4C. Types of economies:Central control of production of goods & services - government ownership of virtually all the means of production—farms, factories, scientific laboratories, shops, and so forth—and organization of those assets into firms managed by employees of the stateMonetary signals control the production and distribution of goods & servicesAdam Smith –”possible to pursue private gain in ways that would further not just the interests of the individual but those of society as a whole.”Smith said that the combination of self-interest, private property, and competition among sellers in markets will lead producers “as by an invisible hand” to an end that they did not intend, namely, the well-being of society.
5SpriceDquantityCapitalism = economic system in which private individuals and business firms carry on the production and exchange of goods and services through a complex network of prices and markets.If a good is not priced, there will be a chronic tendency to over use that good
6Economic development = improvements in efficiency & organization, but not necessarily increases in resource consumptionEconomic growth = material increases in the amount of resources used
7II. The traditional market economy & the environment
8Is the market economy all that bad? YES: Pursuit of economic wealth results in rampant resource consumption, which is accompanied by massive environmental destructionEconomic decision making fails to take environmental considerations into account and thus results in production systems that run roughshod over the Earth
9The problem with the economic system, from an environmental perspective: Economy is based upon environmental degradationI = P X A X T
10Specific Problems:Single-minded dependence upon the law of supply and demand to determine prices (no consideration given to long-term supplies)
11HighMiddleLowUSGDP18.104.22.168.1Energy use5,4691,3175688,148Electricity use8,6881,39135212,331Water use9,67210,2306,5599,985CO2 emissions12.43.5120.1Population957 mil.2.7 billion2.5 billion285 mil.
12B. Myths about economy & environment Environmental protection is bad for the economyEnvironmental protection is about quality of life and economics is about survivalEconomic growth is good, indeed essential
13C. Further Considerations: How big is the economy relative to the global ecosystem that sustains it?How big can the economy become without destroying the global ecosystem, and eventually undercutting its own base of support?How big SHOULD the global economy be – what is the optimal, or best size, for the global economy? (It is conceivable that the largest possible economy might not be the optimum for the long term)
14Understanding the need for change Coming to terms with how “our world” operatesHaving the motivation to come up with new ways of “operating” from an economic perspective
15III. Neoclassical view on economics – an optimistic outlook… A. Basic tenets of the neoclassical view:Environment provides: natural capitol (resources) that are valuable but not indispensableWhatever is scarce, or lost from the environment can be replaced by technology, labor, intelligence or means of productionHuman technology overcomes scarcity through the substitution of human capital for natural capitol and ever higher efficiencies of useIncreased efficiency takes will eliminate environmental degradation & human welfare will be maximized
16The ROLE OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN SUPPLYING MATERIALS, SERVICES AND WASTE SINKS (which together make the human economy possible), IS LARGELY IGNORED.2) ASSUMED THAT HUMAN-MADE CAPITAL CAN BE SUBSTITUTED FOR NATURAL RESOURCES ACROSS THE BOARD.3) REJECTION OF ANY LIMITS ON GROWTH. Unceasing growth is seen as not only possible, but as the best, and perhaps the only, solution to poverty and environmental degradation.4) Human welfare is best served by the view of people acting as “human molecules” who, by pursuing their own interests through the market, inevitably promote the general good.
17Problems w/the neoclassical outlook ExternalitiesSubstitutionCommon-Access ResourcesGeneral Market FailureEthical problems
181. ExternalitiesPhenomenon external to markets and hence does not affect how the market operates, yet shouldCosts incurred may not be included in the price of the good/service… rather must be shared by all who live in the system
192. SubstitutionManufactured capital = natural capital, a unit of one can be exchanged for a unit of the other
213. Common access resources Goods that cannot be charged for because of open access and use by many people…These Resources are NOT protected by traditional property rights, nor exchanged in markets where price would be set by supply and demand.
224. General Market Failure Markets decentralize decision making – value freedom of choiceHowever, decisions may impose costs to individuals not compensated, or benefits to those who don’t pay for the gains…Nonrival goods =Nonexclusive goods =
235. Ethical problemsEconomic growth will be perpetually driven by consumer demandNo incentive to make choices based on any entity but the individualCausa finalis – what is the purpose that causes the action? Or Doing what for what?
24CHEVRON in Ecuador – Case in progress (since 1993) … -spills were recorded at 93 well sites and 10 production stationshigher rates of anemia, kidney problems, tuberculosis, and skin diseases in contaminated communities than in uncontaminated communities in the same region.-50% higher rate of spontaneous abortions for women who drank water within 200 meters of oil facilities compared to those whose water came from further away.-mortality rate among children in the study was found to be 3x higher than the national rate.
26IV. Environmental Economics Basic tenets of environmental economics view:Manufacture capitolHuman economy is dependant upon the environmentHuman economy must increasingly make environmental constraints a more explicit consideration in production & waste disposal
27B. Requirements for environmental economics to work: RedefinitionExplicit determination & measurement of environmental constraints on economic growthDefinition of the functions of the environment & natural resourcesCreation of markets for environmental goods + environmental valuation for natural capitol
28Daly’s framework clarifies the relationships among ultimate means intermediate means to achieve our ultimate ends.Communities are a web of interactions among the environment, the economy and society
29C. Redefining “Growth”, alternatives to the GDP/GNP Genuine progress indicator (GPI)–recognizes economic contributions for aspects previously ignored by the calculation of GDP, e.g. money spent of clean up, money of security systems dealing with crimeEcological Footprint – a tool which calculates the productive land area required to sustain resource consumption and waste assimilation requirements for a defined entity in a single aggregate index.Environmental Sustainability index (ESI) – the progress towards sustainability is scored based on 22 core indicators of which combines into a total of 67 underlying variables. It focuses on environmental systems, stress on environmental systems, human vulnerability in the form of loss of food, social and institutional capacity and global stewardship.Barometer of Sustainability- assesses the region’s progress toward sustainability through the systematic integration of economic, biophysical, and social health indicators. It requires people to state explicitly their assumptions about human ecosystem wellbeing so that calculated sustainability ratings can be scored against desired levels.Index of ecosystem wellbeing -measures trends as a function of land, water, air, biodiversity and resource use indicators. The index of human wellbeing is a function of the wellness of individuals: health, education, unemployment, poverty, earnings and crime on the one hand, business and human actions on the other.
31What’s in the GPI? I. Crime & Family Breakdown II. Household & Volunteer WorkIII. Income DistributionIV. Resource DepletionV. PollutionVI. Long-Term Environmental DamageVII. Changes in Leisure TimeVIII. Defensive ExpendituresIX. Lifespan of Consumer Durables & Public InfrastructureX. Dependence on Foreign Assets
32V. Steady-State Economics People would enjoy the fruits of their savings once they had attained an acceptable standard of livingDoes not aspire to “growth”, rather “development” therefore focuses on increasingly efficient use of stock (capital) and increasing the quality of stock itselfEmphasis placed on the quality and distribution of stock ownership (redistribution of resources rather than growth as the answer to poverty)
33B. Assumptions of the Steady State The environment is a subsystem of the human economy, not invisible…Virtue and character development important, may be harmed by fixation with accumulation of material things“Green-minded activists failed to move the broader public not because they were wrong about the problems, but because the solutions they offered were unappealing to most people”. -Outcome-Driven Innovation Co. Founder