Presentation on theme: "The Trojan War Not Hollywood’s Version How it all started… Eris: Goddess of Discord –Threw the Apple of Discord into a wedding dance (that she wasn’t."— Presentation transcript:
The Trojan War Not Hollywood’s Version
How it all started… Eris: Goddess of Discord –Threw the Apple of Discord into a wedding dance (that she wasn’t invited to) with a tag that read “For the Fairest.” Aphrodite Hera Athena –They all fought over who was the fairest and asked Zeus to judge.
Paris’ Involvement All 3 goddesses promised Paris things if he would choose them… Athena –Promised he would defeat the Greeks Hera –Promised he would be the lord of Europe and Asia Aphrodite –Promised him the fairest mortal to be his bride
Meanwhile, Back in Greece… Helen has married Menelaus and they both rule over Sparta. –Helen’s father, King Tyndareus, warned all of punishment to anyone who disrupted the marriage. Aphrodite led Paris to Sparta for a visit. Menelaus and Helen were very welcoming to him. Then Menelaus left for a business trip to Crete. Paris went back to Troy with Helen.
The Meeting of the Greeks Kings of Greece… –Menelaus (married to Helen) (of Sparta) –Agamemnon (married to Clytemnestra) (of Mycenae) –Nestor (of Pylos) –Odysseus (married to Penelope) (of Ithaca) –Achilles (of Phthia) –Odysseus and Achilles didn’t show up at the meeting.
The Face that Launched 1,000 Ships A strong wind held the ships back because Artemis was angry. The only way to make it up to her was by sacrificing Iphigenia. –Iphigenia was Agamemnon’s oldest daughter. The oracle claimed that the first person to arrive on the shores of Troy would be the first to die in battle…Protesilaus
Odysseus Agamemnon Nestor Menelaus Achilles Mount Ida Ajax
Taking Sides Greeks –Menelaus, Agamemnon, Nestor, Odysseus, Achilles –Ajax, Diomedes, Patroculs –Hera, Athena, Poseidon Trojans –King Priam, Queen Hecuba, Prince Paris, Prince Hector, Prince Aeneas –Aphrodite, Ares, Apollo, Artemis
Battles Menelaus VS Paris (saved by Aphrodite) Diomedes VS Aeneas (saved by Artemis) Diomedes VS Hector (hurt the gods) Patroclus VS Hector –Patroclus was dressed in Achilles’ armor Achilles VS Hector –Patroclus was Achilles’ best friend…his revenge was brutal. –Achilles VS Paris
Those Sneaky Greeks The wooden horse: –Thought up by Odysseus –Laocoon, a priest from Troy, warned his countrymen, “I fear the Greeks, even when they bring gifts.” –Inside the horse: Odysseus, Pyrrhus, Agamemnon, Menelaus
The Battle inside Troy Odysseus Shot Paris Achilles’ son killed King Priam Prince Aeneas escaped Helen was returned to Menelaus
Scholars credit the blind poet Homer with authorship of The Odyssey and The Iliad written about 800 B.C. Both stories were first told orally and may not have been written down until several generations later.
The Odyssey is a story about a hero... Adventure lurks around every corner during Odysseus’s journey home.
The role of gods and goddesses
The Ancient Greeks believed in many different gods and goddesses. The Greeks believed that these gods and goddesses controlled everything in their lives. There was a god for many aspects of life. It was important to please the gods; happy gods helped you, but unhappy gods punished you.
The Greeks believed that the most important gods and goddesses lived at the top of Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in northern Greece.
The gods were a family and, just like a human family, they argued as well as looking after each other.
The Trip Home from Troy Athena felt wronged after the war and convinced Poseidon to make the Greek’s trip home difficult. Storms blew ships in all different directions Odysseus wouldn’t arrive home for another 10 years.
During Odysseus’s journey home, some gods and goddesses helped him. Other gods and goddesses attempted to keep Odysseus from returning home.
Zeus Zeus is the supreme ruler of Mount Olympus and of the gods who reside there.
Athena Athena is the goddess of wisdom, war, the arts, industry, justice and skill. She is also Zeus’s daughter. She frequently helps Odysseus, who was well- known for his clever mind.
Hermes the messenger of the gods In addition to being the god of invention, commerce, and cunning, Hermes is also Zeus’s son. Hermes helps Odysseus several times in The Odyssey.
Some goddesses both help and hinder Odysseus during his journey home. Circe, a goddess and enchantress will use her magic to toy with Odysseus. The sea goddess Calypso delays Odysseus’s return home because of her desire for companionship.
Poseidon Odysseus’s excessive pride angers Poseidon. Poseidon is the god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses. Poseidon is also the father of the one-eyed Cyclopes.
Helios/Apollo As the god of the Sun, Helios rides a chariot drawn by horses through the sky, bringing light to the earth. Odysseus angers Helios when his men ignore Helios’s warnings.
The Heroic Story of Odysseus Odysseus longs to return home after ten years of fighting in the Trojan War. He begins the trip home with 12 ships carrying 720 men. The gods and goddesses toy with Odysseus, creating obstacles which delay his journey home another ten years. Odysseus’s intelligence set him apart from others.
Back in Ithaca In Ithaca, all assumed Odysseus dead except his wife, Penelope and son, Telemachus. Penelope was receiving suitors at her door, but she stalled by claiming to be weaving a burial shroud for Odysseus’ father, Laertes, which had to be done before she could marry. She wove during the day and unwove it at night until the suitors found her out.
Athena’s forgiveness In the end, Athena made it possible for Calypso to release Odysseus so he could go home. She also decided to send Telemachus on a journey of his own to seek news of his father. Athena went to Telemachus disguised as an old man and told him to go to Nestor and Menelaus to find news.
Story within a Story The Odyssey has two plots; the main plot is of Odysseus traveling from Calypso’s island to his home in Ithaca. While Odysseus is traveling to Ithaca, he stops at many places along the way telling the story of where he has been as he goes.
Important Literary Terms Epic Epic Hero Epic Simile Epithet
Epic An epic is a long narrative poem that tells about the adventures of a hero who reflects the ideals and values of a nation or race. The epic portrays the past, but it is an imaginary past.
Epic Hero An epic hero is a larger-than-life figure, usually male, who embodies the ideals of a nation or race. Epic heroes take part in long, dangerous adventures and accomplish great deeds that require courage and superhuman strength.
Epic Simile A simile is a comparison of two things using like or as. An EPIC SIMILE is a longer, more detailed simile that can go on for several lines. Example: “And Odysseus let the bright molten tears run down his cheeks, weeping [like] the way a wife mourns for her lord on the lost field where he has gone down fighting the day of wrath that came upon his children...”
Epithet An epithet is a brief descriptive phrase that helps to characterize a person or thing. Example: “Son of Laertes and the gods of old, Odysseus, master mariner and soldier...” Epithets were used to give story telling a musical effect.