Presentation on theme: "The Fight for the Right to Vote"— Presentation transcript:
1The Fight for the Right to Vote “ Deeds not Words”The Fight for the Right to Vote
2Women and the Vote Aims: Identify the reasons why women did not have the vote.Outline two groups who campaigned for change – the Suffragists and the Suffragettes.
3Key WordsDemocracy:All adults have the right to take part in regular, fair and free elections.Suffrage:The right to voteFranchise:Militant:Prepared to use violence
4Extension of the Franchise In the 19th Century Britain was not a democracy.Three great reform acts 1832, 1867 and 1884 gradually extended the franchise to most men.Women were not allowed to vote at all.
5Votes for Women Women were treated as second class citizens. Their role was to be a good wife and mother.Men argued women were too emotional and irrational to be trusted with the vote.They could not legally own property and her belongings automatically became the property of her husband.Society looked down on divorce and it was almost impossible to escape an unhappy marriage.Women knew they would never achieve equality with men unless they had the vote.
6The SuffragistsIn 1867 MP John Stuart Mill proposed that women should be given the vote. This was rejected.Women Suffragists, who were mainly middle class campaigned peacefully through letters and petitions hoping to persuade the government to change its mind.In 1897 all the women’s suffrage societies joined together in the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) led by Millicent Fawcett.
7Suffragette SourcesOn the next couple of slides you will examine different sources about the Suffragettes.How useful are these sources as evidence of the Suffragettes campaign to get votes for women?
9Detail Purpose Accuracy Authorship Date On 2 July 1909, Marion Wallace Dunlop went onhunger strike because she was treated like anordinary criminal. After 91 hours without food shewas released. In September, the Home Secretaryordered force feeding. Many people werehorrified at the cruelty of theGovernment.An extract from ‘Scotland and Britain’ by SandraChalmers and Larry Cheyne (2004).AuthorshipDate
11The WSPUIn 1903 frustrated by their lack of success, Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughter Christabel broke away from the NUWSS and formed their own suffrage movement the Women’s Social and Political Union.
12Tactics The main aim of the WSPU was to attract publicity. Initially women disrupted political meetings, held demonstrations and devised publicity stunts like chaining themselves to the railings at Downing Street.They did get publicity but they were often ridiculed.
13The SuffragettesDespite their efforts the women were still no nearer to getting the vote.After 1905 more militant action was proposed even if it meant breaking the law.A number of arrests and imprisonments followed as the women were charged with disorderly conduct.The Daily Mail coined the nickname the Suffragettes.
14Hunger StrikesIn 1909 Marion Wallace Dunlop was the first Suffragette to go on hunger strike in prison.The Government were alarmed by this and they decided to force feed the hunger strikers.Struggling suffragettes were held down and rubber tubes two feet long were pushed down their noses into their stomachs and liquid food forced into them.
15Black FridayIn 1910 a peaceful demonstration to the House of Commons ended in violent action by the police against the demonstrators.At this time a bill (proposed law) was put to Parliament to give women the vote.However there was not enough support and the bill failed.This photo appeared in the press the next day entitled Black Friday.
16The Wild PeriodIn 1912, hundreds of women took to the streets of London to protest after, once again, Parliament refused to give women the vote.They smashed shop windows on Oxford street and even threw stones at 10 Downing Street.At the Derby in 1913 Emily Wilding Davison threw herself in front of the King’s horse and was killed she was the first suffragette martyr.
17The Cat and Mouse ActThere was uproar in the press when news of the force feeding was leaked.The Government passed the Prisoner’s Temporary Discharge Act to allow ill suffragettes to go home, recover, then rearrested them in an attempt to prevent any actual deaths from hunger strike.This Suffragette poster shows what they thought about the government.
18Further ViolenceJanuary to July 1914 there were 107 incidents of arson11 works of art were damaged including the Rokeby VenusTelegraph wires were cut.Acid was poured through letterboxesLiberal MPs including the Prime Minister – Herbert Asquith were physically attacked.
19The Rokeby VenusOn March 10th 1914, Mary Richardson attacked the painting with a meat cleaver.She was sentenced to six months imprisonment – the maximum sentence for destruction of an artwork.
20Did Violence help the Suffragette Cause? YesThe brutal treatment given in prison won the support of the public.The government were very concerned that there would be an increase in violence used by the SuffragettesThe violence kept the Suffragette issue in the forefront of public attentionNoMany people were convinced that the Suffragettes were mentally unstable.The government could not be seen to give way to violenceViolence provided the government with an excuse not to give the vote.The violence of the Suffragettes undid much of the good work of the peaceful Suffragists.
21Nickname of Organisation Revision TaskNickname of OrganisationSuffragistsSuffragettesProper NameYear It Was Set UpLeaderAimTacticsPeacefulMilitantExamples of Tactics
22The First World War Aims: Identify the role that women played during the Great WarIdentify the reasons why women got the vote in 1918.
23War Breaks Out On the 4th August 1914 Britain declared war on Germany. Mrs Pankhurst called off the suffragette campaign and urged women to join the war effort.Women joined the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VADs) as nurses and took over all sorts of men’s jobs.Women risked their lives working in the munitions factoriesThe women’s war effort was highly praised by the public and the press
24Women rubber workers building treads on tyres, Lancashire Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps preparing food at an army camp in FranceWomen rubber workers building treads on tyres, Lancashire
25Women operating cranes in a shell-filling factory Railway Workers cleaning carriages
26The Representation of the People Act 1918 Many soldiers who had been out in France fighting for their country did not have the right to vote.A Speaker’s conference was called to discuss that and the issue of women voting.The new Prime Minister Lloyd George and other MPs were more sympathetic to the idea of giving women the vote.It was decided to give women over the age of 30 the right to vote – it was mainly middle class women who benefited.Women did not achieve voting rights to equal to men until 1928.
27Did the Women’s War Effort get the Vote? There was a great deal of praise for women especially women munitions workers but under the 30 year age rule most munitions workers were left out.The government were worried that there might be renewed violence by the suffragettes.In France where there was no corresponding suffragette movement women did not get the voteHowever women in other democratic countries eg New Zealand, Australia, Finland, Denmark, Norway and Canada were getting the vote. How could Britain lag behind?
28Did Violence help the Suffragette Cause? YesThe brutal treatment given in prison won the support of the public.The government did not want a renewal of pre war violenceThe violence kept the suffragette issue in the forefront of public attentionNoA lot of people were convinced that the suffragettes were mentally unstable.The government could not be seen to give way to violenceViolence provided the government with an excuse not to give the vote.The violence of the suffragettes undid much of the good work of the peaceful suffragists.
29Women in Parliament17 women candidates stood in the 1919 election, only one Constance Markiewicz was elected but she refused her seat in the commons.The first woman to enter parliament was Nancy Astor in 1919.The first and only woman Prime Minister so far was Margaret Thatcher elected in 1979Currently 144 out of 650 MPs are women.