Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Seventeenth-Century American Literature 長庚大學2012/1/3 Wesley Xi National Taiwan University.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Seventeenth-Century American Literature 長庚大學2012/1/3 Wesley Xi National Taiwan University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seventeenth-Century American Literature 長庚大學2012/1/3 Wesley Xi National Taiwan University

2 1584 明神宗萬歷十二年 Captains Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow led the first English expedition to the New World.

3 1584 明神宗萬歷十二年 Barlow: “The soil is the most plentiful, sweet, fruitful and wholesome of the whole world,” and “the people the most gentle, loving and faithful, void of all guile and treason, and such as live after the manner of the golden age.”

4 1587 明神宗萬曆十五年 The Roanoke colony mysteriously disappeared.

5 1588 明神宗萬曆十六年 Thomas Hariot: A Brief and True Report of the New-Found Land of Virginia in Richard Hakluyt’s The principall navigations, voyages, traffiques and discoveries of the English nation.

6 1588 明神宗萬曆十六年 The English defeated the Spanish Armada, solidifying English control of North American shipping lanes.

7 1607 明神宗萬曆三十五年 Jamestown colony established.

8 Catholicism → Protestantism → Calvinism / Puritanism (Separatists, Non-separatists)

9 Protestantism Three main doctrines of Protestantism: 1. salvation justified by the grace of God through faith alone ←→ Catholic emphasis on salvation through “good works” 2. the supremacy of holy scripture in matters of faith (sola scriptula) ←→ Catholic emphasis on the infallible authority of the Pope 3. access to the divine without the intercession of clergy ←→ Catholic emphasis on pastoral mediation between God and the faithful

10 Calvinism The Five Points of John Calvin: 1. Total depravity. The natural man is vile, for “in Adam’s fall we sinned all.” No human being has any capability whatsoever to achieve his own salvation.

11 Calvinism 2. Predestined election: From the beginning of time God has determined that the “elect” of His choice shall be saved, and all others shall be damned to perdition. Faith and good works are equally powerless to save someone doomed by the deity to the flames of hell.

12 Calvinism 2. Limited atonement: Christ’s sacrifice upon the cross assures salvation solely to the “elect.” 3. Irresistible grace: The saving, transforming power of God is freely bestowed and can neither be earned nor refused.

13 Calvinism 5. Perseverance of the saints: The “elect” will proceed undeviatingly to their full reward of bliss. If man could be saved and then later choose to defy God, he would prove more powerful than God, a logical impossibility to Calvinism. (The above five points are quoted from A Handbook of American Literature, Martin S. Day) (The above five points are quoted from A Handbook of American Literature, Martin S. Day)

14 The Puritan heritage and its variations Rigid morality. Material success. Self-reliance. Democratic liberty. Learning. A messianic complex. Conscience stirrings. (A Handbook of American Literature, Martin S. Day) (A Handbook of American Literature, Martin S. Day)

15 Edward Winslow ( ) Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors. The four in one day killed as much fowl as... served the company almost a week. Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors. The four in one day killed as much fowl as... served the company almost a week.

16 Edward Winslow ( )... At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest of their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest of their greatest king Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted....

17 Edward Winslow ( )... And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty. (1621)... And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty. (1621)

18 John Smith ( ) From General History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624) From General History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles (1624) Smith little dreaming of that accident, being got to the marshes at the river’s head twenty miles in the desert, had his two men slain as is supposed sleeping by the canoe, while himself by fowling sought them victual, Smith little dreaming of that accident, being got to the marshes at the river’s head twenty miles in the desert, had his two men slain as is supposed sleeping by the canoe, while himself by fowling sought them victual,

19 John Smith ( ) who finding he was beset with 200 savages, two of them he slew, still defending himself with the aid of a savage his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters and used him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a little, and had many arrows that stuck in his clothes but no great hurt, till at last they took him prisoner. who finding he was beset with 200 savages, two of them he slew, still defending himself with the aid of a savage his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters and used him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a little, and had many arrows that stuck in his clothes but no great hurt, till at last they took him prisoner.

20 John Smith ( ) who finding he was beset with 200 savages, two of them he slew, still defending himself with the aid of a savage his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters and used him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a little, and had many arrows that stuck in his clothes but no great hurt, till at last they took him prisoner. who finding he was beset with 200 savages, two of them he slew, still defending himself with the aid of a savage his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters and used him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a little, and had many arrows that stuck in his clothes but no great hurt, till at last they took him prisoner.

21 John Smith ( )... Thinking thus to have returned to his boat, regarding them, as he marched, more than his way, [he] slipped up to the middle in an oozy creek and his savage with him, yet dared they not come to him till being near dead with cold he threw away his arms Thinking thus to have returned to his boat, regarding them, as he marched, more than his way, [he] slipped up to the middle in an oozy creek and his savage with him, yet dared they not come to him till being near dead with cold he threw away his arms....

22 John Smith ( )... then as many as could, laid hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head and being ready with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the King’s dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms and laid her own upon his to save him from death, whereat the Emperor was contented he should live then as many as could, laid hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his head and being ready with their clubs to beat out his brains, Pocahontas, the King’s dearest daughter, when no entreaty could prevail, got his head in her arms and laid her own upon his to save him from death, whereat the Emperor was contented he should live....

23 John Smith ( ) From A Description of New England (1616) From A Description of New England (1616) What so truly suits with honor and honesty, as the discovering things unknown? Erecting townes, peopling countries, informing the ignorant, reforming things unjust, teaching virtue; and gain[ing] our native mother country a kingdom to attend her; find[ing] employment for those that are idle... ? What so truly suits with honor and honesty, as the discovering things unknown? Erecting townes, peopling countries, informing the ignorant, reforming things unjust, teaching virtue; and gain[ing] our native mother country a kingdom to attend her; find[ing] employment for those that are idle... ?

24 William Bradford ( ) From Of Plymouth Plantation From Of Plymouth Plantation There was a proud and very profane young man, one of the seamen, of a lusty, able body, which made him the more haughty; he would always be condemning the poor people in their sickness and cursing them daily with grievous execrations; There was a proud and very profane young man, one of the seamen, of a lusty, able body, which made him the more haughty; he would always be condemning the poor people in their sickness and cursing them daily with grievous execrations;

25 William Bradford ( ) From Of Plymouth Plantation From Of Plymouth Plantation and did not let to tell them that he hoped to help to cast half of them overboard before they came to their journey’s end, and to make merry with what they had. and did not let to tell them that he hoped to help to cast half of them overboard before they came to their journey’s end, and to make merry with what they had.

26 William Bradford ( )... But it pleased God before they came half seas over, to smite this young man with a grievous disease, of which he died in a desperate manner, and so was himself the first that was thrown overboard.... But it pleased God before they came half seas over, to smite this young man with a grievous disease, of which he died in a desperate manner, and so was himself the first that was thrown overboard.

27 William Bradford ( )... in a mighty storm, a lusty young man called John Howland, coming upon some occasion above the gratings was, with a seele of the ship, thrown into sea; but it pleased God that he caught hold of the topsail halyards which hung overboard and ran out at length.... in a mighty storm, a lusty young man called John Howland, coming upon some occasion above the gratings was, with a seele of the ship, thrown into sea; but it pleased God that he caught hold of the topsail halyards which hung overboard and ran out at length.

28 William Bradford ( ) Yet he held his hold (though he was sundry fathoms under water) until he was hauled up by the same rope to the brim of the water, and then with a boat hook and other means got into the ship again and his life saved. Yet he held his hold (though he was sundry fathoms under water) until he was hauled up by the same rope to the brim of the water, and then with a boat hook and other means got into the ship again and his life saved.

29 John Winthrop ( ) From A Model of Christian Charity (1630) We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when He shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, “the Lord make it like that of New England.” We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when He shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, “the Lord make it like that of New England.”

30 John Winthrop ( ) For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us, so that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world. For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us, so that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world.

31 Anne Bradstreet (1612?-1672) My head, my heart, mine eyes, my life, nay, more, My joy, my magazine of earthly store, If two be one, as surely thou and I, How stayest thou there, whilst I at Ipswich lie?...

32 Anne Bradstreet (1612?-1672) In this dead time, alas, what can I more Than view those fruits which through thy heat I bore?... I wish my Sun may never set, but burn Within the Cancer of my glowing breast, The welcome house of him my dearest guest. “A Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment” (1678)

33 Anne Bradstreet (1612?-1672) Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain, Who after birth didst by my side remain. Till snatched from thence by friends, less wise than true, Who thee abroad, exposed to public view, Made thee in rags, halting to th’ press to trudge,...

34 Anne Bradstreet (1612?-1672) I washed thy face, but more defects I saw, And rubbing off a spot still made a flaw. I stretched thy joints to make thee even feet, Yet still thou run’st more hobbling than is meet.

35 Anne Bradstreet (1612?-1672) In better dress to trim thee was my mind, But nought save homespun cloth i’ th’ house I find. In this array ’mongst vulgars may’st thou roam. In critic’s hands beware thou does not come....

36 Anne Bradstreet (1612?-1672) In better dress to trim thee was my mind, But nought save homespun cloth i’ th’ house I find. In this array ’mongst vulgars may’st thou roam. In critic’s hands beware thou does not come.... “The Author to Her Book” (1678) “The Author to Her Book” (1678)

37 Edward Taylor ( ) Unkey my Heart; unlock Thy Wardrobe: bring Out royal Robes: adorn my Soul, Lord: so, My Love in rich attire shall on my King Attend, and honor on Him well bestow. In Glory He prepares for His a place Whom He doth all beglory here with Grace. “Meditation 42” (1691, 1939) “Meditation 42” (1691, 1939)

38 Edward Taylor ( ) Unkey my Heart; unlock Thy Wardrobe: bring Out royal Robes: adorn my Soul, Lord: so, My Love in rich attire shall on my King Attend, and honor on Him well bestow. In Glory He prepares for His a place Whom He doth all beglory here with Grace. “Meditation 42” (1691, 1939) “Meditation 42” (1691, 1939)

39 Edward Taylor ( ) But Oh! A glorious hand from glory came Guarded with Angels, soon did crop this flower Which almost tore the root up of the same, At that unlooked for, Dolesome, darksome hour....

40 Edward Taylor ( ) But pausing o’t, this sweet perfumed my thought: Christ would in Glory have a Flower, Choice, Prime, And having Choice, chose this my branch forth brought. Lord take’t. I thank Thee, Thou tak’st ought of mine:

41 Edward Taylor ( )... The which the former hand soon got away, But Oh! the tortures, Vomit, screechings, groans, and six week’s Fever would pierce hearts like stones.

42 Edward Taylor ( )... That as I said, I say, take, Lord, they’re Thine. I piecemeal pass to Glory bright in them. In joy, may I sweet flowers for glory breed, Whether thou get’st them green, or lets them seed. “Upon Wedlock, and Death of Children” (1682, 1939) “Upon Wedlock, and Death of Children” (1682, 1939)

43 Q & A Thank You


Download ppt "Seventeenth-Century American Literature 長庚大學2012/1/3 Wesley Xi National Taiwan University."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google