Presentation on theme: "Introduction Killer strikes the island of Martinique and killed approximately 26,000 to 36,000 people living Saint-Pierre in 1902. This eruption was one."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Killer strikes the island of Martinique and killed approximately 26,000 to 36,000 people living Saint-Pierre in 1902. This eruption was one of the most devastating event in France’s history. It left the island of Martinique in rowan, it economy devastated, died crops buried in ash and reduced St. Pierre to rubble and looters ravaged city. This eruption would forced the world to act in the event of an eruption and to move people to safely and out of the way of pyroclastic flows, surges, and mudflows. (Boer and Sanders) A reawakening in 1929 On August 16th a sudden outburst threw a vapor column, and light ash falls. Some landslides were reported thereafter on the summit. September 16th a violent eruption caused spontaneous evacuations of all the villages around the volcanoes. The population was allowed to return to their homes at the beginning of October, after an assessment made by a visiting geologist. October 14th a new eruption, far more violent than the previous ones, threw dense ash falls on Prêcheur. October 18th the whole western side was covered with ashes. October 22nd eruption delivered a pyroclastic flow which took 10 minutes to reach the sea along the Blanche river valley. (Pelée. com) Eruptive History Since the colonizing the island four eruptions have occurred: l 1792- a minor events, a violent earthquake vents on open near the crater and scorched trees and killed many birds and there was a strong sulfur smell in the area. l 1851- Ash eruption with small mudflow, some tremors, but NO lava and the area smelled of hydrogen sulfide. l The big catastrophic eruption of 1902- kill l A reawakening in 1929 Conclusions (1)First recognized example of what French geologists call nuée ardente (glowing cloud) today know as a pyroclastic flow. (2)Put the study of volcanoes form a minor branch of geology in to an important field science of it own. (3)After the May 8 th eruption on the island of Martinique, people were evacuated were a new eruption was to begin. (Boer and Sanders) References Cited mount-pelee.com http://www.mount-pelee.com/1902-a-major-disaster-6.html Volcanoes: Francis, Peter, Oppenheimer, Clive ED. 2 Oxford University Press Oxford, New York 2004. pps. 72-81 Volcanoes in Human History: The Far-Reaching Effects of Major Eruptions. Jelle Zeilinga de Boer and Donald Theodore Sanders; Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey 2002. pps. 187-207 USGS: Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver,Washington http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/ Mt. Pelée: Killer of the Caribbean Prepared by: Alicia Thompson Western Oregon University The Big Catastrophic Eruption of 1902 Timeline: Year of 1902 "Cyparis said that the cell he occupied in the St. Pierre prison was an underground dungeon, which had no other window than a grated aperture in the upper part of the door. On the morning of May 8th, while he was waiting for breakfast, it suddenly grew very dark ; and almost immediately afterward hot air, mixed with fine ashes, came in through the door-grating and burned him. He rushed and jumped in agony about the cell and cried for help ; but there was no answer. He heard no noise, saw no fire, and smelled nothing except "what he thought was his own body, burning." The intense heat lasted only a moment, and during that time he breathed as little as possible. There was no smoke in the cell and the hot air came in through the door-grating without any noticeable rush or blast. He had on, at the time, hat, shirt, and trousers, but no shoes. His clothing did not take fire, and yet his back was very severely burned under his shirt.“ (Pelée. com) Location Mt. Pelée is location on the French colonized island of Martinique along the Caribbean Subduction zone. The Atlantic Plate subducted under the Caribbean Plate about 2 centimeters a year at about 50 to 60 degree angle. Mt. Pelée is a stratovolocano capable of eruption deadly gases, tephra fall, lava flows, mudflows, pyroclastic flows and surges, landslides, and tsunami. (Boer and Sanders) (see picture below) Survivor Louis Cyparis (all so knew as Ludger Sylbaris ) Per eruptions events: – An ash eruption Main eruption events: –Ash begins erupting –All the streams began drying up –Mudflow ( destroys a sugar mill) Kills 25 –Rivers around the volcano began to flood; communications are knocked out; volcano is glowing as hot magma had broken though to the surface. Lava began poring the creator from a new lava dome –Houses began collapsing and trees fall of weight ash –A volcano commission goes to the create, looks AROUND and said –Pyroclastic flow and surge emanating form a lateral blast rolled down the mountain at an estimated speed of 160 kilometers per hour or more with temperature at lest 900 degrees Celsius destroy St. Pierre. Grand-Rivière, Macouba and Basse-Pointe are destroyed by mudflows –Another pyroclastic flow finished what was left Post eruption –Avalanche destroy the villages of Morne-Rouge, and Ajoupa-Bouillon, and claims about 1,000 lives. (Francis, Oppenheimer, Pelée. com, Boer and Sanders, USGS) “All the phenomena which have occurred so far are normal, and are commonly observed on all volcanoes around the world. Since the craters of the volcano are wide open, the expansion of the vapors will continue with no earthquake or rock projection. According to the location of the craters and the position of the valleys leading to the sea, the City of St. Pierre is perfectly safe.” (Pelée. com) April May 2th 3th 5th 6th 7th 8th 20th Aug MT. PELÉE Definitions Pyroclastic flows are high-density mixtures of hot, dry rock fragments and hot gases that move away from their source vents at high speeds. They may result from the explosive eruption of molten or solid rock fragments, or both, or from the collapse of vertical eruption columns of ash and larger rock fragments. (USGS) Pyroclastic surges are turbulent, low-density clouds of rock debris and air or other gases that move over the ground surface at high speeds. They typically hug the ground and depending on their density and speed, may or may not be controlled by the underlying topography. Pyroclastic surges are of two types: "hot" pyroclastic surges that consist of "dry" clouds of rock debris and gases that have temperatures appreciably above 100 degrees C, and "cold" pyroclastic surges, that consist of rock debris and steam or water at or below a temperature of 100 degrees C. (USGS) Abstract In 1902, Mt. Pelée erupted and killed 26,000 to 36,000 people in Saint-Pierre on the island of Martinique. Mt. Pelee is located along a subduction zone between the Caribbean and South American Plates. Since colonization of the island, four eruptions have occurred: one in 1792, another in 1851, the catastrophic eruption of 1902, and a reawakening in 1929. This stratovolocano is capable of erupting deadly gases, tephra fall, lava flows, mudflows, pyroclastic flows and surges, landslides, and creating tsunamis. In 1902, Mt. Pelée produced deadly pyroclastic flows and surges that rolled through the town of Saint-Pierre covering the nearly 30,000 residences and killing most of them. There were a few lucky survivors, like Ludger Sylbaris, who was being held in the town’s underground jail. In 1929, Mt. Pelée again produced a pyroclastic flow. The eruptions in 1902 and 1929 dramatically illustrated two previously undocumented hazards for volcanologists to address, pyroclastic flows and surges. St Pierre ruined (Ph. Lacroix) (Pelée. com) Saint- Pierre after the catastrophe (Ph. A Heilprin) (Pelée. com) St. Pierre before the eruption (Ph. Lacroix) (Pelée. com)
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