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RevelationRevelation Reminders before approaching Revelation Revelation has a series of Contexts(CIE) Revelation has a series of Contexts (CIE) Literary.

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Presentation on theme: "RevelationRevelation Reminders before approaching Revelation Revelation has a series of Contexts(CIE) Revelation has a series of Contexts (CIE) Literary."— Presentation transcript:

1 RevelationRevelation Reminders before approaching Revelation Revelation has a series of Contexts(CIE) Revelation has a series of Contexts (CIE) Literary context 1. Literary context. Immediate Context: Book of Revelation Larger Context: Old Testament Allusions Apocalyptic World / Imagination Social / Historical context 2. Social / Historical context. Contemporary World of John and 7 churches Contemporary World of readers

2 RevelationRevelation Reminders before approaching Revelation hearing structure logic 2. Revelation is an oral/aural event. It is meant to convey its message first by hearing (1:3). Thus, it would be important that the structure and logic of the work would be perceptible in oral performance Thus, for this first run through Revelation, I want to relate the logical structure I find to linguistic or verbal markers (listener clues). Think about what might trigger your ears in hearing rather than your eyes in seeing.

3 RevelationRevelation but my ears you have pierced Psalm 40:5-6 5 Many, O LORD my God, are the wonders you have done. The things you planned for us no one can recount to you; were I to speak and tell of them, they would be too many to declare. 6 Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but my ears you have pierced (dug out, Gen 26:25); burnt offerings and sin offerings you did not require.

4 RevelationRevelation Reminders before approaching Revelation 2. Revelation is an oral/aural event 2:7 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. 2:11 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. 2:17 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. 2:29 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. 3:6 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. 3:13 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. 3:22 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches." 13:9 He who has an ear, let him hear. Hearing Hearing (Rev. 1:3, 10; 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:3, 6, 13, 20, 22; 4:1; 5:11, 13; 6:1, 3, 5ff; 7:4; 8:13; 9:13, 16, 20; 10:4, 8; 11:12; 12:10; 13:9; 14:2, 13; 16:1, 5, 7; 18:4, 22f; 19:1, 6; 21:3; 22:8, 17) Testify Testify (Rev. 1:2; 22:16, 18, 20) Word Word (Rev. 1:2f, 9; 3:8, 10; 6:9; 12:11; 17:17; 19:9, 13; 20:4; 21:5; 22:6f, 9f, 18f)

5 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue

6 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue Verbal echoes between 1:1-3 & 22:6-7 The Revelation of Jesus Christ The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John, Blessed is the one who reads the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear it and take to heart what is written in it, because the time is near. Rev 1:1-3 The angel said to me, "These words are trustworthy and true. The Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent his angel to show his servants the things that must soon take place. Behold, I am coming soon! Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy in this book." Rev 22:6-7

7 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue Single Lord’s Day Vision 1:9-10 The Revelation of Jesus Christ From Heaven to Earth (1:1) God  Jesus  Messenger/angel  John  Servants Across the Earth and Time (1:3, 19) John testifies what he saw  word and testimony (1:2) John wrote (1:19), Reader reads aloud words (1:3)

8 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue Single Lord’s Day Vision 1:9-10 The Revelation of Jesus Christ I was in the Spirit (1:10) I was in the Spirit (1:10) evgeno,mhn evn pneu,mati In the Spirit (4:2) evgeno,mhn evn pneu,mati In the Spirit (17:3) avph,negke,n me evn pneu,mati In the Spirit (21:10) avph,negke,n me evn pneu,mati

9 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:22 Inaugural Vision of Christ and 7 Messages to 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven (4-5) and Subsequent Judgment (6-16) 4:116:21 17:1-19:10 City: Babylonthe Harlot andher fall Parousia City: NewJerusalem andBride of Lamb 21:9-22:5 Two Women 19:11- 21:8 In the Spirit evn pneu,mati

10 RevelationRevelation What are the reader clues which cause me to think that 17:1 and 21:9 are major shifts? And for that matter that I would put them in parallel with one another? Revelation 17:1-3 One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute... 3 Then the angel carried me away in the Spirit into a desert. There I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. Revelation 21:9-10 One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full of the seven last plagues came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb." 10 And he carried me away in the Spirit to a mountain great and high, and showed me the Holy City, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God.

11 RevelationRevelation These clear parallel beginnings 17:1-3 and 21:9-10 also have equally clear parallel conclusions in 19:9-10 and 22:6-9 Revelation 19:9b-10 And he added, “These are the true words of God.” 10 At this I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, “Do not do it! I am a fellow servant with you and with your brothers who hold to the testimony of Jesus. Worship God! For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.” Revelation 22:6-9 The angel said to me, “These words are trustworthy and true…” 8 I heard and saw these things. And when I had heard and seen them, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel who had been showing them to me. 9 But he said to me, “Do not do it! I am a fellow servant with you and with your brothers the prophets and of all who keep the words of this book. Worship God!”

12 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:224:1-16:21 City: Babylon the Harlot and her fall City: New Jerusalem and Bride of Lamb 22:9 Two Women 17:1 Intro:17:1-3 Intro:21:9-10 Conc:19:9b-10Conc:22:6-9 7 Churches Series of 7 Judgments

13 RevelationRevelation Two structural questions of concern Two structural questions of concern: conclusion beginning 1.I have identified 22:6-9 as both the conclusion to the major section 21:9-22:9 and as the beginning to the epilogue of 22:6-21. But I am convinced this is part of John’s artistry of overlapping and interweaving sections of his work. a. Those parts of 22:6-9 that are not verbally parallel to 19:9b-10 are indeed parallel to 1:1-3; its counterpart serving as an introduction to the whole book.

14 RevelationRevelation Two structural questions of concern Two structural questions of concern: b. Note: When 19:9b-10 stands as the conclusion to the section 17:1-19:10, the “true words of God” that the angel refers to in the immediate context is the beatitude of 19:9a, “Then the angel said to me, ‘Write: 'Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!’” But when 22:6-9 stands as the intro to the prologue of 22:6-21, “These words are trustworthy and true” refer to the words of the entire book, referring back to 1:1-3. For no reader would expect the conclusion of the vision to merely be the fall of Babylon but it must include the vision of the New Jerusalem

15 RevelationRevelation Two structural questions of concern Two structural questions of concern: 2. Between section 17:1-19:10 & 21:9-22:9 comes another section which stands as the interlude or a transition (19:11-21:5). The Rider on the White Horse and millennial reign. Does it begin with a parallel to Chap 4, heavenly vision? Note: After 19:11, all the accounts take place from an earthly perspective, looking up. From this point forward nothing is seen or heard that happens in heaven. All action takes place on earth, as it did before 4:1.

16 RevelationRevelation Two structural questions of concern Two structural questions of concern: Parousia Note: After 19:11, all the accounts take place from an earthly perspective, looking up. John’s vision of the Parousia is that no longer does the divine act from heaven but rather breaks into the world. Note: Connections with other places in Revelation. 19:18 vs. 6:15; 19:15 vs. 12:5 19:19 vs. 16:14, 1619:16 vs. 17:14

17 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:22 Inaugural Vision of Christ and 7 Messages to 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven (4-5) and Subsequent Judgment (6-16) 4:116:21 17:1-19:10 City: Babylonthe Harlot andher fall Parousia City: NewJerusalem andBride of Lamb 21:9-22:5 Two Women 19:11- 21:8 Note verbal connections / literary links from one section to another Voice at outset of book (1:9-11) is the same who summons him to heaven (4:1) and connects with angel in 17:1-19:10 & 21:9-22:6

18 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:22 Inaugural Vision of Christ and 7 Messages to 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven (4-5) and Subsequent Judgment (6-16) 4:116:21 17:1-19:10 City: Babylonthe Harlot andher fall Parousia City: NewJerusalem andBride of Lamb 21:9-22:5 Two Women 19:11- 21:8 Introduction 7 Churches but Each letter is relevant to a specific church situation but each is also serves as a different introduction to the rest of the book. 7 Promises to conquer (2:7,11,17,26- 28; 3:5,12,21) Call is to be victorious. But “victory” is only defined in rest of book. (Promise does not occur again until 21:7) Call to engage in eschatological battle (Chap 4-18) to reach destiny (Chap 22)

19 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:22 Inaugural Vision of Christ and 7 Messages to 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven (4-5) and Subsequent Judgment (6-16) 4:116:21 17:1-19:10 City: Babylonthe Harlot andher fall Parousia City: NewJerusalem andBride of Lamb 21:9-22:5 Two Women 19:11- 21:8 Note verbal connections / literary links from one section to another Link between 1:9-3:22 comes in the seventh (climactic) promise made by the angelic voice “To him who overcomes, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I overcame and sat down with my Father on his throne.” (3:21) This is last of 7 promises and it is not so much directed to the church at Laodicea but anticipates Christ’s conquest and enthronement in Chapter 5 and worship scenes in Chap 19. Thus, book is not just seven letters to seven churches but more!

20 RevelationRevelation Observations about structure of Introduction Observations about structure of Introduction: 1. The uses of seven introductions enables the book to engage with seven different contexts in which the book would be heard. Thus, it shows how issues at work in each local context are to be understood in light of God’s cosmic battle and plan for establishing His Kingdom 2. Book is written as more than just a generic application of “grace to endure in the midst of persecution.” For encouragement in the face of persecution was only one of the needs of the churches. For some, judgment in the rest of the book may apply to them, since they may be compromising with the “beast.”

21 RevelationRevelation Observations about structure of Introduction Observations about structure of Introduction: 3. The seven letters also prepares us to recognize that John assumes a wider readership than just seven individual churches. That John sees this as the culmination of all biblical prophecy assumes relevance for all Christians. The number 7 assumes these 7 as representative of the whole church. The conclusion of each oracle summons all people to listen: “Let anyone who has an ear listen to what the Spirit says to the seven churches.” (2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22)

22 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue Heaven-Centered Dominated by Praise & Worship Earth-Centered Dominated by Chaos & Judgment : :11-22:5 Heaven & Earth United Vertical component; God’s final plan unfolded. Horizontal aspect; Church should worship in spite of present sufferings Spatial Breakdown Heaven & Earth

23 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:22 Inaugural Vision of Christ and 7 Messages to 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven (4-5) and Subsequent Judgment (6-16) 4:116:21 17:1-19:10 City: Babylonthe Harlot andher fall Parousia City: NewJerusalem andBride of Lamb 21:9-22:5 Two Women 19:11- 21:8 Climactic Movement to New Jerusalem/Eternal Reign Climax 22:1-5

24 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:22 Inaugural Vision of Christ and 7 Messages to 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven (4-5) and Subsequent Judgment (6-16) 4:116:21 17:1-19:10 City: Babylonthe Harlot andher fall Parousia City: NewJerusalem andBride of Lamb 21:9-22:5 Two Women 19:11- 21:8 Problem: Church is in the World; but world is winning Solution Solution: Worship the Lamb

25 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:93:22 Inaugural Vision of Christ and 7 Messages to 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven (4-5) and Subsequent Judgment (6-16) 4:116:21 17:1-19:10 City: Babylonthe Harlot andher fall Parousia City: NewJerusalem andBride of Lamb 21:9-22:5 Two Women 19:11- 21:8

26 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:9- 3:22 7 Churches Vision of Heaven 4:1- 5:14 16:21 17:1-22:5 Two Women Babylon & New Jerusalem Seven Bowls (15:1; 15:5- 16:21) 6:1 Heavenly Throne  Earthly Rule Seven Seals (6:1-8:1; 8:3-5) Seven Trumpets (8:2; 8:8- 11:19) Note the overlapping of the 7 Trumpets into the 7 seals and the 7 Bowls into the 7 Trumpets. This may indicate that these are not sequential/chronological but interlocking (particularization). E.g. 7 Trumpets as a whole is described as the 7 th seal and the 7 th Trumpet as a whole is the 7 Bowls.

27 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:9-3:22 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven 4:1-5:14 16:21 17:1-22:5 Two Women Babylon & New Jerusalem Seven Seals (6:1-8:1; 8:3-5) Seven Trumpets (8:2; 8:8-11:19) Interlude – Chap Seven Bowls (15:1-16:21) 6:1 Heavenly Throne  Earthly Rule Means: Earthly Judgment Ends: All heaven Worship (5:13-14) Ends: All heaven and earth Worship

28 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:9-3:22 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven 4:1-5:14 16:21 17:1-22:5 Two Women Babylon & New Jerusalem Seven Seals (6:1-8:1; 8:3-5) Seven Trumpets (8:2; 8:8-11:19) Interlude – Chap Seven Bowls (15:1-16:21) 6:1 Heavenly Throne  Earthly Rule Note the verbal connection: “God’s temple in heaven opened” (11:19) and “In heaven, the temple, that is the Tabernacle of witness was opened (15:5) to reconnect after the interlude of 12-14

29 Revelation :1- 5:15 Vision of Heaven 16:21 Seven Bowls (15:1; 15:5- 16:21) 6:1 Heavenly Throne (4-5)  Earthly Rule (6-16) Seven Seals (6:1-8:1; 8:3-5) Seven Trumpets (8:2; 8:8- 11:19)

30 Revelation :1- 5:15 Vision of Heaven 16:21 Seven Bowls (15:1; 15:5- 16:21) 6:1 Heavenly Throne (4-5)  Earthly Rule (6-16) Seven Seals (6:1-8:1; 8:3-5) Seven Trumpets (8:2; 8:8- 11:19) Interlude 3 Interlude 3: Chap Delay for the sake of the People of God & their conflict with evil. (Note: New material, new language, New chronology) Interlude 1 Interlude 1: 7:1-17 Between 6 & 7 Seal The delay is for the sake of protecting God’s people from Judgment. Interlude 2 Interlude 2: 10:1-11:13 Between 6 & 7 Trumpets Delay for the sake of the prophetic witness of God’s people

31 RevelationRevelation 1:1-822:6-21 ProloguePrologue EpilogueEpilogue The Revelation of Jesus Christ 1:9-3:22 7 Churches Inaugural Vision of Heaven 4:1-5:14 16:21 17:1-22:5 Two Women Seven Seals, Seven Trumpets, Seven Bowls 6:1 Heavenly Throne  Earthly Rule Note recurring phrase in each series of Judgments and The seventh in the series is linked to one another and anchored to the vision of the Throne by the following phrase(s): Throne: 4:5 From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder. 7 th Seal: 8:5 And the angel took the censer; and he filled it with the fire of the altar and threw it to the earth; and there followed peals of thunder and sounds and flashes of lightning and an earthquake. 7 th Trumpet 11:19 And the temple of God which is in heaven was opened; and the ark of His covenant appeared in His temple, and there were flashes of lightning and sounds and peals of thunder and an earthquake and a great hailstorm. 7 th Bowl 16:18-21Then there came flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder and a severe earthquake.


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