Presentation on theme: "English words derived from Greek Mythology 源 于希腊神话的英语词汇 Made by Olivia."— Presentation transcript:
English words derived from Greek Mythology 源 于希腊神话的英语词汇 Made by Olivia
English is a fascinating language, particularly in that most of our words come from other languages. While most words come from some sort of root words that have travelled from ancient languages to modern lexicons, some come from myths and stories of gods and goddesses, particularly from stories from ancient Greece.
Apollo & Daphne
Apollo and Daphne According to Greek, Daphne was a nymph (a female minor nature deity), daughter either of Peneus and Creusa in Thessaly, or of the river Ladon in Arcadia, who had scorned Apollo. Apollo was a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy.PeneusCreusa Thessalythe river LadonArcadia
One day, Apollo chaffed Eros for toying with a weapon more suited to a man. Eros wanted to make Apollo pay for making fun of his archery skills and to demonstrate the power of love’s arrow. whereupon he wounded him with a golden dart; simultaneously, however, Eros shot a leaden arrow into Daphne, causing her to be repulsed by Apollo.
Apollo had a infatuation for Daphne. Following a spirited chase by Apollo, Daphne fled and prayed to her father, Peneus, for help, and he transformed her into the laurel tree.
Though Daphne changed into a laurel tree, Apollo still loved her deeply. Since then, The laurel became sacred to Apollo, and were fashioned into a crown or wreath of honor for the victors, poets and heroes at the Pythian Games (held in honor of Apollo ). This symbolism has been widespread ever since.
Daphne means laurel （月桂树） As shy as Daphne （羞怯如达芙妮）来表 示少女羞羞答答的样子。 Laureate （桂冠, 资金〔荣誉〕获得者） In English, the word laureate has come to signify eminence or association with literary or military glory. It is also used for winners of the Nobel Prize.
Halcyon 翠鸟 A halcyon is a mythical bird—often identified as a kingfisher—said to breed in a floating nest at sea during the winter solstice, duringkingfisher which time it charms the wind and waves into calm. The term originates from the Greek myth of Alcyone.Alcyone -----“Halcyon Fields”
In Greek mythology, Alcyone was the daughter of Aeolusthe (ruler of the winds). She married Ceyx, the king of Thessaly and son of Eosphorus, the Morning Star. They were very happy together in Trachis, and often sacrilegiously called each other "Zeus" and "Hera". This angered Zeus.
So while Ceyx was at sea, the god threw a thunderbolt at his ship. Soon after, Morpheus (God of Dreams) disguised as Ceyx appeared to Alcyone as an apparition to tell her of his fate, and she threw herself into the sea in her grief. Out of compassion, the gods changed them both into halcyon birds, named after her.
In "halcyon days," the seven days in winter when storms never occur, Alcyone (as a kingfisher) laid her eggs and made her nest on the beach. Her father Aeolus, god of the winds, restrained the winds and calmed the waves so she could do so in safety. The phrase has since become a term used to describe a peaceful time generally.
Cupid & Psyche
Envious and jealous of the beauty of a mortal girl named Psyche, Venus asks her son Cupid to use his golden arrows while Psyche sleeps, so that when she awakens, Venus would place a vile creature for her to fall in love with. Cupid finally agrees to her commands after a long debate.VenusCupid
As he flies to Psyche's room at night, he turns himself invisible so no one can see him fly in through her window. He takes pity on her, for she was born too beautiful for her own safety. As he slowly approaches, careful not to make a sound, he readies one of his golden arrows. He leans over Psyche while she is asleep and before he can scratch her shoulder with the arrow, she awakens, startling him, for she looks right into his eyes, despite his invisibility. This causes him to scratch himself with his arrow and fall deeply in love with her.
He cannot continue his mission, for every passing second he finds her more appealing. He reports back to Venus shortly after and the news enrages her. Venus places a curse on Psyche that keeps her from meeting a suitable husband, or any husband at that. As she does this, it upsets Cupid greatly, and he decides as long as the curse stays on Psyche, he will no longer shoot arrows, which will cause the temple of Venus to fall.
After months of no one — man or animal — falling in love, marrying, or mating, the Earth starts to grow old, which causes concern to Venus, for nobody praises her for Cupid's actions. Finally, she agrees to listen to Cupid's demands, allowing him one thing to have his own way. Cupid desires Psyche. Venus, upset, agrees to his demands only if he begins to work immediately. He accepts the offer and takes off, shooting his golden arrows as fast as he can, restoring everything to the way it should be. People again fall in love and marry, animals far and wide mate, and the Earth begins to look young once again.
However, Psyche still endured many trials foisted on her by Cupid' mother Venus. Psyche suffered a lot, including a trip to the underworld. However, she never gives up. Eventually Zeus sanctioned the marriage of Cupid and Psyche, and granted Psyche immortality. They lived happily and have a daughter, called Voluptas the goddess of "sensual pleasures", whose Latin name means "pleasure" or "bliss".VoluptasLatin
In Greek mythology, Psyche was the deification of the human soul. The Greek word psyche literally means "spirit, breath, life or animating force". For Freud （弗洛伊德） psyche means mind and psychic refers to mental activity. Some related words ： psycho （精神分析）、 psychoanalyst （精神分 析学）、 psychology （心理学）、 psychodrama （心理剧）
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