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Science 121 IFSR Conversations Linz 2012 Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MMM M MMMMMMM Position Slides M MMMM M MMMMMMM Work in progress © Helmut K Loeckenhoff MM MMM M
Science 122 FUNCTIONS OF SCIENCE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting Multiple approaches ( the proverbial elephant): multi-method, level…etc Evolutional/historical/universal/global turn: e. Morris, Tarnas, Kahmeman others The influence of the biology, geography; social state: G.Diamond. Morris, others Example: observable symbiosis: predator-prey relationships, parasitism The Tasmanian wolf – extinction; oscillation fox rabbit; steady balance Fennek snail. To find a framework for values and their eventual effects of the scientific approach to life on Human Life and life in general, return to - Evolution ( revolution – evolution ). - Complexity dynamics : (complexity, simplicity out of complexity) complement to - Meaning dynamics (Semiosis, Bio-semiotics) The Meaning - Relation to science Research on the way; indicating a value shift (and emotional shift ) -new Mathematics, logics (multivalued…) Modelling reflects purpose, the culture behind and the basic understanding of wo-man her/himself in their worlds Science appears as a means, which also effects the ends. Principal constraints ? (religious: there are questions which must not be asked) by the human brain*) M *) J.D.Barrow Impossibility Vintage 1999
Science 123 ON SCIENCE AND CULTURE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting Science as a means is what it affects in the actual environment. Worldwide the cultural dependency of science is seen as a advantage. Cultural idiosyncrasies undetected hamper efforts; the multi-cultural approach may open views and new potentials. Science evolved with (higher) consciousness within the potentials and constraints of biology, geography and social/societal status. It developed historically as part of the prevalent culture. The hard core of scientific investigation is co- shaped by indigenous values, habits, modes of argumentation, evaluation, validation a.s.o. As a formal concept science describes a mode of perceiving, co-evaluating and co- acting with the world as perceived on preponderantly cognitive terms. It is structured by formal modelling and particular rules of conclusion, evaluation and validation. The artefacts originating from science need be adapted into the particular culture. Roughly science may be seen as a counterpart/ a polarity to magic working with mainly emotional expectations and rituals. M The co-action with the world, e.g. the inner and outer environments, is aimed at efficiency and effectiveness (symbiosis, sustainability, drivability, potentiality).
Science 124 ON SCIENCE AND EPISTEMOLOGY Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting EPISTEMOLOGY Language of Science: models: formal, analogous, metaphoric, pragmatic ? The map is not the territory. Maps own their own specific logic: Epistemology as a means: heuristics, instrumental...for survival and development. It shapes thought and perception. Methodical rigorousity. It affects balances; competition <> cooperation, exploitation – preservation. Instrumentalisation for power…Misuse. Parasitism Its itself recursive, re-entry, emergent and subject of evolutional rules MODELS ARE DYED IN THE WOOL PURPOSE A Way Human Beings co-act and cope with the world. Unpredictably efficient and (therefore) dangerous. Evolved in general evolution, history; in particular: biology, geography, social status It also depends from our body, brain, inner/outer environments, brain physiology It needs adapt – and act in anticipation ( as in a. to adapt to and open potentials) Science is one of many ways to perceive, act upon; to be complemented by other means SCIENCE QUID PRO QUO LIFE Prometheus Pandora M Emancipating form mere belief, guessing, non-controlled experiences etc. science attempts a systematic, controlled and thus reliably repeatable results by methodical clearness and rigorousity.
Science 125 WHY SCIENCE NEEDS CHANGE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting *)D.L.Rapoport:.R-Reentry. see Internet. **)S. Vrobel: Fractal time. World Scientific S. Vrobel et alii: Simultaneity. Temporal Structures and observer perspectives. World Scientific G. Edelman: Bright air, brilliant fire. On the Matter of Mind. Basic books 1992 *** Jerry Chandler, Internet. Re-focusing on Basic structures processes >Fractals. Fractal time, space, space time. Factuality of material structures, of Life structures* *) >Complexity dynamics, Meaning dynamics >Formal approaches: Mathematics, Logics: see J. Chandler***), perplex numbers; D.L. Rapoport Trans-Disciplinarity >The inclusion of all sciences (including humanities, social/societal, spiritual) into a shared frame of epistemology. >>> A set of basic models >[the Influence of ICT on scientific epistemology; e.g. test, prove; modelling, simulation] Paradigm change : from the 19 fiftieth (K.Lorenz) from the physical to complementing > biological/Life paradigm. Systems Thinking and Science in general focus on Life. > evolutional / historical / (biology, geography, societal status) > Systemic II Open epistemology (re-entry, Moebius, Klein-bottle…* Diego L. Rapoport) M Perception System, Physiology on Epistemology : cognition evaluation validation > Observer: I, II …. Cybernetics 2 Endo- Exo-observer **). A basic comprehensive re- understanding: feed back/forward; recurrence, reflexivity, Re-entry, R-re-entry*); geometry.
Science 126 HOW SCIENCES NEEDS CHANGE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting M Science retracing the process and the resulting structures of evolution. M Linking findings from all disciplines Observer inside - outside Endo – exo Phenomenology ‘New’ Mathematics Geometry Algebra Logics Numbers Transdisciplinarity Evolution Complexity Semiosis SYSTEMS e.g. Incorporation of Meaning Basic Structuring Fractals Fuzzy Systems CYBERNETICS e.g. Self-Reference Circularity Formal Inquiry Systems Test und Prove Base Models Physics - Life Impacts of (Human Brain) physiology Methods and Means Technology Computer SCIENCE Self- Understanding Epistemology Causality: forw backw. Probability Re-understanding cybernetics systems M Science needs actually to cope with the limits of the world and evolvement. Hence: Perception Consciousness Time Space Time
Science 127 N th ORDER SCIENCE: EPISTEMOLOGY Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting The Life Paradigm has been grounded and extended by advanced biology research, the revitalisation of e. biosemiotics, but also by formal research complexity, fractals, re-entry etc. shaping forms of existence valid for transdisciplinary attempts. Accordingly systems sciences increasingly focuses for the last decennia to understand LIFE. The systems(cybernetics approach is integrated in disciplinary methodology; Systems thinking itself focuses on life. See e.g. the key phenomenon of anticipation ( R. Rosen, followers). Transdisciplinary epistemology is to be developed grounds on and applies also evolutional (and historical) approaches. Heralded e.g. by K.Lorenz in the 50 th ( Biology Paradigm), systems thinking (science and cybernetics) opened a view to grounded systematic methodical approaches to ‘soft’ sciences. The move met attempts e.g. in statistical psychology to adopt methodical rigorousity as far as substrates/correlates offered opportunity. Largely basing on systems and cybernetics gradually accepted methods were developed indigenous to the characteristics of the topic. Statistics in the widest understanding of the term were adapted, mathematical formulae were found to describe soft systems. Experimental models and interpretation, evaluation and validation modes were designed. The specific qualities of soft disciplines as sciences were explored. Historically Epistemology has been actually been dominated by the Physical Sciences and from Newton Physics. Emphasis prevails on measurement in physical measures. With Max Planck, Einstein, e.g.Quantum Electro Dynamics QED (Feinman) the mechanical Paradigm is extended, yet not officially profoundly accepted. Anthropologies, Humanities and other ‘soft sciences’ were not included and often attributed more to soft ‘philosophy’ than to scientific epistemology. M
Science 128 SCIENCES ADVANCING TO N th ORDER Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting M Science retracing the process and the resulting structures of co-evolution. M Linking findings from all disciplines Observer inside – outside Emergence Endo – exo Phenomenology ‘New’ Mathematics Geometry Algebra LIFE logics numbers Algorithms Transdisciplinarity Evolution Complexity Semiosis SYSTEMICS e.g. Incorporation of Meaning Investigate Basic Structures, Relations Fractals Fuzzy Systems… CYBERNETICS e.g. Self-Reference Circularity Math Logics Program(ming) Life: Perplex numbers; Primes Reconsider Inquiry Systems Test, Prove Base Models Physics - Life Explore Impacts (Human Brain) physiology Methods and Means Technology Computer SCIENCE Self- Understanding Sophisticating Epistemology Causality: forward backward. Probability Re-understanding cybernetics systems M Actually Science needs to cope with the limits of the world and constraints of human evolvement. Perception Consciousness Time Space Time
Science 129 N th ORDER SCIENCE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting M Distinctions are arbitrary if grounded, non-exclusive, blending into each other Focus Matter Object The world as it appears OBJECTIVE Physical 1 st WorldScienc e Positivism Disciplines follow Reason How it ‘is’ The Cuts Relative to Perception How it appears 2 nd Focus Perception, Control The World the scientist co-acts with CYBERENTICS 1 st - 2 nd order World Scientist Holistic Connectivity Webs How it has become The world science and scientist are part of WORLD – BIOLOGY EVOLUTION HISTORY Evolutio n Focus Life; Emergence Anticipation 3 rd WorldScience Being Basic Relations. Mental Constructs FRACTALS. SEMIOSIS IN-FORMATION Focus Infinity Selection Enaction Field Generic Deep Structures Rre-entry Klein-bottle What is possible 4 th
Science st ORDER SCIENCE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MMM M MMMMMMM M M MMMM M MMMMMMM Mechanics. Efficient causality MM MMM M Focus Matter Object The world as it appears OBJECTIVE Physical 1 st WorldScienc e Hypothetical) Positivism Disciplines follow Reason Reality ‘ How it is’
Science 1211 SCIENCE 1 st ORDER Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MM M 1 st Order: The world as it is experienced (and in the case of science: measured ’) in such a way that communication is possible on shared experiences.(qualia) The consciousness mind and its brain have both evolved in evolution following its universal principles (see transdisciplinary model). They act as a unity. The individual consciously co-acting with the ‘world’ is in continuous interference with its e.g. cultural environments. Both are formed by and dependent from each other. Each individual creates its own world and Identity. Reality is what can be experienced: Positivism, naïve up to Popper’s critical hypothetical positivism. The observer is seen at the same level as reality as perceived and as apart of it. A reality aligning to sensory perceptions is presumed principally > 1:1 Efficient causality prevails 1 st order ontologies. MMMM M MMMM M M Science: Science is based on linear efficient causation, formal/ – material; – but not causa finalis. Analytical – synthetic Cybernetics: linear, causal control 1 st order. Epistemology Newton,. Einstein, Quantum mechanics MMMMM MM MMM M
Science nd ORDER SCIENCE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting World 3 Cybernetic Soros Feedback??Will? Telos? World 2 M World 1 MMMM Note: the introduction of the observer is a necessary, but by no means sufficient addition to understand 2 nd order science. The observer makes ware of other connected reconsiderations necessary. A weak, pragmatic stimulus to transdisciplinarity. Observers World MMM Linz 2012 Team2 ? 0pen Meaning and Pattern MMM Form Relation among groups Matter variable Observer M MM Events ? World The ‘Cuts’ Relative to Perception How it appears Focus Perception, Control World the scientist observes co-acts with CYBERENTICS 1th to 2 nd ORDER Description Sense Ideas values 2 nd World Scientist
Science 1213 SCIENCE 2 nd ORDER Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting M Science of 1 st order accounting for the mutual interference observer- object. Social Science Distinguish: Internal and External Observer.(O.E. Roessler) Limits of observation M 2 nd order : The´observer is acknowledged as the ‘observer participant’ as a dynamic system and as such as a system in its own right. See also Endo- Exo- observer Expressively is accounted for: a) the dependence of the observer of its inner and outer - environments and its interferences in the act of observation b). The dependence includes the approaches, modes, methods to build 1 st order ontologies, scales, value and validation systems. Constructing of 2 nd order ontologies >< Networking. Science as part of the social self-description and self-control MMMM M MMMM M MMMMMM Science: Constructivism (radical or moderate). The world is shaped by the eyes of the observer- participant. See H.Maturana, F Varela. Phenomenological approach: Husserl Merleau Ponti Self-reference and self-organisation (autopoiesis) relay on circular causality. Complexity is acknowledged. In its pursue directionality is observed, still mainly as a result of constraints and (strange) attractors. Interaction with Meaning Dynamics Bio-semiosis revives both from own old origins as by systems and cybernetics and biology (!) Phenomenology reconsidered. Relational Science (R. Rosen followers) MM MMM M
Science rd ORDER SCIENCE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MMM M MMMMMMM A strong stimulus to transdisciplinarity: a) pragmatically (complexity, semiosis of problems) and b) the separation of the disciplines (conceptual language, inquiry systems, epistemology – force a transdisciplinary attempt. M MMMM M MMMMMMM M MM MMM M Holistic Connectivity Webs How it has become The world science and scientist are part of WORLD – BIOLOGY EVOLOUTION HISTORY Evolutio n Focus Life; Emergence Anticipation 3 rd WorldScience
Science 1215 SCIENCE 3 rd ORDER Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MM M 3 rd order The base systems/preconditions of the 1 st and 2 nd order science are investigated in detail. The observer is nested into a context and selects the scale of observation the order-observer relation and the implications for nesting its ontologies. Its subjectivity. Inclusion of concepts as the Implicate Order (D. Bohm) MMMM M MMMM M M Epistemology Systems / Cybernetics are imbedded in a Science of Life. ´Relational Epistemology (R.Rosen followers). Basic structures: fractals. Universals. Transdisciplinarity. MMMMM MM MMM Science questioning, exploring the structures behind ´1 st and in particular 2 nd order science : the qualities of the ‘world’ as evolved and containing humans and human science. E.g Fractals as a recurring structure implying base modes of perception as time, space, time- space. Measure and Scale, Calibration. Anticipation. The dissolution of units (indivisibility) and their structures down to constants and limits (as Planck length) and modules. Universals are reconsidered, any aspects. Phenomenology as the base scientific approach. Logics. Mathematics reconsidered. (Bio-) Semiosis causa finalis.
Science th ORDER SCIENCE Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MMM M M *)D.L.Rapoport MMMMM The step to 4 th order science requests epistemological moves methodical rigorousity, cautious proceeding, critical interpretation and validation. Changes in the epistemological concepts e.g. of - the observer (endo-exo-) and - Recurrence, (self- Reference) reflexivity, re-entry, the Recursive Re-entry = Rreentry (Möbius, Klein Bottle *). Self-reference e.g. is discussed. Self-organization including self-organized learning need be scrutinized as to the assumptions behind. The possible impact on the networks of epistemological presumptions is to be reconsidered as well as consequences for its further development. The central phenomena of emergence may be affected. Religious people worldwide tend to be believers in spiritual phenomena. The interpretation of research on on physiological/psychological correlates and substrates needs be critical and epistemologically well grounded. There is danger of over-interpretation as well as uncritical rejection, not to name the role of vested interests and mental inertia (Th. Kuhn). Research will focus on process in an evolutional, historical, case bound frame. Mental constructs as ideology, myth, Weltanschauung, paradigms and personal convictions will be included. A particular epistemological base seems emerging. M MMMM M MMMMMMM M MM MMM M Being Basic Relations. Mental Constructs FRACTALS. SEMIOSIS IN-FORMATION Focus Infinity Selection Enaction Field Generic Deep Structures R-re-entry Klein-bottle What is possible 4 th
Science 1217 SCIENCE 4 th ORDER Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MMM M M In the positive: science of 4 th order manifests scientific access to mixed or pure mental constructs in the semiotic sphere. It will begin with the physical/physiological substrates and correlates to proceed to the investigation of the development and evolvement of mental constructs of all kinds. It will explore the structures and processes active in the realms of spirituality, of ‘rare normal phenomena’ as shaman practices but also the conditions of creativity or of mental aberrations. The field appears very extended and most various. MMM MM A view on human life conditions and the inner and outer environment corroborate. With each level of consciousness and in particular higher consciousness the mental and (pricipally) the action and option space, the space of enacting mentally and (limited) materially become wider able to imagine virtually many levels. Language, (implying communication) and culture make mental constructs possible. They are at least valid for many levels not confined. Ideologies, religions, but also the mental constructs of individuals mentally unbalanced make missing mental restrictions within a very wide range obvious. M MMM M M M MMMM M 4 th order science stands less for a 4 th stage than for the openness of science for more sophisticated, more inclusive or specified levels. In systems and cybernetics an infinite sequence of meta- observers of observers can be postulated. Similar meta-levels can possilbly distinguished e.g. in the learning process. Science will adapt to the granulation (as in complexity sciences) following the specifications of the topic. MM MMM M
Science 1218 SCIENCE 4 th ORDER ctd. Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting MMM M MMMMMMM M M MMMM M MMMMMMM In particular complex life phenomena, units, topics are (complementarily?) understood explicitly from the qualities of the process they were shaped by, emerged from etc. and as a result of processes. Examples: a)the emergence of semiosis from molecular coding in pre-life stages (Biosemiotics, Marcello Barbieri); b)b) the conceptualisation of perplex numbers on the base of atomic numbers (Jerry Chandler); c) the development of the computer as seen from programming and not solely from computation theories as in AI ( Boris Sunik); d)research on the prime numbers as a probably proposed code (Peter Plichta). e)There is a strong connection to the ‘relational sciences’ as first proposed by R. Rosen and now manifested e.g. in ‘relational’ biology. MM MMM M
Science 1219 SCIENCE EVOLVEMENT Hellmut Löckenhoff Dipl.Kfm. Dr.rer.pol. ©. Research Consulting SCHOLASTICS Mutually influencing during history 5000 BC > varying degrees LOGICS FORMAL Greek…Techne Bio- QUANTUM RELATIVITY PHYSICS MECHANICS Cosmos Imperial I Physico-Chemical Description Rules CHEMISTRY RENAISSANCE REVOLVEMENT PHILOSOPHY INDIAMESOPOTAMIAINSTITUTIONS MATERIAL Roman QUANTUM COSMO PHYSICS ALCHEMY ARTEFACTS constructed HANDICRAFT Skill MATHEMATICS ASTROLOGY TOPOLOGY MATH Survey Agrarian ASSUMPTIONS Derived CHINA ADVAN LOGICS HUMANITIES ETC. Socio- Process; Structure - Control Construction CYBERNETICS SYSTEMS What is LIFE, are HUMANS The World Humans live in Science as Perception ADVAN MM Epistemology Transdisciplinarity Deep Structures of all ‘Reality’, all Sciences. The Human Scientist Relations Fractals Emergence Holograms. Complexity, Semiosis Evolution III Basic Relations Structures Fractals II The Observer Endo - Exo Order-Philosophy Phenomenology
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