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CHINA Disunion 220-589 Sui Dynasty 589-618 Tang Dynasty 618-918 5 Dynasties 10 Kingdoms 907-960 Song Dynasty 960-1279.

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Presentation on theme: "CHINA Disunion 220-589 Sui Dynasty 589-618 Tang Dynasty 618-918 5 Dynasties 10 Kingdoms 907-960 Song Dynasty 960-1279."— Presentation transcript:


2 CHINA Disunion Sui Dynasty Tang Dynasty Dynasties 10 Kingdoms Song Dynasty

3 DISUNION What does disunion mean?

4 Period of Disunion AD Han Empire Collapsed Nomadic people settled in the North Nomadic and Chinese culture mixed Nomadic people started to rule to North

5 Sui Dynasty In 589 the Nomadic North Ruler conquered the South and built the Sui Dynasty Famous for the Grand Cannel that linked the North and South

6 Tang Dynasty The people of the Sui Dynasty over threw the government and built the Tang Dynasty “Golden Age of Chinese civilization”

7 Tang Dynasty Rulers: Empress Wu Intelligent and talented Xuanzong Poets Taizong: Equal field system Military Law codes

8 5 dynasties and 10 Kingdoms

9 Song Dynasty

10 Buddhism Started in India in 500 BC First came into China in the Period of Disunion “State of Peace” Chinese introduced Buddhism to Japan and Korea Age of Buddhism

11 China Growing… During the Tang and Song Dynasties China made many advancements

12 Song Dynasty Advancements Agriculture advancements: Irrigation techniques Underground wells Tool: Dragon backbone pump Amount of land that was farmed increased Fast ripening rice More food, means more people China’s Population grew from 60 million to 100 million people

13 Song Dynasty Capitol was Kaifeng

14 Tang Dynasty Advancements Capitol was Chang’an This capitol had people from China, Korea, Persia, Arabia and Europe The population was 1 million Artists and Poets Wu Daozi- Muralist Li Bo and Du Fu- Poets Li Qingzhao- female poet

15 Tang and Song Dynasties Grew… This helped trade grow The Grand Cannel started by the Sui Dynasty helped move goods Chinese traded with India, South East Asia, Japan and Korea Chinese Exported and Imported many things for trading

16 Chinese Exported Tea Rice Silk Spices Jade Porcelain***

17 Chinese imported Wool Plants Glass Gold Silver

18 Chinese Inventions Paper Porcelain Woodblock printing Gunpowder Movable type Paper money Magnetic compass

19 Inventions Paper 105 AD –Han Dynasty Paper was one of the greatest of all Chinese inventions. It gave Chinese a cheap and easy way of keeping records and made printing possible.

20 Inventions Porcelain Tang Dynasty Chinese artists were famous for their work with the fragile material

21 Inventions Woodblock printing Tang Dynasty The Chinese had this printing before Europe. Printers could copy drawings or text quickly, much faster than it could be copied by hand

22 Inventions Gunpowder Tang or early Song dynasty Gunpowder was used to make fireworks and signals. The Chinese did not generally use it as a weapon

23 Inventions Movable type Song Dynasty Made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages

24 Inventions Magnetic Compass Han Period The compass was a greatly improved by the Tang Dynasty. The new compass allowed sailors and merchants to travel vast distances

25 Inventions Paper Money Song Dynasty Lighter and easier to handle than coins, paper money helped the Chinese manage their growing wealth

26 Buddhism vs. Confucianism Confucianism –stressed ethical behavior Buddhism- stressed spiritual outlook that promised escape from suffering

27 Chinese Government Confucianism Neo- Confucianism Bureaucracy

28 Confucianism Based on teaching by Confucius Confucius teachings focused on Ethics and Proper Behavior Lived should focus on two principals Ren – Concern for other Li- Appropriate behavior

29 Neo-Confucianism The Tang Dynasty wanted to improve there government and society Neo Confucian scholars discussed issues such as what makes human beings do bad things even if their basic nature of good Neo-Confucianism also incorporated spiritual matters

30 Bureaucracy Song Dynasty-Major part of the stability of this government Bureaucracy – a body of unelected government officials To become part of the government officials you had to pass a test on Confucianism and the test was long! When you passed the test you became part of the civil service of the government and a scholar official. This process was open to everyone as long as you could pass the test.

31 Yuan Dynasty The Nomadic people from the North were called Mongols In 1206 AD the Mongols United under Genhis Khan “Universal Ruler” Genghis Khan lead the first armies into North China in 1211 By 1227 He controlled most of China-But he Died Then His son took over Then his Grandson Kublai Khan in 1260 AD and in 1279 declared himself the emperor of China 1279 was the start of Yuan Dynasty

32 Yuan Dynasty Chinese did not like being controlled by the Mongols, they were not Chinese Kublai Khan tried to be nice and adopt Confucianism But then he also felt like taxing the people The Yuan Dynasty extended the grand canal and built new roads and palaces The capitol was Dadu A famous trader traded with China from Marco Polo

33 Yuan Dynasty The Mongols wanted more land and so they decided to expand to Japan But Japan fought them off and their army weakened So Zhu Yuanzhang led his army against the Mongols and won. Now China would once again be ruled by the Chinese

34 Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang defeated the Mongols and became emperor of china The Ming dynasty improved ships and sailing: A famous sailor was Zheng He Zheng He brought back exotic animals from Africa and showed other countries how powerful the Chinese were

35 Ming Dynasty In Beijing the Ming Dynasty built the Forbidden City and common people could not enter. This was a symbol of china's glory The Ming Dynasty also started to restore the Great Wall from the Mongol invasion. The Great Wall is 2000 miles long. That is from San Diego to New York. People started to feel safe now from the Mongols.

36 Ming Dynasty The Ming wanted to eliminate all foreign influences in China China then entered a period of Isolationism. They avoided contact with other countries

37 3 Ways of Thought BuddhismTaoismConfucianism

38 Confucius

39 Confucius was born here and lived during the Zhou dynasty. Anthem

40 Confucianism stressed the importance of education

41 Scholar-Officials Typical responsibilities might include running government offices; maintaining roads, irrigation systems, and other public works; updating and maintaining official records; or collecting taxes.

42 F ilial piety basically describes the correct way to act towards one's parents. Filial piety consists of several factors; the main ideas include loving one's parents, being respectful, polite, considerate, loyal, helpful, dutiful, and obedient.

43 Confucianism Respect for family, elders & ancestors. Logic and learning are very important. Become better by studying or by serving the government.

44 Answer the following as if you are Confucius What are you known for you and what is your original name? I am the founder of Confucianism and I was first called Kong Fu Zi. How can one achieve harmony with in a family? By being loyal courteous, honest faithful and obedient to those who are in authority.

45 Laozi





50 The Tao of Pooh Winnie the Pooh is an example of a Taoist. (seriously!) He goes through life without worrying too much or making things too hard. Because of that, he is almost always happy!

51 "Pooh hasn't much Brain, but he never comes to any harm. He does silly things and they turn out right." - Piglet

52 Taoism All about making life simple and easy. Avoid conflict of all kinds. Desires are to be avoided as well. Teaches that simply viewing things properly will make you happier.

53 Answer the following as if you are Laozi Answer the following as if you are Laozi What is the only way for Modern America to live peacefully? By living simply, in harmony with nature, by “living green” in a self sustainable economy. What is the main cause of our economic crisis? America has strived for fame and power which will lead to the downfall of any economy.

54 Buddha





59  Desire is the root of unhappiness.  Suffering is a normal part of life.  All life is to be respected.  Respect the rights of other people. Buddhism

60 Questions for The Buddha Answer the following as if you were the Buddha: What is your original name,where are you from and how old were you when you died? My name was Siddhartha Gautama and I lived in India until I was eighty years old What does the Buddha mean? Enlightened one

61 Who said it?

62 “Like a spider caught in its own web is a person driven by fierce cravings. Break out of the web, and turn away from the world of sensory pleasure and sorrow.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

63 “If a ruler himself is upright (honest), all will go well without orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders they will not be obeyed.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

64 “Highest good is like water. Because water excels in benefiting the myriad creatures without contending with them and settles where none would like to be, it comes close to the Way.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

65 “The mind is flighty, and hard to grasp; the mind pursues all it desires. To tame the mind is great goodness. Subdue the mind and know tranquility.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

66 “The more laws and edicts (official rules) are imposed, the more thieves and bandits there will be.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

67 “Be respectful at home, serious at work, faithful in human relations. Even if you go to uncivilized areas, these virtues (good qualities) are not to be abandoned.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

68 “Seeing that our body, with hair and skin, is derived from our parents, we should not allow it to be injured in any way. This is the beginning of filial respect. We develop our own character and practice the way so as to perpetuate our name for future generations, and to bring honor to our parents.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

69 “Life is a journey, death is a return to the earth, the universe is like an inn, the passing years are like dust.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?

70 “The sage, because he does nothing, never ruins anything; and, because he does not lay hold of anything, loses nothing.” In your own words, what is the meaning of this statement? Who do you think said it?....the Buddha, Confucius, or Laozi?












82 2 answers







89 China Reunites After the Han Dynasty fell in 220, for the next 300 years, China fell into disorder. Wars between small kingdoms and poverty were rampant. Mongols attacked the Great Wall and tore parts of it down. Finally in 581, a general named Wendi, or Wen for short, was strong enough to reunite China by force. This would usher in the next three dynasties: Sui, Tang, and Song.


91 Our area of focus

92 Background on Dynasties During the Tang Dynasty, China reached a new height in wealth and power. This was mainly due to a trade boon that brought higher levels of trade then ever before. After centuries of attacks by Mongols and roaming bandits, the Silk Road was once again busy with travelers.


94 Silk was only one of several items to be traded on the Silk Road during these dynasties.

95 Most of the Silk Road travels through rough climates… Travel companies today offer vacations traveling the Silk Road on camelback.

96 Many clothes are made out of silk today, most still come from China


98 Terms to Know Dynasty = A ruling family that controls a country for generations Silk Road = ancient caravan route across Asia, which traders carried silk and other goods to Europe

99 Growth under the Tang Dynasty Trade reached new height on Silk Road after years of disorder Common items traded: Silk, tea, steel, Why?? Coal = better at heating then wood Statue of Buddha from the Tang Dynasty

100 Growth under Song Dynasty Paintings; landscapes on silk most common Highly crafted Porcelain = high demand in Europe New forms of poetry spread; dealt with nature, joy of life Paper money is used, 1 st time Mongols end it (1279,) start their own dynasty Land in Red that China controlled during the Song Dynasty


102 Explorer #1 Zheng He ( ) The leader of overseas trade during the Ming Dynasty Traded silk, paper, and porcelain with Europe, India, Arabia, Africa 1 st to spread European and Arabic culture since Marco Polo This guy would even trade goods for giraffes, elephants and other animals for the Emperor’s zoo.

103 Voyages of Zheng He ( )

104 Explorer #2 – Marco Polo Most famous to travel the Silk Road An Italian from Venice, Italy Importance: Very few Europeans were allowed to travel as freely in China. Chinese thought most Europeans were barbarians; no trust Why was this European allowed to travel in China when others couldn’t?

105 Book Questions pgs ) What actions did the Sui Dynasty take in order to strengthen China’s economy? 2) What caused the fall of the Sui Dynasty? 3) What was the major problem during the Song Dynasty? (960 – 1279) How did they try to solve it?

106 Class Structure in China

107 Terms to Know Meritocracy = a system where you get a job based on your ability, not wealth Civil Service Exams = very hard test given to determine your ability for a government job Scholar officials = social class which grew from those who passed the exams

108 Chinese Social Pyramid: Place the following social classes in order, top to bottom Emperor Landlords Scholar Officials (new) Craftsmen/ Merchants Peasants

109 Development of the Scholar Official Class Highly used during Tang and Song dynasties Once passed, you were rewarded with jobs in government (poets, teachers, police, led Confucian ceremonies, etc.) Those that passed would become part of the wealthy scholar-officials class Importance: Created a meritocracy; encouraged education in all classes.

110 The Three Belief Systems of China Buddhism Confucianism

111 Buddhism: Background Buddhism is one of the major religions of the world today. It was founded in India around 500 B.C. by Siddartha Gautama, aka “The Buddha.” At various times, Buddhism has been a dominant religious, cultural, and social force in most of Asia. In each area, Buddhism has combined with elements of other religions, such as Hinduism and Shinto. Today, Buddhism has about 350 million followers. Most live in Sri Lanka, the mainland nations of Southeast Asia, and Japan.

112 Buddhism Terms to Know Reincarnation = Idea that when a person dies, their soul is reborn in a new body. Importance: your soul never dies. Siddartha Gautama = Buddha’s real name, ( B.C.) Nirvana = a state of perfect peace, desiring nothing

113 Buddhism - Foundings A: Monks brought his ideas to China around 200 AD using the Silk Road Q: Buddhism was founded in India. How did it get from India to China?

114 Goal of Buddhist Monks = Bring everyone to enlightenment

115 Buddha’s Teachings: The Four Noble Truths How do they support each other? #1. Life is suffering and pain #2. Suffering and pain are caused by desire for wealth, pleasure, fame, and power. #3. End suffering by overcoming desire. #4. To overcome desire, one must follow the “8 Fold Path” (Middle Way)...

116 …The Middle Way – How to be a good Buddhist: 1.Morally excellent conduct 2. Compassion for all living things 3. Calmness and purity of mind. My pain and suffering will be over when I quit running!

117 Confucianism

118 Confucianism: Background Confucianism is a philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. From the 100's B.C. to the A.D. 1900's, Confucianism was the most important single force in Chinese life. It influenced Chinese education, government, and personal behavior and the individual's duty to society. Many people consider Confucianism a religion. But Confucianism has no clergy and does not teach about God, or the existence of an afterlife. Confucianism can more accurately be considered a guide to morality and good government.

119 Confucianism - Terms to know Confucius = Founder ( B.C.) “Golden Rule” = “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others” Main beliefs = respect for elders, education, commitment to government service

120 Confucius’ 5 Most Important Relationships… 1. Ruler and subject 2. Parent and child 3. Husband and wife 4. Sibling and sibling 5. Friend and friend Relationships have to be: loyal, courteous, honest, faithful, and respectful to authority. How are these relationships important for maintaining a society?

121 BuddhismConfucianismChristianity Belief in God? Yes Belief in Buddha Is it a religion? Yes More like a philosophy Not taught Yes, one God Holy book? Yes, Bible Yes, the Dharma No, but his writ- ings are called Five Classics Focus? Four Noble Truths Middle Way Creating a moral society God; Teachings of Jesus Christ How many today? Over 2 billion350 millionOver 5 million Life after death? Not on Earth No Yes, reincarnation

122 The Chinese Empire Review Chapter 7 T he crane is the most popular bird in Chinese history and is a symbol of longevity

123 Period of Disunion

124 Period of Disunion p. 166 War was common Nomadic people settled in Northern China. CULTURAL BLENDING Some Chinese adopted nomads’ culture Some nomads adopted Chinese culture

125 Disunion Religion Buddhism spread Why? It promised an escape from suffering

126 Disunion Government Control of government changed hands often Rival kingdoms were ruled by military leaders.

127 Disunion Economy Not great due to war.

128 Disunion Culture/Arts & Inventions Blending of cultures created new types of art and music. New foods and clothing styles also developed

129 SUI DYNASTY p Short period (29 years). Grand Canal

130 Sui Dynasty Yang Jian took over China and ended the years of Disunion. He 1.conquered the south 2.unified China 3.created SUI Dynasty and 4.restored order in China.

131 Sui Religion Buddhism very popular and also: Confucianism Daoism

132 Sui Economy Grand Canal was built that linked northern and southern China.

133 Sui Culture/Arts & Inventions Grand Canal major accomplishment during the Sui.

134 Tang Dynasty (289 years!)

135 Tang Geography (map p. 167) China grew under Tang Dynasty It included eastern Asia and central Asia.

136 Tang (continued) It is called “The Golden Age of China” Why?

137 Three Important Tang Rulers 1.Taizong p. 167 Helped unified China through 1. Programs 2. Reformed military 3. Created new laws codes 4. Created land reform policy called equal field system,

138 Tang Rulers (con’t) 2. Xuan-zong P. 167 was another great ruler. During his reign 1. culture flourished 2. many fine poets wrote during his reign.

139 Tang Rulers (con’t) 3. Empress Wu p was another Tang ruler in Only woman to rule China. 2. She was vicious but intelligent and talented. 3. She brought stability and prosperity to China.

140 Tang Religion BUDDHISM Buddhism grew until a Tang emperor launched a campaign against the religion. He burned many Buddhist texts and destroyed many temples, but he did not destroy Buddhism completely.

141 Tang Religion continued Buddhism changed when it blended with two other philosophies: 1. Confucianism-to improve Chinese government and society. 2. Daoism

142 Tang Economy Economy was GREAT! Advances in agriculture. FOOD surpluses helped trade and population. Cities grew. China became very rich!

143 Tang Culture/Arts & Inventions Porcelain -first made during Tang Dynasty. Woodblock printing was invented during Tang. Printers could copy drawings or texts quickly. Gunpowder was invented during late Tang for fireworks. Magnetic compass was improved by the Tang.

144 Tang Culture/Art (con’t) The artists and writers of the Tang Dynasty were some of the greatest in China. Wu Daozi painted murals. Li Bo and Du Fu wrote poems. Tang artists made clay figures of horses.

145 Tang Culture-Foot Binding In the Tang dynasty they practiced foot binding. Foot binding was first practiced among the elite and only in the wealthiest parts of China. Foot binding showed others that these well-born girls were free from manual labor and had husbands who could afford wives who did not need to work. This practice was banned in China in 1912.Tang

146 Foot Binding


148 Song Dynasty p (319 years!) China again reunified.

149 Song This was a period of great accomplishments!

150 Song Economy Agriculture helped the economy During the Song farming reached new heights. Improvements in irrigation (called the dragon backbone pump) allowed one person to do the work of several. Fast-ripening rice allowed farmers to grow 2-3 crops in the time of one.

151 Song Economy (continued) Crops were introduced: 1. Cotton 2. Tea EXTENSIVE TRADE BROUGHT WEALTH DURING THE SONG!

152 Song Banking Chinese financial institutions were conducting all major banking functions, including accepting deposits, making loans, and exchanging money by the Song Dynasty ( ).Song Dynasty

153 Paper Money

154 Song Economy (con’t) Food surpluses helped the government. Food was abundant. Population increased. Cities grew. During the Song, China was the largest Country in the world.

155 Song Religion NEO-CONFUCIANISM The ideas of Confucius had a dramatic effect on the Song system of government. Ideas: 1. Ethics 2. Proper behavior

156 SONG NEO-CONFUCIANISM 1.Government workers worked in a bureaucracy or group of unelected officials. 2. To join the bureaucracy, you had to pass a civil service test. Students spent years studying for the tests. Those who passed were Scholar-Officials or elite members of society.

157 Song Culture/Inventions MOVABLE TYPE Inventors of the Song created movable type which made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages. PAPER MONEY-The world’s first paper money was invented during th Song to manage their money wealth.

158 Song Culture/Inventions MOVABLE TYPE Inventors of the Song created movable type which made printing much faster. Carved letters could be rearranged and reused to print many different messages. PAPER MONEY-The world’s first paper money was invented during th Song to manage their money wealth.

159 Song Culture/Art The Song period was noted for literature. Li Qingzhao was China’s greatest female poet. The Song artists also made porcelain items.


161 YUAN-Mongol Rule Genghis Khan led bloody expeditions to conquer Asia. Kublai Khan, his grandson, declared himself the emperor of China in This was the first time China was ruled by foreigners

162 Marco Polo Marco Polo, an Italian merchant, wrote a lot about the Yuan Dynasty and served in Kublai Khan’s court.

163 Yuan Culture Mongols spoke a different language. Mongols wore different clothing. Mongols worshiped different gods. Mongols had different customs. Kublai didn’t force the Chinese to accept Mongol ways, but some Mongols adopted some Chinese ways such as Confucianism.

164 Yuan Economy Mongols disrupted many of the great things from the Tang/Song. Mongols kept control of the Chinese and made them pay taxes. Tax money paid for extending the Grand Canal, new roads, and palaces. Sea trade was good between China, India, and Southeast Asia.

165 Fall of the Yuan The Yuan Dynasty fell when they invaded Japan. Violent storms destroyed the forces and weakened their military. The expensive public works projects also weakened the economy and caused rebellion.

166 Fall of the Yuan (con’t) The final fall came when a former monk, Zhu Yuanzhang, led an army to a final victory over the Mongols. China then got back into the rule of the Chinese.

167 Ming Dynasty (276 years)

168 Ming Dynasty Zhu Yuanzhang (p. 183)led rebellion against the Mongols and won a victory. He became the emperor of the Ming Dynasty The Voyages of Zheng He

169 Ming Religion All three, with renewed attention to Confucian classics

170 Ming Government Emperors had strong control

171 Ming Economy At first was stable and prosperous Trade and sea voyages made the economy prosperous. Trade increased until the end of the Dynasty when trade was stopped and isolation began.

172 Ming Culture/Arts & Inventions Great ships some longer than a football field. Grand building projects: 1. Forbidden City in Beijing with 9,000 rooms. 2. Restored the Great Wall of China.

173 Ming Great Wall of China Most of the Great Wall that we see today was built or rebuilt during the Ming Dynasty Soldiers and guards would send signals from the wall. Many people died building the wall (perhaps up to 8 million).



176 Ming (continued) The Ming fixed the Yuan Dynasty’s destruction In 1430 foreign trade was banned and China became isolated from the world.


178 Other Population increased

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