, one must follow the “8 Fold Path” (Middle Way)...

115 …The Middle Way – How to be a good Buddhist:
My pain and suffering will be over when I quit running! Morally excellent conduct 2. Compassion for all living things 3. Calmness and purity of mind.

116 for life and government
Confucianism Main Focus = Practical philosophy for life and government

117 Confucianism: Background
Confucianism is a philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. From the 100's B.C. to the A.D. 1900's, Confucianism was the most important single force in Chinese life. It influenced Chinese education, government, and personal behavior and the individual's duty to society. Many people consider Confucianism a religion. But Confucianism has no clergy and does not teach about God, or the existence of an afterlife. Confucianism can more accurately be considered a guide to morality and good government.

118 Confucianism - Terms to know
Confucius = Founder ( B.C.) “Golden Rule” = “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others” Main beliefs = respect for elders, education, commitment to government service

119 Confucius’ 5 Most Important Relationships…
1. Ruler and subject 2. Parent and child 3. Husband and wife 4. Sibling and sibling 5. Friend and friend Relationships have to be: loyal, courteous, honest, faithful, and respectful to authority. How are these relationships important for maintaining a society?

120 Four Noble Truths Middle Way
Buddhism Confucianism Christianity More like a philosophy Is it a religion? Yes Yes Belief in Buddha Belief in God? Yes, one God Not taught No, but his writ-ings are called Five Classics Holy book? Yes, the Dharma Yes, Bible Four Noble Truths Middle Way Creating a moral society God; Teachings of Jesus Christ Focus? How many today? 350 million Over 5 million Over 2 billion Life after death? Yes, reincarnation No Not on Earth

121 The Chinese Empire Review Chapter 7 The crane is the most popular bird in Chinese history and is a symbol of longevity

122 Period of Disunion

123 Period of Disunion p. 166 War was common
Nomadic people settled in Northern China. CULTURAL BLENDING Some Chinese adopted nomads’ culture Some nomads adopted Chinese culture

124 Disunion Religion Buddhism spread Why?
It promised an escape from suffering

125 Disunion Government Control of government changed hands often Rival kingdoms were ruled by military leaders.

126 Disunion Economy Not great due to war.

127 Disunion Culture/Arts & Inventions
Blending of cultures created new types of art and music. New foods and clothing styles also developed

128 SUI DYNASTY p. 167 Short period (29 years) Grand Canal

129 Sui Dynasty Yang Jian took over China and ended the years of Disunion. He conquered the south unified China created SUI Dynasty and restored order in China.

130 Sui Religion Buddhism very popular and also: Confucianism Daoism

131 Sui Economy Grand Canal was built that linked northern and southern China.

132 Sui Culture/Arts & Inventions
Grand Canal major accomplishment during the Sui.

133 Tang Dynasty (289 years!)

134 Tang Geography (map p. 167) China grew under Tang Dynasty
It included eastern Asia and central Asia.

135 Tang (continued) It is called “The Golden Age of China” Why?

136 Three Important Tang Rulers
1.Taizong p. 167 Helped unified China through 1. Programs 2. Reformed military 3. Created new laws codes 4. Created land reform policy called equal field system,

137 Tang Rulers (con’t) 2. Xuan-zong P. 167 was another great ruler. During his reign 1. culture flourished 2. many fine poets wrote during his reign.

138 Tang Rulers (con’t) 3. Empress Wu p was another Tang ruler in 655. 1. Only woman to rule China. 2. She was vicious but intelligent and talented. 3. She brought stability and prosperity to China.

139 Tang Religion BUDDHISM
Buddhism grew until a Tang emperor launched a campaign against the religion. He burned many Buddhist texts and destroyed many temples, but he did not destroy Buddhism completely.

140 Tang Religion continued
Buddhism changed when it blended with two other philosophies: 1. Confucianism-to improve Chinese government and society. 2. Daoism

141 Tang Economy Economy was GREAT! Advances in agriculture.
FOOD surpluses helped trade and population. Cities grew. China became very rich!

142 Tang Culture/Arts & Inventions
Porcelain -first made during Tang Dynasty. Woodblock printing was invented during Tang. Printers could copy drawings or texts quickly. Gunpowder was invented during late Tang for fireworks. Magnetic compass was improved by the Tang.

143 Tang Culture/Art (con’t)
The artists and writers of the Tang Dynasty were some of the greatest in China. Wu Daozi painted murals. Li Bo and Du Fu wrote poems. Tang artists made clay figures of horses.

144 Tang Culture-Foot Binding
In the Tang dynasty they practiced foot binding. Foot binding was first practiced among the elite and only in the wealthiest parts of China. Foot binding showed others that these well-born girls were free from manual labor and had husbands who could afford wives who did not need to work. This practice was banned in China in 1912.

145 Foot Binding


147 Song Dynasty p. 168 (319 years!) China again reunified.

148 Song This was a period of great accomplishments!

149 Song Economy Agriculture helped the economy
During the Song farming reached new heights. Improvements in irrigation (called the dragon backbone pump) allowed one person to do the work of several. Fast-ripening rice allowed farmers to grow 2-3 crops in the time of one.

150 Song Economy (continued)
Crops were introduced: 1. Cotton 2. Tea EXTENSIVE TRADE BROUGHT WEALTH DURING THE SONG!

151 Song Banking Chinese financial institutions were conducting all major banking functions, including accepting deposits, making loans, and exchanging money by the Song Dynasty ( ).

152 Paper Money

153 Song Economy (con’t) Food surpluses helped the government.
Food was abundant. Population increased. Cities grew. During the Song, China was the largest Country in the world.

154 Song Religion NEO-CONFUCIANISM
The ideas of Confucius had a dramatic effect on the Song system of government. Ideas: 1. Ethics 2. Proper behavior

1.Government workers worked in a bureaucracy or group of unelected officials. 2. To join the bureaucracy, you had to pass a civil service test. Students spent years studying for the tests. Those who passed were Scholar-Officials or elite members of society.

156 Song Culture/Inventions
MOVABLE TYPE Inventors of the Song created movable type which made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages. PAPER MONEY-The world’s first paper money was invented during th Song to manage their money wealth.

157 Song Culture/Inventions
MOVABLE TYPE Inventors of the Song created movable type which made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages. PAPER MONEY-The world’s first paper money was invented during th Song to manage their money wealth.

158 Song Culture/Art The Song period was noted for literature. Li Qingzhao was China’s greatest female poet. The Song artists also made porcelain items.


160 YUAN-Mongol Rule Genghis Khan led bloody expeditions to conquer Asia.
Kublai Khan, his grandson, declared himself the emperor of China in 1279. This was the first time China was ruled by foreigners

161 Marco Polo Marco Polo, an Italian merchant, wrote a lot about the Yuan Dynasty and served in Kublai Khan’s court.

162 Yuan Culture Mongols spoke a different language.
Mongols wore different clothing. Mongols worshiped different gods. Mongols had different customs. Kublai didn’t force the Chinese to accept Mongol ways, but some Mongols adopted some Chinese ways such as Confucianism.

163 Yuan Economy Mongols disrupted many of the great things from the Tang/Song. Mongols kept control of the Chinese and made them pay taxes. Tax money paid for extending the Grand Canal, new roads, and palaces. Sea trade was good between China, India, and Southeast Asia.

164 Fall of the Yuan The Yuan Dynasty fell when they invaded Japan. Violent storms destroyed the forces and weakened their military. The expensive public works projects also weakened the economy and caused rebellion.

165 Fall of the Yuan (con’t)
The final fall came when a former monk, Zhu Yuanzhang, led an army to a final victory over the Mongols. China then got back into the rule of the Chinese.

166 Ming Dynasty (276 years)

167 Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang (p. 183)led rebellion against the Mongols and won a victory. He became the emperor of the Ming Dynasty The Voyages of Zheng He

168 Ming Religion All three, with renewed attention to Confucian classics

169 Ming Government Emperors had strong control

170 Ming Economy At first was stable and prosperous
Trade and sea voyages made the economy prosperous. Trade increased until the end of the Dynasty when trade was stopped and isolation began.

171 Ming Culture/Arts & Inventions
Great ships some longer than a football field. Grand building projects: 1. Forbidden City in Beijing with 9,000 rooms. 2. Restored the Great Wall of China.

172 Ming Great Wall of China
Most of the Great Wall that we see today was built or rebuilt during the Ming Dynasty Soldiers and guards would send signals from the wall. Many people died building the wall (perhaps up to 8 million).



175 Ming (continued) The Ming fixed the Yuan Dynasty’s destruction
In 1430 foreign trade was banned and China became isolated from the world.


177 Other Population increased

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